Publications by authors named "David Lubinski"

22 Publications

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Understanding educational, occupational, and creative outcomes requires assessing intraindividual differences in abilities and interests.

Authors:
David Lubinski

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 07 13;117(29):16720-16722. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Psychology & Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009042117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382268PMC
July 2020

Who shines most among the brightest?: A 25-year longitudinal study of elite STEM graduate students.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2020 Aug 14;119(2):390-416. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychology and Human Development.

In 1992, the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) surveyed 714 first- and second-year graduate students (48.5% female) attending U.S. universities ranked in the top-15 by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field. This study investigated whether individual differences assessed early in their graduate school career were associated with becoming a STEM leader 25 years later (e.g., STEM full professors at research-intensive universities, STEM CEOs, and STEM leaders in government) versus not becoming a STEM leader. We also studied whether there were any important gender differences in relation to STEM leadership. For both men and women, small to medium effect size differences in interests, values, and personality distinguished STEM leaders from nonleaders. Lifestyle and work preferences also distinguished STEM leaders who were more exclusively career-focused and preferred to work-and did work-more hours than nonleaders. Also, there were small to large gender differences in abilities, interests, and lifestyle preferences. Men had more intense interests in STEM and were more career-focused. Women had more diverse educational and occupational interests, and they were more interested in activities outside of work. Early in graduate school, therefore, there are signs that predict who will become a STEM leader-even among elite STEM graduate students. Given the many ways in which STEM leadership can be achieved, the gender differences uncovered within this high-potential sample suggest that men and women are likely to assign different priorities to these opportunities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745019PMC
August 2020

Psychological Constellations Assessed at Age 13 Predict Distinct Forms of Eminence 35 Years Later.

Psychol Sci 2019 03 29;30(3):444-454. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychology & Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

This investigation examined whether math/scientific and verbal/humanistic ability and preference constellations, developed on intellectually talented 13-year-olds to predict their educational outcomes at age 23, continue to maintain their longitudinal potency by distinguishing distinct forms of eminence 35 years later. Eminent individuals were defined as those who, by age 50, had accomplished something rare: creative and highly impactful careers (e.g., full professors at research-intensive universities, Fortune 500 executives, distinguished judges and lawyers, leaders in biomedicine, award-winning journalists and writers). Study 1 consisted of 677 intellectually precocious youths, assessed at age 13, whose leadership and creative accomplishments were assessed 35 years later. Study 2 constituted a constructive replication-an analysis of 605 top science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduate students, assessed on the same predictor constructs early in graduate school and assessed again 25 years later. In both samples, the same ability and preference parameter values, which defined math/scientific versus verbal/humanistic constellations, discriminated participants who ultimately achieved distinct forms of eminence from their peers pursuing other life endeavors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419263PMC
March 2019

Fine mapping genetic associations between the HLA region and extremely high intelligence.

Sci Rep 2017 01 24;7:41182. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology &Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK.

General cognitive ability (intelligence) is one of the most heritable behavioural traits and most predictive of socially important outcomes and health. We hypothesized that some of the missing heritability of IQ might lie hidden in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, which plays a critical role in many diseases and traits but is not well tagged in conventional GWAS. Using a uniquely powered design, we investigated whether fine-mapping of the HLA region could narrow the missing heritability gap. Our case-control design included 1,393 cases with extremely high intelligence scores (top 0.0003 of the population equivalent to IQ > 147) and 3,253 unselected population controls. We imputed variants in 200 genes across the HLA region, one SNP (rs444921) reached our criterion for study-wide significance. SNP-based heritability of the HLA variants was small and not significant (h = 0.3%, SE = 0.2%). A polygenic score from the case-control genetic association analysis of SNPs in the HLA region did not significantly predict individual differences in intelligence in an independent unselected sample. We conclude that although genetic variation in the HLA region is important to the aetiology of many disorders, it does not appear to be hiding much of the missing heritability of intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5259706PMC
January 2017

When Lightning Strikes Twice: Profoundly Gifted, Profoundly Accomplished.

Psychol Sci 2016 07 25;27(7):1004-18. Epub 2016 May 25.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797616644735DOI Listing
July 2016

Life paths and accomplishments of mathematically precocious males and females four decades later.

Psychol Sci 2014 Dec 10;25(12):2217-32. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Vanderbilt University.

