Publications by authors named "David M Bellar"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Time-Restricted Feeding and Aerobic Performance in Elite Runners: Ramadan Fasting as a Model.

Front Nutr 2021 21;8:718936. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, United States.

A distance runner's performance is generally limited by energy availability when competing or training. Modifying meal frequency and timing by abstaining from eating or drinking, from dawn to dusk, during Ramadan fasting is hypothesized to induce hypohydration and reduced caloric and nutrient intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Ramadan fasting on runners' performances. Fifteen trained male distance runners who observed Ramadan participated in this study (Age = 23.9 ± 3.1 years; Peak VO = 71.1 ± 3.4 ml/kg/min). Each participant reported to the human performance lab on two testing occasions (pre-Ramadan and the last week of Ramadan). In each visit, participants performed a graded exercise test on the treadmill (Conconi protocol) and their VO, Heart Rate, time to exhaustion, RPE, and running speed were recorded. Detailed anthropometrics, food records, and exercise logs were kept for the entire period of the study. Repeated measure ANOVA, paired -test, and Cohen's effect size analysis were carried out. Results indicated no significant influence for Ramadan fasting on body mass ( = 0.201), body fat ( = 0.488), lean body mass ( = 0.525), VOmax ( = 0.960), energy availability ( = 0.137), and protein intake ( = 0.124). However, carbohydrate ( = 0.026), lipid ( = 0.009), water ( < 0.001), and caloric intakes ( = 0.002) were significantly reduced during Ramadan Fasting. Daily training duration ( < 0.001) and exercise energy expenditure ( = 0.001) were also reduced after Ramadan. Time to exhaustion ( = 0.049), and maximal running speed ( = 0.048) were improved. Overall, time to exhaustion and maximal running speed of the distance runners was improved during Ramadan fasting, independent of changes in nutrients intake observed during the current study. With proper modulation of training, distance runners performance can be maintained or even slightly improved following the month of Ramadan fasting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.718936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490664PMC
September 2021

Hydration to Maximize Performance and Recovery: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Among Collegiate Track and Field Throwers.

J Hum Kinet 2021 Jul 28;79:111-122. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Physical Education and sport sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.

Hydration plays an important role in performance, injury prevention, and recovery for athletes engaged in competitive sports. Therefore, it is important that strength and conditioning coaches understand an athlete's hydration needs to prevent illness and enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to identify hydration knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of collegiate track and field throwers, as well as identify barriers to hydration and sources of nutritional information. The Rehydration and Refueling in Collegiate Track and Field Throwers Survey was sent to 271 track and field thrower coaches with a request to forward the email to current track and field throwers. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated regarding knowledge, attitude, and behavior scores among the participants in this sample. Differences among response patterns were assessed via Chi-square analysis. Alpha level was set at p = .05. Results demonstrated that 97.3% (n = 287) of respondents knew that dehydration would decrease performance, but 50.5% (n = 149) erroneously believed thirst was the best indicator of dehydration. Chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant difference in reported values between participants who intended to eat a performance-enhancing diet and those who consumed less fluid than recomended values (207 - 295 m)l in the 2-3 hours prior to competition (χ2 = 10.87, p < .05). Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated a large association between knowledge and behavior (r = .70, p < .05), a medium association between knowledge and attitude (r = .41, p < .05), and a small association between attitude and behavior (r = .21, p < .05). This suggests that strength and conditioning coaches and health staff need to educate and monitor hydration behaviors among collegiate track and field throwers to optimize performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2021-0065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336541PMC
July 2021

Growing the Youth Olympic Games: Comparing Millennial Generation Sport Festival Engagement.

Int J Exerc Sci 2021 1;14(6):578-593. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Despite the continued growth of the Olympic Games (OG), the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) has received minimal attention from mainstream media since its introduction in 2010. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare event awareness and consumption intention for the 2012 Winter YOG to two international sport events occurring in the same year. A survey instrument was utilized to examine and compare event awareness, consumption intention, and logo identification for three international sport events within a millennial generation sample. The study showed significant differences in personal and public awareness between the three sport events, with personal ( = .313, ≤ .001) and public = .331, ≤ .001) awareness for the YOG demonstrating a positive correlation with consumption intention. This study is an important assessment of the YOG event awareness that can be utilized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to better understand and engage their participants and audience. Successful promotion of the YOG may require a transformation of the current marketing strategies that are utilized. The YOG has great opportunity for success in the global sport market to leave behind the status of the best kept secret in sport.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136595PMC
April 2021

Efficacy Sources that Predict Leadership Behaviors in Coaches of Athletes with Disabilities.

J Hum Kinet 2021 Mar 31;78:271-281. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, USA.

Researchers suggest that sport participation among athletes with disabilities promotes healthier lifestyles, increases self-esteem, and enhances peer acceptance. Ideally, coaches should be confident in teaching skills, tactics, and sportsmanship, while exhibiting appropriate leadership behaviors in order to positively impact the psychosocial development of any athlete. Thus, the present research examined sources of coaching efficacy that predict leadership behaviors in coaches who work with athletes who have physical disabilities. Seventy international Paralympic coaches of female and male sport teams completed a modified version of the Coaching Success Questionnaire-2, the Coaching Efficacy Scale and the Leadership Scale for Sports. Regression models indicated that total coaching efficacy was a significant predictor of instructional and positive feedback leadership behaviors, with prior success also being a significant predictor of instructional behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2021-0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120963PMC
March 2021

Predictive Validity of a Functional Movement Screen in Professional Basketball Players.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Dec 21;56(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, USA.

