Publications by authors named "David Liebeskind"

577 Publications

Penumbra Consumption Rates Based on Time-to-Maximum Delay and Reperfusion Status: A Post Hoc Analysis of the DEFUSE 3 Trial.

Stroke 2021 Jun 23:STROKEAHA120033806. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (A.d.H.).

Background And Purpose: In patients with acute large vessel occlusion, the natural history of penumbral tissue based on perfusion time-to-maximum (T) delay is not well established in relation to late-window endovascular thrombectomy. In this study, we sought to evaluate penumbra consumption rates for T delays in patients with large vessel occlusion evaluated between 6 and 16 hours from last known normal.

Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the DEFUSE 3 trial (The Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke), which included patients with an acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation occlusion within 6 to 16 hours of last known normal. The primary outcome is percentage penumbra consumption, defined as (24-hour magnetic resonance imaging infarct volume-baseline core infarct volume)/(T 6 or 10 s volume-baseline core volume). We stratified the cohort into 4 categories based on treatment modality and Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI score; untreated, TICI 0-2a, TICI 2b, and TICI3) and calculated penumbral consumption rates in each category.

Results: We included 141 patients, among whom 68 were untreated. In the untreated versus TICI 3 patients, a median (interquartile range) of 53.7% (21.2%-87.7%) versus 5.3% (1.1%-14.6%) of penumbral tissue was consumed based on T >6 s (<0.001). In the same comparison for T>10 s, we saw a difference of 165.4% (interquartile range, 56.1%-479.8%) versus 25.7% (interquartile range, 3.2%-72.1%; <0.001). Significant differences were not demonstrated between untreated and TICI 0-2a patients for penumbral consumption based on T >6 s (=0.52) or T >10 s (=0.92).

Conclusions: Among extended window endovascular thrombectomy patients, T >10-s mismatch volume may comprise large volumes of salvageable tissue, whereas nearly half the T >6-s mismatch volume may remain viable in untreated patients at 24 hours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033806DOI Listing
June 2021

Collateral status reperfusion and outcomes after endovascular therapy: insight from the Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) Registry.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Radiology, CH Bretagne Atlantique, Vannes, France.

Background: Studies have suggested that collateral status modifies the effect of successful reperfusion on functional outcome after endovascular therapy (EVT). We aimed to assess the association between collateral status and EVT outcomes and to investigate whether collateral status modified the effect of successful reperfusion on EVT outcomes.

Methods: We used data from the ongoing, prospective, multicenter Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) Registry. Collaterals were graded according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) guidelines. Patients were divided into two groups based on angiographic collateral status: poor (grade 0-2) versus good (grade 3-4) collaterals.

Results: Among 2020 patients included in the study, 959 (47%) had good collaterals. Good collaterals were associated with favorable outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2) (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.88). Probability of good outcome decreased with increased time from onset to reperfusion in both good and poor collateral groups. Successful reperfusion was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome in good collaterals (OR 6.01, 95% CI 3.27 to 11.04) and poor collaterals (OR 5.65, 95% CI 3.32 to 9.63) with no significant interaction. Similarly, successful reperfusion was associated with higher odds of excellent outcome (90-day mRS 0-1) and lower odds of mortality in both groups with no significant interaction. The benefit of successful reperfusion decreased with time from onset in both groups, but the curve was steeper in the poor collateral group.

Conclusions: Collateral status predicted functional outcome after EVT. However, collateral status on the pretreatment angiogram did not decrease the clinical benefit of successful reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017553DOI Listing
June 2021

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the STRATIS Registry, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:663058. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Neuroradiology, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The indications for mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke continue to broaden, leading neurointerventionalists to treat vessel occlusions at increasingly distal locations farther in time from stroke onset. Accessing these smaller vessels raises the concern of iatrogenic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) owing to increasing complexity in device navigation and retrieval. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SAH following mechanical thrombectomy, associated predictors, and resulting functional outcomes using a multicenter registry and compare this with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Data from STRATIS (The Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated with Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) registry were analyzed dichotomized by the presence or absence of SAH after thrombectomy. Only patients with 24-h post-procedural neuroimaging were included ( = 841). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant predictors of SAH. A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis was also conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) protocol. The prevalence of post-thrombectomy SAH was 5.23% in STRATIS with 15.9% (1.84% overall) experiencing neurological decline. Distal location of vessel occlusion (OR 3.41 [95% CI: 1.75-6.63], < 0.001) and more than 3 device passes (OR 1.34 [95% CI: 1.09-1.64], = 0.01) were associated with a higher probability of SAH in contrast to a reduction with administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (OR 0.48 [95% CI: 0.26-0.89], = 0.02). There was a trend toward a higher discharge NIHSS (8.3 ± 8.7 vs. 5.3 ± 6.6, = 0.07) with a significantly reduced proportion achieving functional independence at 90 days (modified Rankin Score 0-2: 32.5% vs. 57.8%, = 0.002) in SAH patients. Pooled analysis of 10,126 patients from 6 randomized controlled trials and 64 observational studies demonstrated a prevalence of 5.85% [95% CI: 4.51-7.34%, : 85.2%]. Only location of vessel occlusion was significant for increased odds of SAH at distal sites (OR 2.89 [95% CI: 1.14, 7.35]). Iatrogenic SAH related to mechanical thrombectomy is more common with treatment of distally-situated occlusions and multiple device passes. While low in overall prevalence, its effect is not benign with fewer patients reaching post-procedural functional independence, particularly if symptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.663058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185211PMC
May 2021

Impact of Age and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score 0 to 5 on Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes: Analysis From the STRATIS Registry.

