Publications by authors named "David L Hopkins"

118 Publications

The use of conventional laboratory-based methods to predict consumer acceptance of beef and sheep meat: A review.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 29;181:108586. Epub 2021 May 29.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

Meat scientists often use objective, laboratory-based methods to understand the sensorial properties of red meat. These approaches are advantageous because of their reproducibility, low cost, rapid generation of data and technical ease - comparative to large scale consumer sensory panels. To enhance the value of these methods, effort has been applied to identify specific limits or thresholds that correspond to a consumer's acceptance or satisfaction with the quality of a meat product. From the literature, we observe there to be inconsistencies in these thresholds. This could stem from disparate laboratory methods, consumer panel procedures and demographics, the approach to statistical analysis, sample type and representativeness, and more. This paper aimed to review consumer thresholds, proposed in the literature, to provide insight into their validity and transferability to other studies. Investigations were limited to red meat (beef and sheep meat) and to non-spectroscopic methods that have been used to predict consumer acceptance of colour, tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108586DOI Listing
November 2021

Impact of heat stress on the growth performance and retail meat quality of 2nd cross (Poll Dorset × (Border Leicester × Merino)) and Dorper lambs.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 29;181:108581. Epub 2021 May 29.

School of Agriculture and Food, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the impact of heat stress and genetics on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Forty-eight Dorper and 2nd cross [Poll Dorset × (Border Leicester × Merino)] lambs (38--42 kg; 4-5 months old) were allocated to either thermoneutral [TN; 18-21 °C, 45-55% relative humidity (RH)], or heat stress (HS; 28 °C-38 °C, 40-60% RH) conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 2 weeks. Compared with 2nd cross, Dorper lambs had a lower respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), and exhibited less decline in body weight under HS. 2nd cross lambs showed a higher body weight gain than Dorpers under TN conditions. HS increased a* and chroma of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) from 2nd cross lambs over 10 days of display, but had no impact on Dorper LTL. In conclusion, Dorpers showed higher heat tolerance compared with 2nd cross lambs during the 2 weeks HS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108581DOI Listing
November 2021

The quality and mineral composition of the longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles from lambs fed perennial or annual wheat forage with or without lucerne.

Meat Sci 2021 Oct 24;180:108564. Epub 2021 May 24.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, New South Wales 2794, Australia.

This study compared the effect of a novel perennial wheat forage and a conventional annual wheat forage, fed to lambs with or without lucerne, on the quality and mineral profile of the longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles. This involved 48 Poll Dorset × Merino ewe lambs, 12 per treatment, managed for 28 days within individual pens. Consumer sensory panel scores showed 'good eating quality' for all samples irrespective of diet, a conclusion supported by the shear force, cooking loss, particle size, and intramuscular fat results. Drip loss was affected by a significant interaction between diet and muscle. The ultimate pH of meat from lambs fed annual wheat was highest. Comparable colour stability and purge results suggested that diet did not impact on lamb retail-potential. Sodium, sulphur and zinc concentrations were higher in the meat from lambs fed annual wheat, compared to perennial wheat. Overall, these outcomes support the use of perennial wheat as a forage for lamb production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108564DOI Listing
October 2021

Total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine in muscle foods: Potential formation pathways and effects on human health.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jul 30;20(4):3620-3666. Epub 2021 May 30.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, New South Wales, Australia.