: Striking a balance between maximizing performance and preventing injury remains elusive in many professional sports. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of non-contact injuries in professional basketball players based on predictive cut scores on the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS). : Thirty-two professional basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) participated in this study. This observational pilot cohort study assessed and scored each participant using the FMS during training camp. Each athlete was then tracked throughout the season while recording the number, type, and time lost due to injuries. Possible exposures, actual exposures, and exposures missed due to non-contact injury (NCI) for each athlete were calculated and then used to determine the crude and specific incident rates for exposures missed due to NCI per 1000 exposures. : Linear regression models were used to evaluate the predictive ability of the FMS score for total missed exposures, NCI, and CI missed exposures. In all models, the FMS total score failed to attain significance as a predictor ( > 0.05). FMS scores ranged from 5 to 18. The recommended cut score of 14 showed a sensitivity of 0.474 and a specificity of 0.750. The cut score of 15 showed the best combination, exhibiting a sensitivity of 0.579 and specificity of 0.625. A total of 5784 exposures to NCI were possible for the men and women combined, and 681 possible exposures were missed. Of these, 23.5% were due to NCI, 16.5% were due to contact injuries (CI), and 60% were due to illnesses and personal reasons. : The FMS proved to be a measure that was not associated with any injury measure in this sample of professional basketball players, suggesting the instrument lacks predictive validity in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767371PMC
December 2020

A Fraction of Recommended Practices: Implementation of the FIFA 11+ in NCAA Soccer Programs.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Aug 19;56(9). Epub 2020 Aug 19.

School of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) soccer coaches implement numerous warm-up and flexibility strategies to prepare athletes for training and competition. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) developed the 11+ injury prevention program to reduce non-contact injuries. This study aimed to analyze the level of familiarity with and implementation of the evidence-based FIFA 11+ amongst NCAA Division I (DI) and Division III (DIII) men's and women's soccer coaches. NCAA soccer coaches in the United States received an Institutional Review Board-approved survey hyperlink. A total of 240 coaches completed the survey. The respondents represented 47.5% men's and 52.5% women's teams distributed within DI and DIII programs. Descriptive statistics are reported as frequency counts and mean ± standard deviation where applicable. Pearson's chi-square tests were performed to assess potential differences with a significance level set at α < 0.05. The results indicated that approximately 62% of the respondents reported being familiar with the FIFA 11+ program. Of those coaches familiar with the program, 15.0% reported full implementation, 57.5% reported partial implementation, and 27.5% reported no implementation. Chi-square analyses revealed significant differences in FIFA 11+ implementation based upon division level (χ = 4.56, = 0.033) and coaching certification levels (χ = 13.11, = 0.011). This study indicates that there is a gap between FIFA 11+ knowledge and actual implementation. To reduce the risk of non-contact injury, there is a need to educate coaches and athletic trainers on the purpose of the FIFA 11+ program and how to perform the exercises correctly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56090417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558407PMC
August 2020

Pre- and Post-Activity Stretching Practices of Collegiate Soccer Coaches in the United State.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(6):260-272. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Current pre- and post-activity stretching guidelines are designed to optimize performance and reduce injury risk. However, it is unclear whether soccer coaches adhere to these recommendations. The purpose of this study was to determine if collegiate soccer coaches' perceptions and practices align with current scientific recommendations. A total of 781 questionnaires were electronically distributed to soccer coaches from NCAA Division I and III universities. The questionnaire obtained demographic, professional, and educational information, as well as stretching practices. Statistical analysis consisted of computing frequency counts and means where applicable. Pearson's Chi-square tests were performed to assess the potential differences in stretching perceptions and practices among the cohort of soccer coaches. Results suggest that soccer coaches are choosing some forms of stretching more frequently than other coaches (χ = 342.7, < 0.001). Further analysis failed to determine significant associations between stretching type and coaching certification, level, sex, years of experience, and age. Of the 209 respondents, 84.9% believed pre-activity stretching to be of greater than average importance on a seven-point Likert scale. Dynamic stretching (68.7%) or a combination of static and ballistic stretching (18.0%) prior to athletic events was the most typical stretching prescribed. Current post-activity practices demonstrate that most coaches (95.4%) are using some form of a general cool-down following practice or competition. This study is an important assessment of the extent to which collegiate coaches administer appropriate stretching techniques. Most coaches adhere to current recommendations; however, they should continue to evaluate their practices against ongoing research and the practices of their peers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039475PMC
February 2020

Effects of Environmental Context on Physiological Response During Team Handball Small Sided Games.

Int J Exerc Sci 2017;10(8):1263-1274. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Ball State University, School of Kinesiology, Health and Physical Activity Building (HP), Room 360M Ball State University Muncie, IN USA.