Stroke 2021 Jun 3:STROKEAHA120032430. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Advanced Neuroscience Network/Tenet South Florida, Boynton Beach (N.H.M.-K.).

Background And Purpose: This study investigates clinical outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy in adult patients with baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) of 0 to 5.

Methods: We included data from the STRATIS Registry (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) from patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours of symptom onset and had available ASPECTS data adjudicated by an independent core laboratory. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were collected, including successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b), functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), 90-day mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 24 hours. Outcomes were stratified by ASPECTS scores and age.

Results: Of the 984 patients enrolled, 763 had available ASPECTS data. Of these patients, 57 had ASPECTS of 0 to 5 with a median age of 63 years (interquartile range, 28-100), whereas 706 patients had ASPECTS of 6 to 10 with a median age of 70 years of age (interquartile range, 19-100). Ten patients had ASPECTS of 0 to 3 and 47 patients had ASPECTS of 4 to 5 at baseline. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 85.5% (47/55) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 group. Functional independence was achieved in 28.8% (15/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 versus 59.7% (388/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). Mortality rates were 30.8% (16/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 13.4% (87/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). sICH rates were 7.0% (4/57) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 0.9% (6/682) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). No patients aged >75 years with ASPECTS of 0 to 5 (0/12) achieved functional independence versus 44.8% (13/29) of those age ≤65 (=0.005).

Conclusions: Patients <65 years of age with large core infarction (ASPECTS 0-5) have better rates of functional independence and lower rates of mortality compared with patients >75 years of age.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239640.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032430DOI Listing
June 2021

Benchmarking the Extent and Speed of Reperfusion: First Pass TICI 2c-3 Is a Preferred Endovascular Reperfusion Endpoint.

Front Neurol 2021 11;12:669934. Epub 2021 May 11.

Mercy St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH, United States.

End-of-procedure substantial reperfusion [modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) 2b-3], the leading endpoint for thrombectomy studies, has several limitations including a ceiling effect, with recent achieved rates of ~90%. We aimed to identify a more optimal definition of angiographic success along two dimensions: (1) the extent of tissue reperfusion, and (2) the speed of revascularization. Core-lab adjudicated TICI scores for the first three passes of EmboTrap and the final all-procedures result were analyzed in the ARISE II multicenter study. The clinical impact of extent of reperfusion and speed of reperfusion (first-pass vs. later-pass) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes included 90-day functional independence [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2], 90-day freedom-from-disability (mRS 0-1), and dramatic early improvement [24-h National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement ≥ 8 points]. Among 161 ARISE II subjects with ICA or MCA M1 occlusions, reperfusion results at procedure end showed substantial reperfusion in 149 (92.5%), excellent reperfusion in 121 (75.2%), and complete reperfusion in 79 (49.1%). Reperfusion rates on first pass were substantial in 81 (50.3%), excellent reperfusion in 62 (38.5%), and complete reperfusion in 44 (27.3%). First-pass excellent reperfusion (first-pass TICI 2c-3) had the greatest nominal predictive value for 90-day mRS 0-2 (sensitivity 58.5%, specificity 68.6%). There was a progressive worsening of outcomes with each additional pass required to achieve TICI 2c-3. First-pass excellent reperfusion (TICI 2c-3), reflecting rapid achievement of extensive reperfusion, is the technical revascularization endpoint that best predicted functional independence in this international multicenter trial and is an attractive candidate for a lead angiographic endpoint for future trials. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02488915.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.669934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144635PMC
May 2021

The smoking paradox in ischemic stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis in combination with mechanical thrombectomy-VISTA-Endovascular.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0251888. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The smoking-paradox of a better outcome in ischemic stroke patients who smoke may be due to increased efficacy of thrombolysis. We investigated the effect of smoking on outcome following endovascular therapy (EVT) with mechanical thrombectomy alone versus in combination with intra-arterial (IA-) thrombolysis.

Methods: The primary endpoint was defined by three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We performed a generalized linear model and reported relative risks (RR) for smoking (adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, stroke severity, time to EVT) in patient data stemming from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Endovascular database.

