Publications by authors named "David M Truong"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comprehensive Scanning Mutagenesis of Human Retrotransposon LINE-1 Identifies Motifs Essential for Function.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1401-1414

Institute for Systems Genetics, NYU Langone Health, New York 10016.

Adney et al. describe the complete and comprehensive codon substitution mutagenesis of human retrotransposon LINE-1 using a synthetic DNA approach. This experiment is the first of its kind for any transposon... Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is the only autonomous active transposable element in the human genome. The L1-encoded proteins ORF1p and ORF2p enable the element to jump from one locus to another via a "copy-and-paste" mechanism. ORF1p is an RNA-binding protein, and ORF2p has endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. The huge number of truncated L1 remnants in the human genome suggests that the host has likely evolved mechanisms to prevent full L1 replication, and thereby decrease the proliferation of active elements and reduce the mutagenic potential of L1. In turn, L1 appears to have a minimized length to increase the probability of successful full-length replication. This streamlining would be expected to lead to high information density. Here, we describe the construction and initial characterization of a library of 538 consecutive trialanine substitutions that scan along ORF1p and ORF2p to identify functionally important regions. In accordance with the streamlining hypothesis, retrotransposition was overall very sensitive to mutations in ORF1p and ORF2p; only 16% of trialanine mutants retained near-wild-type (WT) activity. All ORF1p mutants formed near-WT levels of mRNA transcripts and 75% formed near-WT levels of protein. Two ORF1p mutants presented a unique nucleolar-relocalization phenotype. Regions of ORF2p that are sensitive to mutagenesis but lack phylogenetic conservation were also identified. We provide comprehensive information on the regions most critical to retrotransposition. This resource will guide future studies of intermolecular interactions that form with RNA, proteins, and target DNA throughout the L1 life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.119.302601DOI Listing
December 2019

Comprehensive Scanning Mutagenesis of Human Retrotransposon LINE-1 Identifies Motifs Essential for Function.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1401-1414

Institute for Systems Genetics, NYU Langone Health, New York 10016.

Adney et al. describe the complete and comprehensive codon substitution mutagenesis of human retrotransposon LINE-1 using a synthetic DNA approach. This experiment is the first of its kind for any transposon... Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is the only autonomous active transposable element in the human genome. The L1-encoded proteins ORF1p and ORF2p enable the element to jump from one locus to another via a "copy-and-paste" mechanism. ORF1p is an RNA-binding protein, and ORF2p has endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. The huge number of truncated L1 remnants in the human genome suggests that the host has likely evolved mechanisms to prevent full L1 replication, and thereby decrease the proliferation of active elements and reduce the mutagenic potential of L1. In turn, L1 appears to have a minimized length to increase the probability of successful full-length replication. This streamlining would be expected to lead to high information density. Here, we describe the construction and initial characterization of a library of 538 consecutive trialanine substitutions that scan along ORF1p and ORF2p to identify functionally important regions. In accordance with the streamlining hypothesis, retrotransposition was overall very sensitive to mutations in ORF1p and ORF2p; only 16% of trialanine mutants retained near-wild-type (WT) activity. All ORF1p mutants formed near-WT levels of mRNA transcripts and 75% formed near-WT levels of protein. Two ORF1p mutants presented a unique nucleolar-relocalization phenotype. Regions of ORF2p that are sensitive to mutagenesis but lack phylogenetic conservation were also identified. We provide comprehensive information on the regions most critical to retrotransposition. This resource will guide future studies of intermolecular interactions that form with RNA, proteins, and target DNA throughout the L1 life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.119.302601DOI Listing
December 2019

A versatile platform for locus-scale genome rewriting and verification.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(10)

Institute for Systems Genetics, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY 10016.

Routine rewriting of loci associated with human traits and diseases would facilitate their functional analysis. However, existing DNA integration approaches are limited in terms of scalability and portability across genomic loci and cellular contexts. We describe Big-IN, a versatile platform for targeted integration of large DNAs into mammalian cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of a landing pad enables subsequent recombinase-mediated delivery of variant payloads and efficient positive/negative selection for correct clones in mammalian stem cells. We demonstrate integration of constructs up to 143 kb, and an approach for one-step scarless delivery. We developed a staged pipeline combining PCR genotyping and targeted capture sequencing for economical and comprehensive verification of engineered stem cells. Our approach should enable combinatorial interrogation of genomic functional elements and systematic locus-scale analysis of genome function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023952118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958457PMC
March 2021

Regulation of the Dot1 histone H3K79 methyltransferase by histone H4K16 acetylation.