Two cohorts of intellectually talented 13-year-olds were identified in the 1970s (1972-1974 and 1976-1978) as being in the top 1% of mathematical reasoning ability (1,037 males, 613 females). About four decades later, data on their careers, accomplishments, psychological well-being, families, and life preferences and priorities were collected. Their accomplishments far exceeded base-rate expectations: Across the two cohorts, 4.1% had earned tenure at a major research university, 2.3% were top executives at "name brand" or Fortune 500 companies, and 2.4% were attorneys at major firms or organizations; participants had published 85 books and 7,572 refereed articles, secured 681 patents, and amassed $358 million in grants. For both males and females, mathematical precocity early in life predicts later creative contributions and leadership in critical occupational roles. On average, males had incomes much greater than their spouses', whereas females had incomes slightly lower than their spouses'. Salient sex differences that paralleled the differential career outcomes of the male and female participants were found in lifestyle preferences and priorities and in time allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797614551371DOI Listing
December 2014

Arthur R. Jensen (1923-2012).

Authors:
David Lubinski

Am Psychol 2013 Jul-Aug;68(5):396-7

Vanderbilt University.

Presents an obituary for Arthur R. Jensen. Arthur R. Jensen epitomized the "London School" of psychological thought, studying human individuality as a branch of biology by teaming evolutionary, genetic, and experimental/multivariate/quantitative methods to examine psychological diversity. His intellectual ancestry traces back through his mentor Hans Eysenck to Cyril Burt, Charles Spearman, and, ultimately, Sir Francis Galton. Haggbloom et al. (2002, Review of General Psychology) ranked him among the top 50 eminent psychologists of the 20th century primarily for his work on the construct of general intelligence (g) and its antecedents. But he was also known for his studies in human learning, memory, the cumulative deficit hypothesis, Spearman's hypothesis, the speed of information hypothesis, and test bias. Yet, because of the controversial nature of his work, his career was conspicuously marked by tensions: The extent to which his work was either admired or reviled by many distinguished scientists is unparalleled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032872DOI Listing
March 2014

Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

Psychol Sci 2013 Sep 11;24(9):1831-6. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613478615DOI Listing
September 2013

Who rises to the top? Early indicators.

Psychol Sci 2013 May 26;24(5):648-59. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, 0552 GPC, 230 Appleton Place, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Youth identified before age 13 (N = 320) as having profound mathematical or verbal reasoning abilities (top 1 in 10,000) were tracked for nearly three decades. Their awards and creative accomplishments by age 38, in combination with specific details about their occupational responsibilities, illuminate the magnitude of their contribution and professional stature. Many have been entrusted with obligations and resources for making critical decisions about individual and organizational well-being. Their leadership positions in business, health care, law, the professoriate, and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) suggest that many are outstanding creators of modern culture, constituting a precious human-capital resource. Identifying truly profound human potential, and forecasting differential development within such populations, requires assessing multiple cognitive abilities and using atypical measurement procedures. This study illustrates how ultimate criteria may be aggregated and longitudinally sequenced to validate such measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797612457784DOI Listing
May 2013

Neglected aspects and truncated appraisals in vocational counseling: Interpreting the interest-efficacy association from a broader perspective: Comment on Armstrong and Vogel (2009).

Authors:
David Lubinski

J Couns Psychol 2010 Apr;57(2):226-38

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Invited commentary on Armstrong and Vogel's (2009) article on interpreting the interest-efficacy association stimulated an appraisal from a broader perspective. Like empirical research, scale development, and theorizing emanating from social cognitive career theory (SCCT), their conclusion about the importance of assessing both interests and self-efficacy in applied settings and speculations about the developmental sequencing of these attributes need to be evaluated in the context of what decades of longitudinal research reveal are critical determinants of educational and vocational choice, performance after choice, and persistence. For our interventions to be effective and our theory development to be meaningful, we must ensure that innovative measures possess incremental validity relative to cognitive abilities and educational-vocational interests, which are already well established as salient predictors of long-term educational-vocational outcomes. Broader historical, philosophical, and scientific perspectives are provided to enhance practice, research, and theory development. These broader perspectives reveal how well-positioned vocational counseling is for further advances if it builds on (rather than neglects) its longstanding tradition of developing a cumulative psychological science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019163DOI Listing
April 2010

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2009 Sep;97(3):517-32

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203-5721, USA.