Results: Among 1,497 patients, 740(49.4%) were randomized to EVT; among EVT patients, 524(35.0%) received mechanical thrombectomy alone and 216(14.4%) received it in combination with IA-thrombolysis. Smokers (N = 396) had lower mRS scores (mean 2.9 vs. 3.2; p = 0.02) and mortality rates (10% vs. 17.3%; p<0.001) in univariate analysis. In all patients and in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy alone, smoking had no effect on outcome in regression analyses. In patients who received IA-thrombolysis (N = 216;14%), smoking had an adjusted RR of 1.65 for an mRS≤1 (95%CI 0.77-3.55). Treatment with IA-thrombolysis itself led to reduced RR for favorable outcome (adjusted RR 0.30); interaction analysis of IA-thrombolysis and smoking revealed that non-smokers with IA-thrombolysis had mRS≤2 in 47 cases (30%, adjusted RR 0.53 [0.41-0.69]) while smokers with IA-thrombolysis had mRS≤2 in 23 cases (38%, adjusted RR 0.61 [0.42-0.87]).

Conclusions: Smokers had no clear clinical benefit from EVT that incorporates IA-thrombolysis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251888PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136663PMC
May 2021

Frequency, Determinants, and Outcomes of Emboli to Distal and New Territories Related to Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2021 May 20:STROKEAHA120033377. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. (D.L., M.N., L.S., N.R., J.H., S.S., J.L.S.).

Background And Purpose: Clot fragmentation and distal embolization during endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke may produce emboli downstream of the target occlusion or in previously uninvolved territories. Susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can identify both emboli to distal territories (EDT) and new territories (ENT) as new susceptibility vessel signs (SVS). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can identify infarcts in new territories (INT).

Methods: We studied consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging before and after thrombectomy. Frequency, predictors, and outcomes of EDT and ENT detected on gradient-recalled echo imaging (EDT-SVS and ENT-SVS) and INT detected on DWI (INT-DWI) were analyzed.

Results: Among 50 thrombectomy-treated acute ischemic stroke patients meeting study criteria, mean age was 70 (±16) years, 44% were women, and presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 15 (interquartile range, 8-19). Overall, 21 of 50 (42%) patients showed periprocedural embolic events, including 10 of 50 (20%) with new EDT-SVS, 10 of 50 (20%) with INT-DWI, and 1 of 50 (2%) with both. No patient showed ENT-SVS. On multivariate analysis, model-selected predictors of EDT-SVS were lower initial diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.02-1.16]), alteplase pretreatment (odds ratio, 5.54 [95% CI, 0.94-32.49]), and atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 7.38 [95% CI, 1.02-53.32]). Classification tree analysis identified pretreatment target occlusion SVS as an additional predictor. On univariate analysis, INT-DWI was less common with internal carotid artery (5%), intermediate with middle cerebral artery (25%), and highest with vertebrobasilar (57%) target occlusions (=0.02). EDT-SVS was not associated with imaging/functional outcomes, but INT-DWI was associated with reduced radiological hemorrhagic transformation (0% versus 54%; <0.01).

Conclusions: Among acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombectomy, imaging evidence of distal emboli, including EDT-SVS beyond the target occlusion and INT-DWI in novel territories, occur in about 2 in every 5 cases. Predictors of EDT-SVS are pretreatment intravenous fibrinolysis, potentially disrupting thrombus structural integrity; atrial fibrillation, possibly reflecting larger target thrombus burden; lower diastolic blood pressure, suggestive of impaired embolic washout; and pretreatment target occlusion SVS sign, indicating erythrocyte-rich, friable target thrombus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033377DOI Listing
May 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Myelopathy: 2021 Update.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S73-S82

Specialty Chair, Atlanta VA Health Care System and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Myelopathy is a clinical diagnosis with localization of the neurological findings to the spinal cord, rather than the brain or the peripheral nervous system, and then to a particular segment of the spinal cord. Myelopathy can be the result of primary intrinsic disorders of the spinal cord or from secondary conditions, which result in extrinsic compression of the spinal cord. While the causes of myelopathy may be multiple, the acuity of presentation and symptom onset frame a practical approach to the differential diagnosis. Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of myelopathy with MRI the preferred modality. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.01.020DOI Listing
May 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Syncope.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S229-S238

Specialty Chair, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, Chief, Cardiothoracic Imaging, UT Southwestern, Member BOD, SCCT, Editor, Radiology - Cardiothoracic Imaging.