Science 2021 01;371(6527)

Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Dot1 (disruptor of telomeric silencing-1), the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase, is conserved throughout evolution, and its deregulation is found in human leukemias. Here, we provide evidence that acetylation of histone H4 allosterically stimulates yeast Dot1 in a manner distinct from but coordinating with histone H2B ubiquitination (H2BUb). We further demonstrate that this stimulatory effect is specific to acetylation of lysine 16 (H4K16ac), a modification central to chromatin structure. We provide a mechanism of this histone cross-talk and show that H4K16ac and H2BUb play crucial roles in H3K79 di- and trimethylation in vitro and in vivo. These data reveal mechanisms that control H3K79 methylation and demonstrate how H4K16ac, H3K79me, and H2BUb function together to regulate gene transcription and gene silencing to ensure optimal maintenance and propagation of an epigenetic state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6663DOI Listing
January 2021

Comprehensive Scanning Mutagenesis of Human Retrotransposon LINE-1 Identifies Motifs Essential for Function.

Genetics 2019 12 30;213(4):1401-1414. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Institute for Systems Genetics, NYU Langone Health, New York 10016

Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is the only autonomous active transposable element in the human genome. The L1-encoded proteins ORF1p and ORF2p enable the element to jump from one locus to another via a "copy-and-paste" mechanism. ORF1p is an RNA-binding protein, and ORF2p has endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. The huge number of truncated L1 remnants in the human genome suggests that the host has likely evolved mechanisms to prevent full L1 replication, and thereby decrease the proliferation of active elements and reduce the mutagenic potential of L1. In turn, L1 appears to have a minimized length to increase the probability of successful full-length replication. This streamlining would be expected to lead to high information density. Here, we describe the construction and initial characterization of a library of 538 consecutive trialanine substitutions that scan along ORF1p and ORF2p to identify functionally important regions. In accordance with the streamlining hypothesis, retrotransposition was overall very sensitive to mutations in ORF1p and ORF2p; only 16% of trialanine mutants retained near-wild-type (WT) activity. All ORF1p mutants formed near-WT levels of mRNA transcripts and 75% formed near-WT levels of protein. Two ORF1p mutants presented a unique nucleolar-relocalization phenotype. Regions of ORF2p that are sensitive to mutagenesis but lack phylogenetic conservation were also identified. We provide comprehensive information on the regions most critical to retrotransposition. This resource will guide future studies of intermolecular interactions that form with RNA, proteins, and target DNA throughout the L1 life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.119.302601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893370PMC
December 2019

Superloser: A Plasmid Shuffling Vector for with Exceedingly Low Background.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 08 8;9(8):2699-2707. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Institute for Systems Genetics and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, 10016 and

Here we report a new plasmid shuffle vector for forcing budding yeast () to incorporate a new genetic pathway in place of a native pathway - even an essential one - while maintaining low false positive rates (less than 1 in 10 per cell). This plasmid, dubbed "Superloser," was designed with reduced sequence similarity to commonly used yeast plasmids (, pRS400 series) to limit recombination, a process that in our experience leads to retention of the yeast gene(s) instead of the desired gene(s). In addition, Superloser utilizes two orthogonal copies of the counter-selectable marker to reduce spontaneous 5-fluoroorotic acid resistance. Finally, the CEN/ARS sequence is fused to the promoter, which disrupts plasmid segregation in the presence of the sugar galactose, causing Superloser to rapidly be removed from a population of cells. We show one proof-of-concept shuffling experiment: swapping yeast's core histones out for their human counterparts. Superloser is especially useful for forcing yeast to use highly unfavorable genes, such as human histones, as it enables plating a large number of cells (1.4x10) on a single 10 cm petri dish while maintaining a very low background. Therefore, Superloser is a useful tool for yeast geneticists to effectively shuffle low viability genes and/or pathways in yeast that may arise in as few as 1 in 10 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686923PMC
August 2019

Resetting the Yeast Epigenome with Human Nucleosomes.