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016030DOI Listing
September 2009

Exceptional cognitive ability: the phenotype.

Authors:
David Lubinski

Behav Genet 2009 Jul 8;39(4):350-8. Epub 2009 May 8.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Characterizing the outcomes related to the phenotype of exceptional cognitive abilities has been feasible in recent years due to the availability of large samples of intellectually precocious adolescents identified by modern talent searches that have been followed-up longitudinally over multiple decades. The level and pattern of cognitive abilities, even among participants within the top 1% of general intellectual ability, are related to differential developmental trajectories and important life accomplishments: The likelihood of earning a doctorate, earning exceptional compensation, publishing novels, securing patents, and earning tenure at a top university (and the academic disciplines within which tenure is most likely to occur) all vary as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities assessed decades earlier. Individual differences that distinguish the able (top 1 in 100) from the exceptionally able (top 1 in 10,000) during early adolescence matter in life, and, given the heritability of general intelligence, they suggest that understanding the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional abilities should be a high priority for behavior genetic research, especially because the results for extreme groups could differ from the rest of the population. In addition to enhancing our understanding of the etiology of general intelligence at the extreme, such inquiry may also reveal fundamental determinants of specific abilities, like mathematical versus verbal reasoning, and the distinctive phenotypes that contrasting ability patterns are most likely to eventuate in at extraordinary levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-009-9273-0DOI Listing
July 2009

A twin study of the genetics of high cognitive ability selected from 11,000 twin pairs in six studies from four countries.

Behav Genet 2009 Jul 21;39(4):359-70. Epub 2009 Apr 21.

Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.

Although much genetic research has addressed normal variation in intelligence, little is known about the etiology of high cognitive abilities. Using data from 11,000 twin pairs (age range = 6-71 years) from the genetics of high cognitive abilities consortium, we investigated the genetic and environmental etiologies of high general cognitive ability (g). Age-appropriate psychometric cognitive tests were administered to the twins and used to create g scores standardized within each study. Liability-threshold model fitting was used to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for the top 15% of the distribution of g. Genetic influence for high g was substantial (0.50, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.41-0.60). Shared environmental influences were moderate (0.28, 0.19-0.37). We conclude that genetic variation contributes substantially to high g in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-009-9262-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2740717PMC
July 2009

Ability differences among people who have commensurate degrees matter for scientific creativity.

Psychol Sci 2008 Oct;19(10):957-61

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

A sample of 1,586 intellectually talented adolescents (top 1%) were assessed on the math portion of the SAT by age 13 and tracked for more than 25 years. Patents and scientific publications were used as criteria for scientific and technological accomplishment. Participants were categorized according to whether their terminal degree was a bachelor's, master's, or doctorate degree, and within these degree groupings, the proportion of participants with at least one patent or scientific publication in adulthood increased as a function of this early SAT assessment. Information about individual differences in cognitive ability (even when measured in early adolescence) can predict differential creative potential in science and technology within populations that have advanced educational degrees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02182.xDOI Listing
October 2008

Contrasting intellectual patterns predict creativity in the arts and sciences: tracking intellectually precocious youth over 25 years.

Psychol Sci 2007 Nov;18(11):948-52

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

A sample of 2,409 intellectually talented adolescents (top 1%) who were assessed on the SAT by age 13 was tracked longitudinally for more than 25 years. Their creative accomplishments, with particular emphasis on literary achievement and scientific-technical innovation, were examined as a function of ability level (sum of math and verbal SAT scores) and tilt (math SAT score minus verbal SAT score). Results showed that distinct ability patterns uncovered by age 13 portend contrasting forms of creative expression by middle age. Whereas ability level contributes significantly to creative accomplishments, ability tilt is critical for predicting the specific domain in which they occur (e.g., securing a tenure-track position in the humanities vs. science, technology, engineering, or mathematics; publishing a novel vs. securing a patent).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02007.xDOI Listing
November 2007

Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth After 35 Years: Uncovering Antecedents for the Development of Math-Science Expertise.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2006 Dec;1(4):316-45

Vanderbilt University.