This study examined the distance covered and physiological effects of altering the number of players during small-sided games (SSG) in team handball. Twelve professional female handball players [24.6±3.7 years, 172±6.2 cm, 68.2 ± 9.9kg, 22.7 ± 2 kg/m] participated in this study. The SSG were played, first with five on each side (SSG 5), then four (SSG 4), then three (SSG 3). Each game was four minutes long, followed by three minutes of rest. The distance covered and time spent in four speed zones (based on player movement speed) were selected for analysis: Zone 1 (0-1.4 m/s), Zone 2 (1.5-3.4 m/s), Zone 3 (3.5-5.2 m/s), and Zone 4 (>5.2 m/s). Statistically significant differences were found in Zone 2, between conditions SSG 3 and SSG 4 (p=.049,ω= .32). The highest average heart rate (HR) occurred during SSG 3. Average HR between SSG 3 (89.7 % HRmax) and SSG 5 (87.8 % HRmax) (p= .04, ω2= .26) were also significantly different. Participant HR response between the speed zones was not statistically significant. HR response was negatively correlated with the number of players within the SSG condition. Statistically significant results were found for RPE between SSG 3 and the other two SSG conditions (SSG 4, = .01, and SSG 5, = .00). These results indicate that changing the number of SSG players can be used to manipulate the physiological response during handball training.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786196PMC
December 2017

Impact of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on time to exhaustion during Ramadan: A randomized controlled trial in Jordanian men.

Eur J Sport Sci 2018 Apr 24;18(3):357-366. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

d School of Kinesiology , Ball State University , Muncie , IN , USA.

Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (V). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO: 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7.5% sucrose solution (CHO), a flavour and taste matched placebo solution (PLA) for 10 s, or no rinse (CON). The treatments were performed prior to an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Three-day dietary and exercise records were obtained on two occasions and analysed. Anthropometric characteristics were obtained and recorded for all participants. A main effect for mouth rinse on peak velocity (V) (CHO: 17.6 ± 1.5 km/h; PLA: 17.1 ± 1.4 km/h; CON: 16.7 ± 1.2 km/h; P < .001, η = 0.49) and time to exhaustion (CHO: 1282.0 ± 121.3 s; PLA: 1258.1 ± 113.4 s; CON: 1228.7 ± 98.5 s; P = .002, η = 0.41) was detected, with CHO significantly higher than PLA (P < .05) and CON (P < .05). Oxygen consumption, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were not significantly different between treatments or trials (P > .05). Energy availability from dietary analysis, body weight, and fat-free mass did not change during the last two weeks of Ramadan (P > .05). This study concludes that carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves running time to exhaustion and peak treadmill speed under Ramadan fasting conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1420236DOI Listing
April 2018

Effects of an Elastic Hamstring Assistance Device During Downhill Running.

J Hum Kinet 2017 Jun 22;57:73-83. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of using an elastic hamstring assistance device to reduce perceived levels of soreness, increase isometric strength, increase passive range of motion, and decrease biomarkers of muscle damage after eccentric exercise, specifically, downhill running This study was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory placing sixteen apparently healthy males ( = 21.6 ± 2.5 years) into two groups using a pre-test/post-test design. Pre-intervention measures taken included participants' body height, body mass, body fat, capillary blood samples, VO, isometric hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion and passive hamstring range of motion. Post-intervention measures included blood biomarkers, passive range of motion, the perceived level of soreness and isometric strength. An analysis of normality of data was initially conducted followed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion, blood myoglobin and passive range of motion of the hamstrings. Statistically significant changes were noted in subject-perceived muscle soreness and isometric strength at 90 degrees at the 24-hour post-exercise trial measure between the two groups. Results would suggest the findings could be explained by the decrease in muscle soreness from utilizing the device during the exercise trial. Further research should be conducted to address sample size issues and to determine if the results are comparable on different surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504580PMC
June 2017

Hydration and Fluid Replacement Knowledge, Attitudes, Barriers, and Behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American Football Players.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Nov;30(11):2972-2978

1School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 3School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; and 4Didactic Program in Dietetics, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana.

Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams, serious health consequences, including potential fatalities, could occur on the field, especially among heavier linemen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001397DOI Listing
November 2016

Effects of acute androstenedione supplementation on testosterone levels in older men.

Aging Male 2016 Sep 25;19(3):161-167. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

d Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University , Muncie , IN , USA.

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of acute androstenedione supplementation on hormone levels in older men at rest and during exercise. Men (n = 11) between the ages of 58 and 69 were divided into an experimental (n = 6; 62.33 ± 2.57 y) and control (n = 5; 60.2 ± 1.02 y) groups. Each participant received an oral 300 mg dose of either androstenedione (experimental) or a cellulose placebo (control) for 7 d. Pre- and post-supplementation participants completed two separate, 20-min strength tasks consisting of leg extension and leg curls at different percentages of their 10-RM. Researchers collected blood samples pre-, during, and post-exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol levels. The researchers found a significant difference between pre- (4.36 ± 56 ng/mL) and post- (5.51 ± 0.35 ng/mL) testosterone levels, as well as pre- (0.88 ± 0.20) and post- (7.46 ± 1.25) androstenedione levels, but no significant differences between pre- and post-estradiol levels for either group. It appears that short-term androstenedione supplementation augmented acute testosterone responses to resistance exercise in older men. However, further study of this supplement is needed to determine any potential it may have in mitigating andropause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13685538.2016.1167180DOI Listing
September 2016