Syncope and presyncope lead to well over one million emergency room visits in the United States each year. Elucidating the cause of syncope or presyncope, which are grouped together given similar etiologies and outcomes, can be exceedingly difficult given the diverse etiologies. This becomes more challenging as some causes, such as vasovagal syncope, are relatively innocuous while others, such as cardiac-related syncope, carry a significant increased risk of death. While the mainstay of syncope and presyncope assessment is a detailed history and physical examination, imaging can play a role in certain situations. In patients where a cardiovascular etiology is suspected based on the appropriate history, physical examination, and ECG findings, resting transthoracic echocardiography is usually considered appropriate for the initial imaging. While no imaging studies are considered usually appropriate when there is a low probability of cardiac or neurologic pathology, chest radiography may be appropriate in certain clinical situations. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.02.021DOI Listing
May 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Head Trauma: 2021 Update.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S13-S36

Specialty Chair, Atlanta VA Health Care System and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Head trauma (ie, head injury) is a significant public health concern and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Neuroimaging plays an important role in the management of head and brain injury, which can be separated into acute (0-7 days), subacute (<3 months), then chronic (>3 months) phases. Over 75% of acute head trauma is classified as mild, of which over 75% have a normal Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, therefore clinical practice guidelines universally recommend selective CT scanning in this patient population, which is often based on clinical decision rules. While CT is considered the first-line imaging modality for suspected intracranial injury, MRI is useful when there are persistent neurologic deficits that remain unexplained after CT, especially in the subacute or chronic phase. Regardless of time frame, head trauma with suspected vascular injury or suspected cerebrospinal fluid leak should also be evaluated with CT angiography or thin-section CT imaging of the skull base, respectively. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.01.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Intracranial dolichoectasia in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease: Results from the MYRIAD study.

J Neuroimaging 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background And Purpose: It is unknown whether intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD), in addition to causing stenosis, also associates with abnormal arterial enlargement, a condition known as intracranial dolichoectasia (IDE). Across symptomatic ICAD patients, we aim to determine IDE prevalence and IDE impact on cerebral hemodynamics and recurrent cerebral ischemia.

Methods: We analyzed 98 participants (mean age 63.8 11.9 years, 56.1% men) of the prospective observational study MYRIAD. Participants were enrolled within 21 days of an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack caused by moderate-to-severe ICAD. Semi-automatic vessel segmentation was used to determine diameters, length, and tortuosity-index of proximal intracranial arteries. Either ectasia (increased diameter) or dolichosis (increased length or TI) defined IDE. We assessed IDE association with new infarcts during 12-month follow-up, and IDE correlation with cerebral hemodynamics determined by quantitative MR-angiography (QMRA), MR-perfusion weighted-imaging, and transcranial Doppler breath-holding index.

Results: IDE was present in 35.7% of patients and 10.2% of symptomatic arteries. Basilar stenosis was associated with higher IDE prevalence (27.8% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.04), whereas other symptomatic arteries showed no association with IDE. Symptomatic arteries with IDE had lower hypoperfusion prevalence on MR-PWI (11.1% vs. 28.4%, p = 0.03). Increased diameter (r = 0.33, p<0.01) and tortuosity-index (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) showed positive correlation with QMRA flow rate. IDE was not associated with new infarcts during follow-up.

Conclusions: IDE was common among symptomatic ICAD patients. IDE was not associated with stroke recurrence. Instead, increased diameter and tortuosity correlated with improved blood flow across the stenotic artery, suggesting that IDE may originate as an adaptive mechanism in ICAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12872DOI Listing
May 2021

Circadian Biology and Stroke.

Stroke 2021 Jun 4;52(6):2180-2190. Epub 2021 May 4.

CIRCA consortium (E.H.L., G.W.A., M.D., G.D., E.E., R.F., D.W.H., Y-G.H., X.J., E.B.K., S.L., W.L., D.S.L., I.L., E.T.M., M.A.M., M.N., D.R., S.S., J.L.S., F.A.J.L.S., M.S., S.T., F.Z., A.M.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Circadian biology modulates almost all aspects of mammalian physiology, disease, and response to therapies. Emerging data suggest that circadian biology may significantly affect the mechanisms of susceptibility, injury, recovery, and the response to therapy in stroke. In this review/perspective, we survey the accumulating literature and attempt to connect molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways in circadian biology to clinical consequences in stroke. Accounting for the complex and multifactorial effects of circadian rhythm may improve translational opportunities for stroke diagnostics and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031742DOI Listing
June 2021

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease mechanistic subtypes drive hypoperfusion patterns.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background And Purpose: In symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS), borderzone infarct pattern and perfusion mismatch are associated with increased risk of recurrent strokes, which may reflect the shared underlying mechanism of hypoperfusion distal to the intracranial atherosclerosis. Accordingly, we hypothesized a correlation between hypoperfusion volumes and ICAS infarct patterns based on the respective underlying mechanistic subtypes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive symptomatic ICAS cases, acute strokes due to subocclusive (50%-99%) intracranial stenosis. The following mechanistic subtypes were assigned based on the infarct pattern on the diffusion-weighted imaging: Branch occlusive disease (BOD), internal borderzone (IBZ), and thromboembolic (TE). Perfusion parameters, obtained concurrently with the MRI, were studied in each group.