This review provides an account of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) after 35 years of longitudinal research. Findings from recent 20-year follow-ups from three cohorts, plus 5- or 10-year findings from all five SMPY cohorts (totaling more than 5,000 participants), are presented. SMPY has devoted particular attention to uncovering personal antecedents necessary for the development of exceptional math-science careers and to developing educational interventions to facilitate learning among intellectually precocious youth. Along with mathematical gifts, high levels of spatial ability, investigative interests, and theoretical values form a particularly promising aptitude complex indicative of potential for developing scientific expertise and of sustained commitment to scientific pursuits. Special educational opportunities, however, can markedly enhance the development of talent. Moreover, extraordinary scientific accomplishments require extraordinary commitment both in and outside of school. The theory of work adjustment (TWA) is useful in conceptualizing talent identification and development and bridging interconnections among educational, counseling, and industrial psychology. The lens of TWA can clarify how some sex differences emerge in educational settings and the world of work. For example, in the SMPY cohorts, although more mathematically precocious males than females entered math-science careers, this does not necessarily imply a loss of talent because the women secured similar proportions of advanced degrees and high-level careers in areas more correspondent with the multidimensionality of their ability-preference pattern (e.g., administration, law, medicine, and the social sciences). By their mid-30s, the men and women appeared to be happy with their life choices and viewed themselves as equally successful (and objective measures support these subjective impressions). Given the ever-increasing importance of quantitative and scientific reasoning skills in modern cultures, when mathematically gifted individuals choose to pursue careers outside engineering and the physical sciences, it should be seen as a contribution to society, not a loss of talent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00019.xDOI Listing
December 2006

Lloyd G.Humphreys: 1913-2003.

Authors:
David Lubinski

Am J Psychol 2006 ;119(2):301-10

Peabody College of Vanderbilt University.

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January 2007

Tracking exceptional human capital over two decades.

Psychol Sci 2006 Mar;17(3):194-9

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Talent-search participants (286 males, 94 females) scoring in the top 0.01% on cognitive-ability measures were identified before age 13 and tracked over 20 years. Their creative, occupational, and life accomplishments are compared with those of graduate students (299 males, 287 females) enrolled in top-ranked U.S. mathematics, engineering, and physical science programs in 1992 and tracked over 10 years. By their mid-30s, the two groups achieved comparable and exceptional success (e.g., securing top tenure-track positions) and reported high and commensurate career and life satisfaction. College entrance exams administered to intellectually precocious youth uncover extraordinary potential for careers requiring creativity and scientific and technological innovation in the information age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01685.xDOI Listing
March 2006

Meeting the educational needs of special populations.

Psychol Sci 2004 Apr;15(4):217-24

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

We evaluated the Advanced Placement (AP) program from the point of view of intellectually precocious youth and their subsequent educational-vocational outcomes, analyzing normative and idiographic longitudinal data collected across 30 years from 3,937 participants. Most took AP courses in high school, and those who did frequently nominated an AP course as their favorite. Students who took AP courses, compared with their intellectual peers who did not, appeared more satisfied with the intellectual caliber of their high school experience and, ultimately, achieved more. Overall, this special population placed a premium on intellectual challenge in high school and found the lack of such challenge distressing. These findings can inform contemporary educational policy debates regarding the AP program; they also have general implications for designing and evaluating educational interventions for students with special needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00655.xDOI Listing
April 2004

John Bissell Carroll (1916-2003).

Authors:
David Lubinski

Am Psychol 2004 Jan;59(1):43-4

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.43DOI Listing
January 2004

Introduction to the special section on cognitive abilities: 100 years after Spearman's (1904) "'General intelligence,' objectively determined and measured".

Authors:
David Lubinski

J Pers Soc Psychol 2004 Jan;86(1):96-111

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

The study of individual differences in cognitive abilities is one of the few branches of psychological science to amass a coherent body of empirical knowledge withstanding the test of time. There is wide consensus that cognitive abilities are organized hierarchically, and C. Spearman's (1904) general intelligence occupies the vertex of this hierarchy. In addition, specific abilities beyond general intelligence refine longitudinal forecasts of important social phenomena and paint a rich portrait of this important domain of psychological diversity. This opening article identifies and then reviews 5 major areas concerning the personological significance of cognitive abilities and the methods used to study them. In models of human behavior and important life outcomes, cognitive abilities are critical in more ways than social scientists realize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.86.1.96DOI Listing
January 2004