The Impact of Competitive Trait Anxiety on Collegiate Powerlifting Performance.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Sep;30(9):2399-405

1School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; 3Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, Western Kentucky, Bowling Green, Kentucky; and 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Judge, LW, Urbina, LJ, Hoover, DL, Craig, BW, Judge, LM, Leitzelar, BM, Pearson, DR, Holtzclaw, KA, and Bellar, DM. The impact of competitive trait anxiety on collegiate powerlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2399-2405, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between competitive trait anxiety measures and powerlifting (PL) performance. Thirty-six collegiate powerlifters on club teams from 3 universities were recruited during a competition (men = 26, women = 10; age = 19.9 ± 1.5 years; height = 172.5 ± 8.6 cm; weight = 81.4 ± 21.0 kg). The athletes were distributed across weight classes for collegiate PL (47.6 kg: 1; 51.7 kg: 1; 54.9 kg: 1; 59.8 kg: 3; 67.1 kg: 2; 74.8 kg: 7; 82.1 kg: 4; 89.8 kg: 9; 99.8 kg: 5; super heavyweight: 3). A survey containing questions about PL performance history and the 15-item Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) were administered to the participants before competing. The SCAT total was negatively correlated (r = -0.397; p = 0.02) to the athletes' percentage of best total achieved in the competition (actual performance total/best comp total × 100). Of the individual lifts, the SCAT score was negatively correlated to the personal best for bench press (r = -0.368; p = 0.03) and deadlift (r = -0.317, p = 0.05), but did not significantly correlate for squat (r = -0.182, p = 0.27). These results indicate a negative correlation between the SCAT score and athletes' personal best totals in PL. Increased SCAT scores were associated with decreased personal best PL totals. The results suggest that competitive trait anxiety may have negatively impacted performance and that some PL athletes may benefit from interventions aimed at decreasing anxiety before and during performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001363DOI Listing
September 2016

Influence of Postactivation Potentiation on Shot Put Performance of Collegiate Throwers.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Feb;30(2):438-45

1School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana-Lafayette, Lafeyette, Louisiana; 3Department of Athletics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana; 4University of Nebraska Track and Field, Department of Intercollegiate Athletics, Lincoln, Nebraska; and 5Department of Health, Physical Education, and Sport Sciences, Arkansas State University, Jonsboro, Arkansas.

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of heavy and light implements on subsequent overhead back (OHB) shot put performance with a competition weight shot put. This investigation was designed to test the efficacy of heavy implements for potentiating subsequent OHB performance. Participants included 41 athletes (20.9 ± 1.18 years.) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I schools in the Midwestern United States (n = 23 male and n = 18 female). Mean distance for OHB throw with a competition shot put was examined after treatment (control, light shot put warm-up, and heavy shot put warm-up) through repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Bonferroni-corrected post hoc analysis. Responses after treatment on the 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) fatigue were examined through repeated-measures ANOVA and demonstrated a significant main effect for treatment on VAS fatigue (F = 16.463; p = 0.001). The heavy shot put warm-up resulted in the greatest mean performance over the course of the 3 attempts (14.39 ± 1.82 m) followed by the light shot put warm-up (14.18 ± 1.68 m) and the control (14.15 ± 1.70 m). Results of the repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for treatment in regard to average distance (F = 6.276; p = 0.003). Post hoc testing suggested that the heavy shot put warm-up resulted in significantly better mean OHB performance than either the light shot put warm-up (t = 2.983; p = 0.0048; ES = 0.472; power = 0.901) or the control shot put warm-up (t = 3.349; p = 0.0018; effect size [ES] = 0.513; power = 0.939). Subsequent analysis examined the relationship between reported fatigue accrued during the overweight shot put warm-up and the change in performance on the OHB throw when compared to the control condition. Analysis revealed that subjects who reported higher levels of VAS fatigue did not perform as well after the overweight treatment (p = 0.0274).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSC.0000000000000202DOI Listing
February 2016

Description and predictive value of a novel method for determining the respiratory compensation point using standard scores.

J Strength Cond Res 2015 May;29(5):1433-8

1School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; and 2School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana.

The ability to use data from tests of maximum aerobic capacity to estimate the ventilatory threshold and point of respiratory compensation (RCP) is useful for coaches and practitioners in the development of training schemes. Current methods for determining the RCP generally involve identifying deflections in respiratory variables when examined alongside minute ventilation. This investigation describes a novel mathematical method for determining RCP using standard scores (Z-scores) for minute ventilation (VE) and oxygen consumption (VO2). This method allows for the point where ventilation becomes disproportionate to oxygen consumption to be quantified as an intersection between 2 lines of best fit. This novel Z-score method was compared with a well-described determination of RCP and was found to be highly correlated (r = 0.926, p ≤ 0.001). The Z-score method was also found to be related to 10-km road race performance using regression analysis (R(2) = 0.824, p ≤ 0.001) in a group of 18 athletes and recreational runners. Based on the evidence from this study, the Z-score method of RCP determination is highly correlated to previous methods and endurance performance. This method potentially offers further benefits as it is not reliant on visual determination of changes in slope in variables of interest but rather on the mathematical solution to the intersection of 2 regression lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000718DOI Listing
May 2015

Prevalence of obesity and behaviors associated with the development of metabolic disease among medical practitioners in Jordan.