Cell 2017 Dec 30;171(7):1508-1519.e13. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Institute for Systems Genetics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Humans and yeast are separated by a billion years of evolution, yet their conserved histones retain central roles in gene regulation. Here, we "reset" yeast to use core human nucleosomes in lieu of their own (a rare event taking 20 days), which initially only worked with variant H3.1. The cells adapt by acquiring suppressor mutations in cell-division genes or by acquiring certain aneuploid states. Converting five histone residues to their yeast counterparts restored robust growth. We reveal that humanized nucleosomes are positioned according to endogenous yeast DNA sequence and chromatin-remodeling network, as judged by a yeast-like nucleosome repeat length. However, human nucleosomes have higher DNA occupancy, globally reduce RNA content, and slow adaptation to new conditions by delaying chromatin remodeling. These humanized yeasts (including H3.3) pose fundamental new questions about how chromatin is linked to many cell processes and provide a platform to study histone variants via yeast epigenome reprogramming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.10.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732057PMC
December 2017

Retrohoming of a Mobile Group II Intron in Human Cells Suggests How Eukaryotes Limit Group II Intron Proliferation.

PLoS Genet 2015 Aug 4;11(8):e1005422. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Mobile bacterial group II introns are evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retroelements in eukaryotes. They consist of an autocatalytic intron RNA (a "ribozyme") and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase, which function together to promote intron integration into new DNA sites by a mechanism termed "retrohoming". Although mobile group II introns splice and retrohome efficiently in bacteria, all examined thus far function inefficiently in eukaryotes, where their ribozyme activity is limited by low Mg2+ concentrations, and intron-containing transcripts are subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) and translational repression. Here, by using RNA polymerase II to express a humanized group II intron reverse transcriptase and T7 RNA polymerase to express intron transcripts resistant to NMD, we find that simply supplementing culture medium with Mg2+ induces the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB intron to retrohome into plasmid and chromosomal sites, the latter at frequencies up to ~0.1%, in viable HEK-293 cells. Surprisingly, under these conditions, the Ll.LtrB intron reverse transcriptase is required for retrohoming but not for RNA splicing as in bacteria. By using a genetic assay for in vivo selections combined with deep sequencing, we identified intron RNA mutations that enhance retrohoming in human cells, but <4-fold and not without added Mg2+. Further, the selected mutations lie outside the ribozyme catalytic core, which appears not readily modified to function efficiently at low Mg2+ concentrations. Our results reveal differences between group II intron retrohoming in human cells and bacteria and suggest constraints on critical nucleotide residues of the ribozyme core that limit how much group II intron retrohoming in eukaryotes can be enhanced. These findings have implications for group II intron use for gene targeting in eukaryotes and suggest how differences in intracellular Mg2+ concentrations between bacteria and eukarya may have impacted the evolution of introns and gene expression mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524724PMC
August 2015

Versatile genetic assembly system (VEGAS) to assemble pathways for expression in S. cerevisiae.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Jul 8;43(13):6620-30. Epub 2015 May 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York City, NY 10016, USA Institute for Systems Genetics, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York City, NY 10016, USA High Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

We have developed a method for assembling genetic pathways for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our pathway assembly method, called VEGAS (Versatile genetic assembly system), exploits the native capacity of S. cerevisiae to perform homologous recombination and efficiently join sequences with terminal homology. In the VEGAS workflow, terminal homology between adjacent pathway genes and the assembly vector is encoded by 'VEGAS adapter' (VA) sequences, which are orthogonal in sequence with respect to the yeast genome. Prior to pathway assembly by VEGAS in S. cerevisiae, each gene is assigned an appropriate pair of VAs and assembled using a previously described technique called yeast Golden Gate (yGG). Here we describe the application of yGG specifically to building transcription units for VEGAS assembly as well as the VEGAS methodology. We demonstrate the assembly of four-, five- and six-gene pathways by VEGAS to generate S. cerevisiae cells synthesizing β-carotene and violacein. Moreover, we demonstrate the capacity of yGG coupled to VEGAS for combinatorial assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513848PMC
July 2015

Enhanced group II intron retrohoming in magnesium-deficient Escherichia coli via selection of mutations in the ribozyme core.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Oct 16;110(40):E3800-9. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Departments of Molecular Biosciences and Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.