Results: A total of 42 patients (57% women, mean age 71 ± 13 years old) with symptomatic ICAS received MRI within 24 h of acute presentation. Fourteen IBZ, 11 BOD, and 17 TE patterns were identified. IBZ pattern yielded higher total T > 4 s and T > 6 s perfusion delay volumes, as well as corresponding T  > 4 s and T  > 6 s mismatch volume, compared to BOD. TE pattern exhibited greater median T  > 6 s hypoperfusion delay in volume compared to BOD. In IBZ versus TE, the volume difference between T > 4 s and T > 6 s (Δ T  > 4 s - T  > 6 s) was substantially greater.

Conclusion: ICAS infarct patterns, in keeping with their respective underlying mechanisms, may correlate with distinct perfusion profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12863DOI Listing
April 2021

Acute Ischemic Stroke: MR Imaging-Based Paradigms.

Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2021 May;31(2):177-192

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Neuroscience Research Building, 635 Charles E Young Drive South, Suite 225, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7334, USA.

Multimodal MR imaging provides valuable information in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. MR imaging plays a critical role in treatment decision making for (1) thrombolytic treatment of AIS patients with unknown symptom-onset and (2) endovascular treatment of patients with large vessel occlusion presenting beyond 6 hours from the symptom onset. MR imaging provides the most accurate information for detection of ischemic brain and is invaluable for differentiating AIS from stroke mimics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2021.01.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Predictors of Early Infarct Recurrence in Patients With Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

Stroke 2021 Jun 19;52(6):1961-1966. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Miami, FL (I.C.-B., J.G.R.).

Background And Purpose: While prior studies identified risk factors for recurrent stroke in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease, few have assessed risk factors for early infarct recurrence.

Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of the MYRIAD study (Mechanisms of Early Recurrence in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease) of intracranial atherosclerotic disease patients with recent (<21 days) stroke/transient ischemic attack, 50% to 99% stenosis and who underwent 6- to 8-week magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) per protocol. Infarct recurrence was defined as new infarcts in the territory of the symptomatic artery on brain MRI at 6 to 8 weeks compared to index brain MRI. Qualifying events and clinical and imaging outcomes were centrally ascertained by 2 independent reviewers. We assessed the association between baseline clinical and imaging variables and recurrent infarct in bivariate models and multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of infarct recurrence.

Results: Of 105 enrolled patients in MYRIAD, 89 (84.8%) were included in this analysis (mean age, 64±12 years, 54 [60.7%] were male, and 53 [59.6%] were White). The median time from qualifying event to MRI was 51+16 days, on which 22 (24.7%) patients had new or recurrent infarcts. Younger age (57.7 versus 66.0 years; <0.01), diabetes (32.6% versus 14.6%, =0.05), index stroke (31.3% versus 4.6%, =0.01), anterior circulation location of stenosis (29.7% versus 12.0%, =0.08), number of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (>1: 40.0%, 1: 26.9% versus 0: 4.4%, <0.01), and borderzone infarct pattern (63.6% versus 25.0%, =0.01) on baseline MRI were associated with new or recurrent infarcts. Age (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98], <0.01) and number of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24 [95% CI, 1.36-7.71], <0.01) were independently associated with recurrent infarct adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, and stenosis location (anterior versus posterior circulation).

Conclusions: An index multi-infarct pattern is associated with early recurrent infarcts, a finding that might be explained by plaque instability and artery-to-artery embolism. Further investigation of plaque vulnerability in intracranial atherosclerotic disease is needed. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02121028.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154697PMC
June 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Infective Endocarditis-Related Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 8;30(6):105775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Boston University Medical Center, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Embolic stroke is a frequent complication of infective endocarditis yet lacks acute treatment as intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided due to high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion may be a promising treatment but there is limited data on safety outcomes in infective endocarditis.

Materials And Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series, we reviewed data from patients with infective endocarditis-related large vessel occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 9 US hospitals.

Results: We identified 15 patients at 9 hospitals. A minority presented with signs suggesting infection (2 patients (14%) had fever, 7 (47%) were tachycardic, 2 (13%) were hypotensive, and 8 (53%) had leukocytosis). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Score decreased from 19 (range 9-25) at presentation to 7 post-thrombectomy (range 0-22, median best score post-thrombectomy), and the median modified Rankin Scale on or after discharge for survivors was 3 (range 0-6). Approximately 57% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale between 0 and 3 on or after discharge. Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7/15 (47%). The mechanical thrombectomy group had 2/9 petechial hemorrhagic transformation (22%), compared to 4/6 parenchymal hematomas (67%) in the tissue plasminogen activator + mechanical thrombectomy group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with large vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis may not present with overt signs of infection. Mechanical thrombectomy may be an effective treatment in this patient population for whom intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105775DOI Listing
June 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Stroke Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic: International Expert Panel Review.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 23;50(3):245-261. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Germany.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a tremendous strain on healthcare services. This study, prepared by a large international panel of stroke experts, assesses the rapidly growing research and personal experience with COVID-19 stroke and offers recommendations for stroke management in this challenging new setting: modifications needed for prehospital emergency rescue and hyperacute care; inpatient intensive or stroke units; posthospitalization rehabilitation; follow-up including at-risk family and community; and multispecialty departmental developments in the allied professions.