J Educ Health Promot 2015 26;4:17. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, USA.

Background: The health status of medical practitioners can potentially impact their ability to counsel patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and behaviors associated with the development of metabolic disease among medical practitioners in the country of Jordan.

Materials And Methods: The participants were 748 (male n = 285, 32.3 years ± 7.3, female n = 463, 29.7 years ± 5.7) randomly selected pharmacists, nurses, physicians, medical lab technicians, and radiation specialists from a variety of medical institutions in Jordan. A short 25-item validated instrument was chosen for this investigation. After the survey was administered and data were tabulated, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson's Chi-square analysis were conducted to examine differences in reported risk behaviors (low physical activity [PA], smoking) and obesity by gender, age and medical specialty.

Results: Descriptive analysis revealed that 20.9% of the participants self-reported as smokers of cigarettes, 47.9% were either overweight or obese, and 52.9% reported no days of planned PA on average per week. The results suggested a difference in body mass index (BMI) classification (F = 17.9, P ≤ 0.001) and smoking (F = 5.33, P = 0.021) by age. Mean age associated with being underweight was 26.4 years for normal weight 29.3 years for overweight 31.6 years and finally for obese was 34.5 years. Chi-square test resulted in differences by gender (χ(2) > 50, P ≤ 0.001) for BMI (males: 26.4 ± 3.7; females: 24.6 ± 3.7), PA (males no planned PA 61.1%, females 47.9%) and smoking (males 43.1% smokers, females 7.1%). Researchers discovered that medical specialty was related to differences in reported smoking (χ(2) = 26.5, P ≤ 0.001) and days of planned PA (χ(2) = 24.2, P = 0.019).

Conclusions: Within the population of medical practitioners there is still a high incidence of obesity and risk behaviors associated with metabolic diseases. It also appears that these incidence rates are greater among men, with increasing age, and among certain medical specialties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9531.154036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389359PMC
April 2015

Pre- and Post-Activity Stretching Practices of Collegiate Athletic Trainers in the United States.

J Strength Cond Res 2017 Sep;31(9):2347-2354

1School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; and 3Department of Physical Therapy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Popp, JK, Bellar, DM, Hoover, DL, Craig, BW, Leitzelar, BN, Wanless, EA, and Judge, LW. Pre- and post-activity stretching practices of collegiate athletic trainers in the United States. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2347-2354, 2017-The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of collegiate-certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States. Participants (n = 521) were provided an overview of the study and a hyperlink to a web-based survey. The "pre- and post-activity practices in athletic training questionnaire" consisted of demographic items and elements to measure knowledge and practices related to pre- and post-activity stretching routines. In previous studies, the survey demonstrated construct validity, α = 0.722. Pearson chi-square test was used to evaluate goodness of fit, and kappa was calculated to measure agreement between items. Only 32.2% of ATs recommended dynamic stretching (DS) to be performed pre-activity, whereas a larger percentage (42.2%) recommended a combination of static stretching (SS) and DS. Athletic trainers reported that only 28.0% of athletes are performing DS before activity. Conversely, 60.6% of collegiate ATs recommended SS postexercise, and 61.0% of athletes agree and perform after workout SS (κ = 0.761, p < 0.001). Collegiate ATs seem to underuse the current research evidence, which indicates that DS is more beneficial than SS when used pre-activity, and ATs continue to regularly incorporate SS in their pre-activity routines. However, there is evidence that collegiate ATs in the United States emphasize SS postactivity in a manner consistent with current research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000890DOI Listing
September 2017

Creatine Usage and Education of Track and Field Throwers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Universities.

J Strength Cond Res 2015 Jul;29(7):2034-40

1School of Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, School of Education, Waco, Texas; 3Department of Physical Therapy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky; 4Advancing Knowledge in Health Care, Chicago, Illinois; 5New Castle School Corporation, New Castle, Indiana; 6Department of Sport Rehabilitation, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; and 7School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the level of creatine use along with the perceived benefits and barriers of creatine use among collegiate athletes who participate in throwing events within the sport of track and field. A total of 258 throwers from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions completed an online survey regarding creatine. The results provided baseline levels of creatine use and allowed for the analysis of factors related to athletic conference affiliation. Results indicate that creatine use remains to be a common (32.7%) practice among throwers with significantly higher levels of use among Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) conference athletes (44.6%) than Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) conference athletes (28.8%), χ² = 5.505, p = 0.019. The most common reasons for using creatine included a desire to improve/increase: strength (83.3%), recovery time (69.0%), and performance (60.7%). The most common perceived obstacles included contamination/quality control (39.5%), cost (33.3%), inconvenience (16.7%), and cramping (14.3%). A desire for additional education and training was noted through an expression of interest (55.6%) with significantly higher levels of interest from FBS athletes (65.6%) than FCS athletes (52.2%), χ² = 6.425, p = 0.039. However, the athletic departments provide nutritional supplement counseling at only 26.6% of the schools. Although the access to full-time nutritionist counsel was available at 57.3% of the schools, there was a significant difference (χ² = 9.096, p = 0.003) between FBS schools (73.7%) and FCS schools (51.7%).
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July 2015

The effects of a personal oxygen supplement on performance, recovery, and cognitive function during and after exhaustive exercise.