Mobile group II introns are bacterial retrotransposons thought to be evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retroelements in eukaryotes. They consist of a catalytically active intron RNA ("ribozyme") and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase, which function together to promote RNA splicing and intron mobility via reverse splicing of the intron RNA into new DNA sites ("retrohoming"). Although group II introns are active in bacteria, their natural hosts, they function inefficiently in eukaryotes, where lower free Mg(2+) concentrations decrease their ribozyme activity and constitute a natural barrier to group II intron proliferation within nuclear genomes. Here, we show that retrohoming of the Ll.LtrB group II intron is strongly inhibited in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the Mg(2+) transporter MgtA, and we use this system to select mutations in catalytic core domain V (DV) that partially rescue retrohoming at low Mg(2+) concentrations. We thus identified mutations in the distal stem of DV that increase retrohoming efficiency in the MgtA mutant up to 22-fold. Biochemical assays of splicing and reverse splicing indicate that the mutations increase the fraction of intron RNA that folds into an active conformation at low Mg(2+) concentrations, and terbium-cleavage assays suggest that this increase is due to enhanced Mg(2+) binding to the distal stem of DV. Our findings indicate that DV is involved in a critical Mg(2+)-dependent RNA folding step in group II introns and demonstrate the feasibility of selecting intron variants that function more efficiently at low Mg(2+) concentrations, with implications for evolution and potential applications in gene targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1315742110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791771PMC
October 2013

Genetic and biochemical assays reveal a key role for replication restart proteins in group II intron retrohoming.

PLoS Genet 2013 Apr 25;9(4):e1003469. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Mobile group II introns retrohome by an RNP-based mechanism in which the intron RNA reverse splices into a DNA site and is reverse transcribed by the associated intron-encoded protein. The resulting intron cDNA is then integrated into the genome by cellular mechanisms that have remained unclear. Here, we used an Escherichia coli genetic screen and Taqman qPCR assay that mitigate indirect effects to identify host factors that function in retrohoming. We then analyzed mutants identified in these and previous genetic screens by using a new biochemical assay that combines group II intron RNPs with cellular extracts to reconstitute the complete retrohoming reaction in vitro. The genetic and biochemical analyses indicate a retrohoming pathway involving degradation of the intron RNA template by a host RNase H and second-strand DNA synthesis by the host replicative DNA polymerase. Our results reveal ATP-dependent steps in both cDNA and second-strand synthesis and a surprising role for replication restart proteins in initiating second-strand synthesis in the absence of DNA replication. We also find an unsuspected requirement for host factors in initiating reverse transcription and a new RNA degradation pathway that suppresses retrohoming. Key features of the retrohoming mechanism may be used by human LINEs and other non-LTR-retrotransposons, which are related evolutionarily to mobile group II introns. Our findings highlight a new role for replication restart proteins, which function not only to repair DNA damage caused by mobile element insertion, but have also been co-opted to become an integral part of the group II intron retrohoming mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636086PMC
April 2013

Analysis of three-dimensional systems for developing and mature kidneys clarifies the role of OAT1 and OAT3 in antiviral handling.

J Biol Chem 2011 Jan 4;286(1):243-51. Epub 2010 Oct 4.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

The organic anion transporters OAT1 (SLC22A6, originally identified by us as NKT) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) are critical for handling many toxins, metabolites, and drugs, including antivirals (Truong, D. M., Kaler, G., Khandelwal, A., Swaan, P. W., and Nigam, S. K. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 8654-8663). Although microinjected Xenopus oocytes and/or transfected cells indicate overlapping specificities, the individual contributions of these transporters in the three-dimensional context of the tissues in which they normally function remain unclear. Here, handling of HIV antivirals (stavudine, tenofovir, lamivudine, acyclovir, and zidovudine) was analyzed with three-dimensional ex vivo functional assays using knock-out tissue. To investigate the contribution of OAT1 and OAT3 in various nephron segments, the OAT-selective fluorescent tracer substrates 5-carboxyfluorescein and 6-carboxyfluorescein were used. Although OAT1 function (uptake in oat3(-/-) tissue) was confined to portions of the cortex, consistent with a proximal tubular localization, OAT3 function (uptake in oat1(-/-) tissue) was apparent throughout the cortex, indicating localization in the distal as well as proximal nephron. This functional localization indicates a complex three-dimensional context, which needs to be considered for metabolites, toxins, and drugs (e.g. antivirals) handled by both transporters. These results also raise the possibility of functional differences in the relative importance of OAT1 and OAT3 in antiviral handling in developing and mature tissue. Because the HIV antivirals are used in pregnant women, the results may also help in understanding how these drugs are handled by developing organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.139949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3012981PMC
January 2011