Summary: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 uses spike proteins binding to tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptors, most often through the respiratory system by virus inhalation and thence to other susceptible organ systems, leading to COVID-19. Clinicians facing the many etiologies for stroke have been sobered by the unusual incidence of combined etiologies and presentations, prominent among them are vasculitis, cardiomyopathy, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial dysfunction. International standards of acute stroke management remain in force, but COVID-19 adds the burdens of personal protections for the patient, rescue, and hospital staff and for some even into the postdischarge phase. For pending COVID-19 determination and also for those shown to be COVID-19 affected, strict infection control is needed at all times to reduce spread of infection and to protect healthcare staff, using the wealth of well-described methods. For COVID-19 patients with stroke, thrombolysis and thrombectomy should be continued, and the usual early management of hypertension applies, save that recent work suggests continuing ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Prothrombotic states, some acute and severe, encourage prophylactic LMWH unless bleeding risk is high. COVID-19-related cardiomyopathy adds risk of cardioembolic stroke, where heparin or warfarin may be preferable, with experience accumulating with DOACs. As ever, arteritis can prove a difficult diagnosis, especially if not obvious on the acute angiogram done for clot extraction. This field is under rapid development and may generate management recommendations which are as yet unsettled, even undiscovered. Beyond the acute management phase, COVID-19-related stroke also forces rehabilitation services to use protective precautions. As with all stroke patients, health workers should be aware of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and/or distress developing in their patients and caregivers. Postdischarge outpatient care currently includes continued secondary prevention measures. Although hoping a COVID-19 stroke patient can be considered cured of the virus, those concerned for contact safety can take comfort in the increasing use of telemedicine, which is itself a growing source of patient-physician contacts. Many online resources are available to patients and physicians. Like prior challenges, stroke care teams will also overcome this one. Key Messages: Evidence-based stroke management should continue to be provided throughout the patient care journey, while strict infection control measures are enforced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089455PMC
June 2021

Influence of time to endovascular stroke treatment on outcomes in the early versus extended window paradigms.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 7:17474930211006304. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosciences, Drexel Neurosciences Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The effect of time from stroke onset to thrombectomy in the extended time window remains poorly characterized.

Aim: We aimed to analyze the relationship between time to treatment and clinical outcomes in the early versus extended time windows.

Methods: Proximal anterior circulation occlusion patients from a multicentric prospective registry were categorized into early (≤6 h) or extended (>6-24 h) treatment window. Patients with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 10 and intracranial internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery-M1-segment occlusion and pre-morbid modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1 ("DAWN-like" cohort) served as the population for the primary analysis. The relationship between time to treatment and 90-day mRS, analyzed in ordinal (mRS shift) and dichotomized (good outcome, mRS 0-2) fashion, was compared within and across the extended and early windows.

Results: A total of 1603 out of 2008 patients qualified. Despite longer time to treatment (9[7-13.9] vs. 3.4[2.5-4.3] h,  < 0.001), extended-window patients ( = 257) had similar rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH; 0.8% vs. 1.7%,  = 0.293) and 90-day-mortality (10.5% vs. 9.6%,  = 0.714) with only slightly lower rates of 90-day good outcomes (50.4% vs. 57.6%,  = 0.047) versus early-window patients ( = 709). Time to treatment was associated with 90-day disability in both ordinal (adjusted odd ratio (aOR), ≥ 1-point mRS shift: 0.75; 95%CI [0.66-0.86],  < 0.001) and dichotomized (aOR, mRS 0-2: 0.73; 95%CI [0.62-0.86],  < 0.001) analyses in the early- but not in the extended-window (aOR, mRS shift: 0.96; 95%CI [0.90-1.02],  = 0.15; aOR, mRS0-2: 0.97; 95%CI [0.90-1.04],  = 0.41). Early-window patients had significantly lower 90-day functional disability (aOR, mRS shift: 1.533; 95%CI [1.138-2.065],  = 0.005) and a trend towards higher rates of good outcomes (aOR, mRS 0-2: 1.391; 95%CI [0.972-1.990],  = 0.071).

Conclusions: The impact of time to thrombectomy on outcomes appears to be time dependent with a steep influence in the early followed by a less significant plateau in the extended window. However, every effort should be made to shorten treatment times regardless of ischemia duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211006304DOI Listing
April 2021

Endothelial Shear Stress and Platelet FcγRIIa Expression in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:646309. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States.