J Strength Cond Res 2014 May;28(5):1255-62

1School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, Louisiana; and 2School of Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana.

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a personal oxygen supplement (OS) on performance during exhaustive exercise, respiratory responses during exhaustive exercise, and cognitive function after exhaustive exercise. The participants for this blind placebo-controlled experiment were apparently healthy college-aged adults (n = 20). First, VO2max was assessed (47.6 ± 9.8 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Participants then ran 2 trials at 80% of VO2max speed to exhaustion and received either a placebo (compressed air) or personal OS. Psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT) was performed before and after each trial. Performance between treatments was evaluated through repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was not found to be different (p = 0.335, ηp2 = 0.052), and order (placebo first or personal OS first) was not significant within the model (p = 0.305, ηp2 = 0.058). Mean times were 1,057.6 ± 619.8 seconds for the oxygen trials and 992.5 ± 463.1 seconds for the placebo trials. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess minute ventilation (Ve, L·min(-1)) and VCO2 (L·O2·min(-1)) during exercise and recovery, mean heart rate during recovery, and PVT results. Treatment was nonsignificant (p > 0.05) nor were any interaction effects (treatment × time, p > 0.05) for any variables. The results of this study suggest that a personal OS had no effect on performance and did not affect ventilation even at the time directly surrounding the application. The results of the study also suggest that personal OS do not enhance exercise recovery or cognition during exercise recovery.
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May 2014

The current state of NCAA Division I collegiate strength facilities: size, equipment, budget, staffing, and football status.

J Strength Cond Res 2014 Aug;28(8):2253-61

1School of Physical Education Sport and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, Texas; 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; 4Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, Houston, Texas; and 5Department of Athletics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana.

Strength and conditioning training programs are essential components of athletic performance, and the effectiveness of these programs can be linked to the strength and conditioning facilities (SCFs) used by athletes. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a statistical overview of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I SCFs, equipment and maintenance budget, and the relationship between SCF budget and staffing space, and equipment. The secondary purpose was to note differences in SCFs between those schools with and without football programs. An 84-item online survey instrument, developed with expert input from certified strength professionals, was used to collect data regarding the SCFs in NCAA Division I universities. A total of 110 valid and complete surveys were returned for a response rate of 38.6%. Results of Pearson's χ2 analysis demonstrated that the larger reported annual equipment budgets were associated with larger SCFs (χ2 = 451.4, p ≤ 0.001), greater maximum safe capacity of athletes using the facility (χ2 = 366.9, p ≤ 0.001), increased numbers of full-time coaches (χ2 = 224.2, p ≤ 0.001), and increased number of graduate assistant or intern coaches (χ2 = 102.9, p ≤ 0.001). Based on these data, it can be suggested to athletic administrators and strength and conditioning professionals at the collegiate level that budgets need to be re-evaluated as the number of personnel available to monitor student-athletes and the size and safe capacity of the facility are related to the ability of the strength and conditioning staff to safely and adequately perform their duties.
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August 2014

An examination of preactivity and postactivity stretching practices of NCAA division I, NCAA division II, and NCAA division III track and field throws programs.

J Strength Cond Res 2013 Oct;27(10):2691-9

1Human Performance Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 2Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana-Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana 4Department of Recreation and Sport Management, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 5Department of Sport Rehabilitation, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.

The purpose of this study is to determine the pre- and postactivity stretching practices of Division I, II, and III track and field throws programs. A 33-item survey instrument was developed to collect data regarding the warm-up and flexibility practices at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (n = 320), Division II (n = 175), and Division III (n = 275) universities. A total of 135 surveys were completed for a 17.5% return rate, and although the response rate was generally low, it did mirror the distribution percentages of the 3 divisions. Significant differences were found for the level of United States Track and Field (USATF) certification and the use of static stretching (SS) between throws (χ = 6.333, p = 0.048). Significance was also found for the USATF certification level and athletic trainer (AT) assistance in performing SS (χ = 13.598, p = 0.01). Significant differences were also found for the NCAA division levels and the use of soft tissue mobilization (χ = 5.913, p = 0.026). Although research supports dynamic warm-up/stretching over other forms of preactivity protocols, it seems that some track-and-field throws coaches are reluctant to completely discontinue preactivity SS. The results of this study suggest that it is necessary for track and field throws coaches to reevaluate their own practices, perhaps better aligning them with current research findings.
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October 2013

An examination of preactivity and postactivity stretching practices of crosscountry and track and field distance coaches.

J Strength Cond Res 2013 Sep;27(9):2456-64

Human Performance Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

This study sought to determine the effectiveness of coach certification courses in promoting proper preactivity and postactivity stretching practices in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, II, and III crosscountry programs. Distribution of questionnaires to 770 NCAA Division I, Division II, and Division III programs in the U.S.A. resulted in 111 coaches (88 [78.2%] men and 25 [21.8%] women) participating. Chi-square analyses revealed that noncertified coaches reported significantly greater (χ² = 21.582, p = 0.0174) usage of static stretching alone as their preactivity modality (18.9%, n = 9) vs. their certified counterparts (1.8%, n = 1). In addition, certified coaches reported a higher usage of dynamic flexibility only during the preactivity period (47.4%, n = 27) vs. their noncertified peers (32.4%, n = 16). Coaches were also asked if they allowed for static stretching between interval work and events in track and field, and a significantly higher percentage (χ² = 11.948, p = 0.0177) of noncertified coaches (45.5%, n = 23) reported allowing the athletes to perform static stretches between intervals at practice than certified peers (37.9%, n = 22). These significant differences help demonstrate that coaching certification courses are an effective tool for communicating current information about stretching practices. However, the results also revealed that there are still many certified coaches who are not implementing best practices in preactivity routines.
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September 2013

CSCS certification and school enrollment impacts upon high school strength facilities, equipment, and safety.