Beta1-integrin is required for kidney collecting duct morphogenesis and maintenance of renal function.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009 Jul 13;297(1):F210-7. Epub 2009 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0693, USA.

Deletion of integrin-beta1 (Itgb1) in the kidney collecting system led to progressive renal dysfunction and polyuria. The defect in the concentrating ability of the kidney was concomitant with decreased medullary collecting duct expression of aquaporin-2 and arginine vasopressin receptor 2, while histological examination revealed hypoplastic renal medullary collecting ducts characterized by increased apoptosis, ectasia and cyst formation. In addition, a range of defects from small kidneys with cysts and dilated tubules to bilateral renal agenesis was observed. This was likely due to altered growth and branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud (the progenitor tissue of the renal collecting system), despite the apparent ability of the ureteric bud-derived cells to induce differentiation of the metanephric mesenchyme. These data not only support a role for Itgb1 in the development of the renal collecting system but also raise the possibility that Itgb1 links morphogenesis to terminal differentiation and ultimately collecting duct function and/or maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.90260.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2711709PMC
July 2009

Organic anion transporter 3 contributes to the regulation of blood pressure.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2008 Sep 28;19(9):1732-40. Epub 2008 May 28.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego and VASDHCS, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive (9151), San Diego, CA 92161, USA.

Renal organic anion transporters (OAT) are known to mediate the excretion of many drugs, but their function in normal physiology is not well understood. In this study, mice lacking organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) had a 10 to 15% lower BP than wild-type mice, raising the possibility that Oat3 transports an endogenous regulator of BP. The aldosterone response to a low-salt diet was blunted in Oat3-null mice, but baseline aldosterone concentration was higher in these mice, suggesting that aldosterone dysregulation does not fully explain the lower BP in the basal state; therefore, both targeted and global metabolomic analyses of plasma and urine were performed, and several potential endogenous substrates of Oat3 were found to accumulate in the plasma of Oat3-null mice. One of these substrates, thymidine, was transported by Oat3 expressed in vitro. In vivo, thymidine, as well as two of the most potent Oat3 inhibitors that were characterized, reduced BP by 10 to 15%; therefore, Oat3 seems to regulate BP, and Oat3 inhibitors might be therapeutically useful antihypertensive agents. Moreover, polymorphisms in human OAT3 might contribute to the genetic variation in susceptibility to hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2008020180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518443PMC
September 2008

Multi-level analysis of organic anion transporters 1, 3, and 6 reveals major differences in structural determinants of antiviral discrimination.