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has been characterized by the degree of arterial stenosis and downstream hypoperfusion, yet microscopic derangements of endothelial shear stress at the luminal wall may be key determinants of plaque growth, vascular remodeling and thrombosis that culminate in recurrent stroke. Platelet interactions have similarly been a principal focus of treatment, however, the mechanistic basis of anti-platelet strategies is largely extrapolated rather than directly investigated in ICAD. Platelet FcγRIIa expression has been identified as a potent risk factor in cardiovascular disease, as elevated expression markedly increases the risk of recurrent events. Differential activation of the platelet FcγRIIa receptor may also explain the variable response of individual patients to anti-platelet medications. We review existing data on endothelial shear stress and potential interactions with the platelet FcγRIIa receptor that may alter the evolving impact of ICAD, based on local pathophysiology at the site of arterial stenosis. Current methods for quantification of endothelial shear stress and platelet activation are described, including tools that may be readily adapted to the clinical realm for further understanding of ICAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.646309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947292PMC
February 2021

Clinical effectiveness of endovascular stroke treatment in the early and extended time windows.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 20:17474930211005740. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosciences, Drexel Neurosciences Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The clinical efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy has been unequivocally demonstrated in multiple randomized clinical trials. However, these studies were performed in carefully selected centers and utilized strict inclusion criteria.

Aim: We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy in a prospective registry.

Methods: A total of 2008 patients from 76 sites across 12 countries were enrolled in a prospective open-label mechanical thrombectomy registry. Patients were categorized into the corresponding cohorts of the SWIFT-Prime, DAWN, and DEFUSE 3 trials according to the basic demographic and clinical criteria without considering specific parenchymal imaging findings. Baseline and outcome variables were compared across the corresponding groups.

Results: As compared to the treated patients in the actual trials, registry-derived patients tended to be younger and had lower baseline ASPECTS. In addition, time to treatment was earlier and the use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) and general anesthesia were higher in DAWN- and DEFUSE-3 registry derived patients versus their corresponding trials. Reperfusion rates were higher in the registry patients. The rates of 90-day good outcome (mRS0-2) in registry-derived patients were comparable to those of the patients treated in the corresponding randomized clinical trials (SWIFT-Prime, 64.5% vs. 60.2%; DAWN, 50.4% vs. 48.6%; Beyond-DAWN: 52.4% vs. 48.6%; DEFUSE 3, 52% vs. 44.6%, respectively; all  > 0.05). Registry-derived patients had significant less disability than the corresponding randomized clinical trial controls (ordinal modified Rankin Scale (mRS) shift odds ratio (OR),  < 0.05 for all).

Conclusion: Our study provides favorable generalizability data for the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in the "real-world" setting and supports that patients may be safely treated outside the constraints of randomized clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211005740DOI Listing
April 2021

Precision Medicine for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 10;12:646734. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Neurology, Neurovascular Imaging Research Core & UCLA Stroke Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) have vastly expanded within the last several years. Challenges and concrete initiatives have emerged in the implementation of precision medicine for ICAD, focusing personalized treatment for the prevention of stroke and cognitive impairment around pathophysiology. Theranostics for ICAD incorporates an integrated diagnostic and therapeutic approach tailored to a specific individual. The ICAS 2019 meeting provided a roadmap for accelerating global innovation, underscoring the epidemiology, prior scientific evidence from trials, diagnostic tools or imaging, novel biomarkers, management approaches, and a broad range of treatments including many new medications, endovascular, and surgical strategies. This thematic overview provides perspective on current definitions for arterial stenosis, symptomatic lesions and outcomes or endpoints in clinical trials. Imaging correlates are reviewed, from routine multimodal CT or MRI to advanced angiographic techniques. The temporal features of ICAD and longitudinal observation are considered with respect to management and risk factor modification. The evolving science of multivariable interactions in ICAD and use of big data are explored, followed by an overview of recently launched clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.646734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928351PMC
February 2021

Endovascular thrombectomy 2020: open issues.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Nov 6;22(Suppl M):M13-M18. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hopital Pierre Paul Riquet, Toulouse, France.

Mechanical thrombectomy is now well - established first - line treatment for selected patients with large artery occlusions of the anterior circulation. However, number of technical and procedural issues remains open to assure optimal outcomes in majority of patients including those suffering from posterior circulation perfusion defects. This brief review addresses some of the open issues and refers to the ongoing trials to close the existing knowledge gaps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916414PMC
November 2020

Imaging Advances: Acute-on-Chronic Stroke.

Stroke 2021 Apr 1;52(4):1486-1489. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh Imaging and UK Dementia Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (J.M.W.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.033449DOI Listing
April 2021

Hemodynamics in acute stroke: Cerebral and cardiac complications.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;177:295-317

Department of Neurology, Comprehensive Stroke Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Hemodynamics is the study of blood flow, where parameters have been defined to quantify blood flow and the relationship with systemic circulatory changes. Understanding these perfusion parameters, the relationship between different blood flow variables and the implications for ischemic injury are outlined in the ensuing discussion. This chapter focuses on the hemodynamic changes that occur in ischemic stroke, and their contribution to ischemic stroke pathophysiology. We discuss the interaction between cardiovascular response and hemodynamic changes in stroke. Studying hemodynamic changes has a key role in stroke prevention, therapeutic implications and prognostic importance in acute ischemic stroke: preexisting hemodynamic and autoregulatory impairments predict the occurrence of stroke. Hemodynamic failure predisposes to the formation of thromboemboli and accelerates infarction due to impairing compensatory mechanisms. In ischemic stroke involving occlusion of a large vessel, persistent collateral circulation leads to preservation of ischemic penumbra and therefore justifying endovascular thrombectomy. Following thrombectomy, impaired autoregulation may lead to reperfusion injury and hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-819814-8.00015-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Current Status of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Large Vessel Occlusion in China: A Real-World Nationwide Registry.