J Strength Cond Res 2013 Sep;27(9):2626-33

Human Performance Laboratory, School of Physical Education Sport and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

The rapid growth and expanding use of high school strength and conditioning facilities (SCFs) creates a need to research and better understand these vital facilities. This study was designed to examine SCFs at the high school level including facility size, equipment, leadership/staffing, and safety. A 70-item online survey instrument, developed with expert input from certified strength professionals, was used to collect data regarding the SCFs in high schools throughout a midwestern state, and was distributed via email to a total of 390 high school athletic directors. Survey respondents (n = 108) all reported the presence of SCFs with 95.4% indicating a dedicated SCF space. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.610, p ≤ 0.001) was determined between the variables of SCF size in square feet and school size measured by total enrollment. Analysis of variance and χ² analyses revealed significant differences in equipment, facility size, and safety factors based on the categorical variables of school size and the presence of certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) leadership. It appears the CSCS's application of their scientific knowledge goes beyond training athletes for the goal of improving athletic performance to actually influence the SCF itself. Athletic administrators at the high school level need to recognize the impact CSCS program leadership can have on the overall quality of the strength and conditioning program and facility.
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September 2013

Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion.

J Strength Cond Res 2012 Mar;26(3):844-50

Department of Exercise Physiology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA.

Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of low-dose caffeine (CAF) administered in chewing gum at 3 different time points during submaximal cycling exercise to exhaustion. Eight college-aged (26 ± 4 years), physically active (45.5 ± 5.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) volunteers participated in 4 experimental trials. Two pieces of caffeinated chewing gum (100 mg per piece, total quantity of 200 mg) were administered in a double-blind manner at 1 of 3 time points (-35, -5, and +15 minutes) with placebo at the other 2 points and at all 3 points in the control trial. The participants cycled at 85% of maximal oxygen consumption until volitional fatigue and time to exhaustion (TTE) were recorded in minutes. Venous blood samples were obtained at -40, -10, and immediately postexercise and analyzed for serum-free fatty acid and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, glucose, lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, and perceived leg pain measures were obtained at baseline and every 10 minutes during cycling. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the trials for any of the parameters measured including TTE. These findings suggest that low-dose CAF administered in chewing gum has no effect on TTE during cycling in recreational athletes and is, therefore, not recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822a5cd4DOI Listing
March 2012

Effect of cold acclimatization on exercise economy in the cold.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2012 Feb 14;112(2):795-800. Epub 2011 Jun 14.

Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent State University, Gym Annex 167, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to volitional fatigue in 5°C. The protocol always started at 60 W and increased by 20 W each minute. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined via open circuit spirometry. Individuals were matched for body size and minutes of weekly physical activity. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted across time (workload) and cold acclimatization was entered as a between subjects factor. VO(2) peak was not different between groups but CWA had lower VO(2) at 60 and 240 W. CWA also had lower RR at 180 and 260 W as well as lower RER at 240 and 260 W. At submaximal workloads, cold acclimatized men have higher exercise economy than non-acclimatized men. This could have implications for those who work in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2038-5DOI Listing
February 2012

Effect of acute salt ingestion upon core temperature in healthy men.

Hypertens Res 2011 Jun 14;34(6):753-7. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Kent State University, Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent, OH 44017, USA.

Salt intake may cause conflict for the cardiovascular system as it attempts to simultaneously maintain blood pressure (BP) and temperature homeostasis. Our objective was to determine the effect of a salt and water load vs. a water load upon rectal temperature (Tre) in healthy volunteers. Twenty-two healthy, non-hypertensive Caucasian men enrolled in two trials in which they ingested either salt and body temperature water (SALT), or body temperature water (WATER). BP, Tre, cardiac index, peripheral resistance and urine output were monitored one, 2 and 3 h post-baseline. Changes in the dependent variables were compared between those subjects who were salt sensitive (SS) and those who were salt resistant (SR) at the same time intervals. The percentage change reduction in Tre was greater following SALT compared with WATER at +120 min (-1.1±0.7 vs. -0.6±0.5%, P=0.009) and at +180 min (-1.3±0.8 vs. -0.7±0.6%, P=0.003). The percentage change reduction in Tre was greater in the SR group compared with the SS group at +180 min (-1.6±0.9 vs. -0.9±0.5%, P=0.043). SALT decreased Tre more than WATER. SS individuals maintained temperature homeostasis more effectively than SR individuals following SALT. These results may explain why some individuals are SS while others are SR. If these results are generalizable, it would be possible to account for the role of sodium chloride in the development of SS hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2011.27DOI Listing
June 2011

Pain and thermal sensation in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2011 Jun 17;111(6):979-87. Epub 2010 Nov 17.

Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent State University, Gym Annex 167, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

Military and factory work often involves exposure to cold temperatures. With prolonged exposure, individuals report feeling cold and develop pain in their hands, both of which might be alleviated by endogenous heat production via exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) cycle ergometry alter thermal sensation, hand pain, mean finger temperature, and skin surface temperature gradient (forearm-finger) following immobility in moderate cold. Fourteen young men underwent two trials (each was three total hours in 5°C) consisting of a 90-min period of acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min of exercise (INT or CONT), and a 60-min recovery period (REC). INT and CONT were isoenergetic, reflecting 50 ± 1% of each individual's VO(2) peak. All perceptual scales were significantly correlated during ACE (i.e., test-retest reliability). As expected, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain during ACE, as compared to thermoneutral conditions. Relative to ACE, both INT and CONT increased mean finger temperature, which was associated with warmer thermal sensation and less hand pain. During REC in 5°C, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain than during exercise. Although there were no perceptual differences between INT and CONT, moderate exercise in general can cause subjective feelings of warmth and less hand pain in people acutely exposed to moderate cold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1726-xDOI Listing
June 2011

The effects of combined elastic- and free-weight tension vs. free-weight tension on one-repetition maximum strength in the bench press.

J Strength Cond Res 2011 Feb;25(2):459-63

Department of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA.

The present study investigated the effects of training combining elastic tension, free weights, and the bench press. Eleven college-aged men (untrained) in the bench press participated in the 13-week study. The participants were first given instructions and then practiced the bench press, followed by a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test of baseline strength. Subjects were then trained in the bench press for 3 weeks to allow for the beginning of neural adaptation. After another 1RM test, participants were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions for the next 3 weeks of training: 85% Free-Weight Tension, 15% Elastic Tension (BAND), or 100% Free-Weight Tension (STAND). After 3 weeks of training and a third 1RM max test, participants switched treatments, under which they completed the final 3 weeks of training and the fourth 1RM test. Analysis via analysis of covariance revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) main effect for time and interaction effect for Treatment (BAND vs. STAND). Subsequent analysis via paired-samples t-test revealed the BAND condition was significantly better (p = 0.05) at producing raw gains in 1RM strength. (BAND 9.95 ± 3.7 kg vs. STAND 7.56 ± 2.8 kg). These results suggest that the addition of elastic tension to the bench press may be an effective method of increasing strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c1f8b6DOI Listing
February 2011

The influence of interval versus continuous exercise on thermoregulation, torso hemodynamics, and finger dexterity in the cold.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2010 Jul 13;109(5):857-67. Epub 2010 Mar 13.

Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent State University, Gym Annex 167, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise alter body temperatures and manual dexterity in the cold (5 degrees C). Fourteen young men underwent two trials consisting of a 90-min period of acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min of exercise (INT or CONT), and a 60-min recovery period (REC). Participants donned approximately 1 clo but the hands remained bare for the entire protocol so that a steep decline in dexterity performance occurred prior to the initiation of exercise. INT and CONT were isoenergetic, reflecting 50 +/- 1% of each individual's VO(2) peak. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously and dexterity testing was conducted at ten time points throughout each 3-h trial. In addition, oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and torso hemodynamics were assessed via indirect calorimetry and impedance cardiography (ICG), respectively. As expected, finger temperature and dexterity declined during ACE, relative to baseline. Both modes of exercise increased finger temperature and dexterity, relative to ACE. However, CONT was more effective than INT at increasing finger temperature on the dominant hand, which was associated with better dexterity scores during REC. Tre was not different between trials but a significant increase in stroke volume was found following CONT. Perhaps elevated stroke volume during post-exercise REC plays a role in finger rewarming and dexterity performance. Further mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the role of cardiovascular function in the enhancement of manual performance in the cold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1416-8DOI Listing
July 2010

Reliability of the measurement of stroke volume using impedance cardiography during acute cold exposure.

Aviat Space Environ Med 2010 Feb;81(2):120-4

Kent State University, Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

Introduction: It is well documented that cardiovascular alterations occur during acute cold exposure (ACE). Interindividual variability is present, due mainly to body size differences, gender, and age. However, no study has evaluated stroke volume in the same individual twice in the same ambient conditions (i.e., test-retest reliability). Impedance cardiography (ICG) has become a popular method to acquire hemodynamic data in both clinical and applied physiology settings. Further, ICG does not interfere with other dependent variables such as oxygen consumption. Therefore, based on the uniqueness of the methodology, we sought to test reliability in this technology at 5 degrees C for 65 min on two separate occasions.

Methods: Nine young men underwent two 65-min trials of resting ACE, separated by at least 72 h. Volunteers were clothed in approximately one layer of clothing. Core and skin temperatures, oxygen consumption, and central hemodynamics were measured.

Results: As expected, core and skin temperature decreased while oxygen consumption showed a modest increase over time. In both trials, stroke volume significantly increased over time as heart rate decreased. There was similarity within subjects and between trials for all variables, as assessed via bivariate correlations.

Conclusion: Cold increased stroke volume and decreased heart rate when subjects were pooled together, but each subject retained his individuality (minimal interindividual differences). Results suggest that impedance cardiography may be a reliable technique to use during acute cold exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/asem.2604.2010DOI Listing
February 2010
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