J Biol Chem 2008 Mar 3;283(13):8654-63. Epub 2008 Jan 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Long-term exposure to antivirals is associated with serious cellular toxicity to the kidney and other tissues. Organic anion transporters (OATs) are believed to mediate the cellular uptake, and hence cytotoxicity, of many antivirals. However, a systematic in vitro and ex vivo analysis of interactions between these compounds with various OAT isoforms has been lacking. To characterize substrate interactions with mOat1, mOat3, and mOat6, a fluorescence-based competition assay in Xenopus oocytes as well as wild-type and knock-out whole embryonic kidney (WEK) organ culture systems was developed using 6-carboxyfluorescein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and fluorescein. Of nine common antiviral drugs assessed in oocytes, many manifested higher affinity for SLC22a6 (mOat1), originally identified as NKT (e.g. adefovir and cidofovir), two (ddC and ddI) manifested significantly higher affinity for mOat3, while mOat6 had comparatively low but measurable affinity for certain antivirals. A live organ staining approach combined with fluorescent uptake in WEK cultures allowed the visualization of OAT-mediated uptake ex vivo into developing proximal tubule-like structures, as well as quantification of substrate interactions of individual OAT isoforms. In general, antiviral specificity of SLC22a6 (Oat1) (in Oat3(-/-) WEK culture) and SLC22a8 (Oat3) (in Oat1(-/-) WEK culture) was consistent with the Xenopus oocyte data. The combined observations suggest SLC22a8 (Oat3) is the major transporter interacting with ddC and ddI. Finally, quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of the nine antivirals' physicochemical descriptors with their OAT affinity indicates that antiviral preferences of mOat1 are explained by high polar surface areas (e.g. phosphate groups), whereas mOat3 prefers hydrogen bond acceptors (e.g. amines, ketones) and low rotatable bond numbers. In contrast, hydrogen bond donors (e.g. amides, alcohols) diminish binding to mOat6. This suggests that, despite sharing close overall sequence homology, Oat1, Oat3, and Oat6 have signficantly different binding pockets. Taken together, the data provide a basis for understanding potential drug interactions in combination antiviral therapy, as well as suggesting structural mdifications for drug design, especially in the context of targeting toward or away from specific tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M708615200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2417182PMC
March 2008

Structural variation governs substrate specificity for organic anion transporter (OAT) homologs. Potential remote sensing by OAT family members.

J Biol Chem 2007 Aug 5;282(33):23841-53. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

Organic anion transporters (OATs, SLC22) interact with a remarkably diverse array of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. However, little is known about the structural features that determine their substrate selectivity. We examined the substrate binding preferences and transport function of olfactory organic anion transporter, Oat6, in comparison with the more broadly expressed transporter, Oat1 (first identified as NKT). In analyzing interactions of both transporters with over 40 structurally diverse organic anions, we find a correlation between organic anion potency (pKi) and hydrophobicity (logP) suggesting a hydrophobicity-driven association with transporter-binding sites, which appears particularly prominent for Oat6. On the other hand, organic anion binding selectivity between Oat6 and Oat1 is influenced by the anion mass and net charge. Smaller mono-anions manifest greater potency for Oat6 and di-anions for Oat1. Comparative molecular field analysis confirms these mechanistic insights and provides a model for predicting new OAT substrates. By comparative molecular field analysis, both hydrophobic and charged interactions contribute to Oat1 binding, although it is predominantly the former that contributes to Oat6 binding. Together, the data suggest that, although the three-dimensional structures of these two transporters may be very similar, the binding pockets exhibit crucial differences. Furthermore, for six radiolabeled substrates, we assessed transport efficacy (Vmax) for Oat6 and Oat1. Binding potency and transport efficacy had little correlation, suggesting that different molecular interactions are involved in substrate binding to the transporter and translocation across the membrane. Substrate specificity for a particular transporter may enable design of drugs for targeting to specific tissues (e.g. olfactory mucosa). We also discuss how these data suggest a possible mechanism for remote sensing between OATs in different tissue compartments (e.g. kidney, olfactory mucosa) via organic anions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M703467200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812435PMC
August 2007

Olfactory mucosa-expressed organic anion transporter, Oat6, manifests high affinity interactions with odorant organic anions.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Dec 2;351(4):872-6. Epub 2006 Nov 2.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

We have characterized the expression of organic anion transporter 6, Oat6 (slc22a20), in olfactory mucosa, as well as its interaction with several odorant organic anions. In situ hybridization reveals diffuse Oat6 expression throughout olfactory epithelium, yet olfactory neurons laser-capture microdissected from either the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or the vomeronasal organ (VNO) did not express Oat6 mRNA. These data suggest that Oat6 is expressed in non-neuronal cells of olfactory tissue, such as epithelial and/or other supporting cells. We next investigated interaction of Oat6 with several small organic anions that have previously been identified as odortype components in mouse urine. We find that each of these compounds, propionate, 2- and 3-methylbutyrate, benzoate, heptanoate, and 2-ethylhexanoate, inhibits Oat6-mediated uptake of a labeled tracer, estrone sulfate, consistent with their being Oat6 substrates. Previously, we noted defects in the renal elimination of odortype and odortype-like molecules in Oat1 knockout mice. The finding that such molecules interact with Oat6 raises the possibility that odorants secreted into the urine through one OAT-mediated mechanism (Eraly et al., JBC 2006) are transported through the olfactory mucosa through another OAT-mediated mechanism. Oat6 might play a direct or indirect role in olfaction, such as modulation of the availability of odorant organic anions at the mucosal surface for presentation to olfactory neurons or facilitation of delivery to a distal site of chemosensation, among other possibilities that we discuss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.10.136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810587PMC
December 2006