Stroke 2021 Apr 18;52(4):1203-1212. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, Hubei Third People's Hospital, China (X.P.).

Background And Purpose: The benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) for large vessel occlusion in clinical practice in developing countries like China needs to be confirmed. The aim of the study was to determine whether the benefit of EVT for acute ischemic stroke in randomized trials could be generalized to clinical practice in Chinese population.

Methods: We conducted a prospective registry of EVT at 111 centers in China. Patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by imaging-confirmed intracranial large vessel occlusion and receiving EVT were included. The primary outcome was functional independence at 90 days defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. Outcomes of specific subgroups in the anterior circulation were reported and logistic regression was performed to predict the primary outcome.

Results: Among the 1793 enrolled patients, 1396 (77.9%) had anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (median age, 66 [56-73] years) and 397 (22.1%) had posterior circulation large vessel occlusion (median age, 64 [55-72] years). Functional independence at 90 days was reached in 45% and 44% in anterior and posterior circulation groups, respectively. For anterior circulation population, underlying intracranial atherosclerotic disease was identified in 29% of patients, with higher functional independence at 90 days (52% versus 44%; =0.0122) than patients without intracranial atherosclerotic disease. In the anterior circulation population, after adjusting for baseline characteristics, procedure details, and early outcomes, the independent predictors for functional independence at 90 days were age <66 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.733 [95% CI, 1.213-2.476]), time from onset to puncture >6 hours (OR, 1.536 [95% CI, 1.065-2.216]), local anesthesia (OR, 2.194 [95% CI, 1.325-3.633]), final modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b/3 (OR, 2.052 [95% CI, 1.085-3.878]), puncture-to-reperfusion time ≤1.5 hours (OR, 1.628 [95% CI, 1.098-2.413]), and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 24 hours after the procedure <11 (OR, 9.126 [95% CI, 6.222-13.385]).

Conclusions: Despite distinct characteristics in the Chinese population, favorable outcome of EVT can be achieved in clinical practice in China. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03370939.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031869DOI Listing
April 2021

Education Research: Challenges Faced by Neurology Trainees in a Neuro-Intervention Career Track.

Neurology 2021 04 12;96(15):e2028-e2032. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

From Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (C.W.L.); UC Riverside School of Medicine (C.W.L.), CA; Washington University School of Medicine (S.D.), St Louis, MO; University of Iowa (S.O.-G.), Iowa City; University of California, Los Angeles (D.S.L.); Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center (J.C.G.), Houston; Cooper University Hospital (T.G.J.), Cooper Medical School of Rowan University Camden, NJ; Boston Medical Center (T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Marcus Stroke & Neuroscience Center (R.G.N.), Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; State University of New York Upstate Medical University (H.M.), Syracuse; Semmes-Murphey Clinic (L.E.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; BSMH St Vincent Medical Center (O.O.Z.), Toledo, OH; University of Texas Rio Grande Valley (A.E.H.), Harlingen; Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute (I.L.), FL; Mount Sinai Hospital (J.T.F.), New York; and University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (S.A.S.).

Objective: The widespread adoption of endovascular therapy (EVT) for emergent large vessel occlusion has led to increased nationwide demand for neurointerventionalists, heightened interest among neurology residents to pursue neurointervention as a career, and increased importance of neurointervention exposure for all neurologists who care for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Exposure to neurointervention and its career path are not well-defined for neurology trainees.

Methods: The Society for Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Education Committee conducted a multicenter electronic survey directed towards neurology residents and vascular neurology (VN), neurocritical care (NCC), and neurointervention fellows in June 2018. A total of 250 programs were invited to participate; 76 trainees completed the survey.

Results: Respondents self-identified as 22% postgraduate year (PGY)2, 40% PGY3/4, 30% VN fellows, and 8% neurointervention or NCC fellows. Eighty-seven percent of trainees had more than 2 months exposure to VN during residency, 41% to NCC, and only 3% to neurointervention. Sixty-eight percent of respondents had no exposure to neurointervention during residency. Whereas 72% believed that a background in neurology was good preparation for neurointervention, only 41% agreed that fellowship training pathway in neurointervention is well-structured for neurology residents when compared to other subspecialties.

Conclusion: In this survey, respondents identified lack of exposure to neurointervention and a well-defined training pathway as obstacles towards pursuing neurointervention as a career. These obstacles must be addressed for the continued development of neurointervention as a subspecialty of neurology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011629DOI Listing
April 2021