Analyses of 5' regulatory region polymorphisms in human SLC22A6 (OAT1) and SLC22A8 (OAT3).

J Hum Genet 2006 29;51(6):575-580. Epub 2006 Apr 29.

Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Family, Preventative Medicine, and the San Diego Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., 0693, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0693, USA.

Kidney excretion of numerous organic anionic drugs and endogenous metabolites is carried out by a family of multispecific organic anion transporters (OATs). Two closely related transporters, SLC22A6, initially identified by us as NKT and also known as OAT1, and SLC22A8, also known as OAT3 and ROCT, are thought to mediate the initial steps in the transport of organic anionic drugs between the blood and proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Coding region polymorphisms in these genes are infrequent and pairing of these genes in the genome suggests they may be coordinately regulated. Hence, 5' regulatory regions of these genes may be important factors in human variation in organic anionic drug handling. We have analyzed novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the evolutionarily conserved 5' regulatory regions of the SLC22A6 and SLC22A8 genes (phylogenetic footprints) in an ethnically diverse sample of 96 individuals (192 haploid genomes). Only one polymorphism was found in the SLC22A6 5' regulatory region. In contrast, seven polymorphisms were found in the SLC22A8 5' regulatory region, two of which were common to all ethnic groups studied. Computational analysis permitted phase and haplotype reconstruction. Proximity of these non-coding polymorphisms to transcriptional regulatory elements (including potential sex steroid response elements) suggests a potential influence on the level of transcription of the SLC22A6 and/or SLC22A8 genes and will help define their role in variation in human drug, metabolite and toxin excretion. The clustering of OAT genes in the genome raises the possibility that nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC22A6 could also effect SLC22A8 expression, and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10038-006-0398-1DOI Listing
September 2006

Decreased renal organic anion secretion and plasma accumulation of endogenous organic anions in OAT1 knock-out mice.

J Biol Chem 2006 Feb 14;281(8):5072-83. Epub 2005 Dec 14.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

The "classical" organic anion secretory pathway of the renal proximal tubule is critical for the renal excretion of the prototypic organic anion, para-aminohippurate, as well as of a large number of commonly prescribed drugs among other significant substrates. Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), originally identified as NKT (Lopez-Nieto, C. E., You, G., Bush, K. T., Barros, E. J. G., Beier, D. R., and Nigam, S. K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6471-6478), has physiological properties consistent with a role in this pathway. However, several other transporters (e.g. OAT2, OAT3, and MRP1) have also been proposed as important PAH transporters on the basis of in vitro studies; therefore, the relative contribution of OAT1 has remained unclear. We have now generated a colony of OAT1 knock-out mice, permitting elucidation of the role of OAT1 in the context of these other potentially functionally redundant transporters. We find that the knock-out mice manifest a profound loss of organic anion transport (e.g. para-aminohippurate) both ex vivo (in isolated renal slices) as well as in vivo (as indicated by loss of renal secretion). In the case of the organic anion, furosemide, loss of renal secretion in the knock-out results in impaired diuretic responsiveness to this drug. These results indicate a critical role for OAT1 in the functioning of the classical pathway. In addition, we have determined the levels of approximately 60 endogenous organic anions in the plasma and urine of wild-type and knock-out mice. This has led to identification of several compounds with significantly higher plasma concentrations and/or lower urinary concentrations in knock-out mice, suggesting the involvement of OAT1 in their renal secretion. We have also demonstrated in xenopus oocytes that some of these compounds interact with OAT1 in vitro. Thus, these latter compounds might represent physiological substrates of OAT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M508050200DOI Listing
February 2006