The use of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) as a quality parameter for fish is rapidly growing to include other types of meat. Investigations of meat quality have recently focused on TVB-N as an index of freshness, but little is known on the biochemical pathways involved in its generation. Furthermore, TVB-N and methylated amines have been reported to exert deterimental health effects, but the relationship between these compounds and human health has not been critically reviewed. Here, literature on the formative pathways of TVB-N has been reviewed in depth. The association of methylated amines and human health has been critically evaluated. Interventions to mitigate the effects of TVB-N on human health are discussed. TVB-N levels in meat can be influenced by the diet of an animal, which calls for careful consideration when using TVB-N thresholds for regulatory purposes. Bacterial contamination and temperature abuse contribute to significant levels of post-mortem TVB-N increases. Therefore, controlling spoilage factors through a good level of hygiene during processing and preservation techniques may contribute to a substantial reduction of TVB-N. Trimethylamine (TMA) constitutes a significant part of TVB-N. TMA and trimethylamine oxide (TMA-N-O) have been related to the pathogenesis of noncommunicable diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancers, and diabetes. Proposed methods for mitigation of TMA and TMA-N-O accumulation are discussed, which include a reduction in their daily dietary intake, control of internal production pathways by targeting gut microbiota, and inhibition of flavin monooxygenase 3 enzymes. The levels of TMA and TMA-N-O have significant health effects, and this should, therefore, be considered when evaluating meat quality and acceptability. Agreed international values for TVB-N and TMA in meat products are required. The role of feed, gut microbiota, and translocation of methylated amines to muscles in farmed animals requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12764DOI Listing
July 2021

The association between total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) concentration and other biomarkers of quality and spoilage for vacuum packaged beef.

Meat Sci 2021 Sep 8;179:108551. Epub 2021 May 8.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

Beef longissimus lumborum muscles (24) were each portioned into 6 steaks, and these were held at ~0.5 °C for up to 14 weeks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) data was compared against other measures of quality and freshness: total viable microbial count (TVC), ultimate pH, drip loss, purge, moisture content, cook loss, shear force, particle size, vitamin E, intramuscular fat content (IMF) and colour parameters. There was an association between TVB-N and colour parameters; and between TVB-N and several parameters for microbial load, tenderness and moisture. IMF and vitamin E were not correlated to TVB-N. TVB-N of 5.1 mg/100 g (95% confidence intervals: 4.6-5.5 mg/100 g) was estimated as equivalent to a TVC of log 7 cfu/g. When beef samples were categorised as either spoilt or fresh using this TVC recommendation, TVB-N was correct in 77.9% of its assignments. Additional investigation is necessary to confirm this result against a larger sample population with a broader range of TVB-N values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108551DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of spraying lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid on the quality and microbial community dynamics of vacuum skin-packaged chilled beef during storage.

Food Res Int 2021 04 10;142:110205. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, PR China; National R&D Center for Beef Processing Technology, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

A long shelf life for fresh meat products is very important both to processors, retailers and consumers. In this work, the effect of repeat acid spraying on the shelf life of vacuum skin-packaged (VSP) chilled beef, as well as the quality and microbial community dynamics was evaluated. Carcasses were sprayed with 300 ppm peroxyacetic acid (PA) or 3% lactic acid (LA) three times during the chilling process, or one more time of LA spray before packaging (LLA). Quality, sensory attributes and microbial load of VSP beef during 32 days of storage at 4 °C were evaluated. The results showed that quality and sensory scores decreased over time for all treatments, but LLA treated samples were still above the rejection threshold at the end of the storage period. Moreover, the total volatile basic nitrogen value and the total viable counts were 15.0 mg/100 g and 7.2 log CFU/g for the control group, while acid treated groups remained below these two values until the end of the storage period. In particular LLA treated beef steaks exhibited the best preservation potential even at the end of storage. This is attributed to the reduction of Proteobacteria in LLA beef steaks shown by the bacterial diversity analysis via high-throughput sequencing, as well as the lower counts of B. thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae during storage. This indicates that LLA treatment has the potential to achieve a shelf life extension of VSP steaks without impacting on quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110205DOI Listing
April 2021

Partial least squares and machine learning for the prediction of intramuscular fat content of lamb loin.

Meat Sci 2021 Jul 19;177:108505. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

Given the paucity of lamb carcase grading tools, there is a distinct need for the development of rapid, non-destructive grading tools for Australian lamb carcases, particularly fat content given its importance to meat and eating quality. The aim of the current study was to determine the potential for Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to predict IMF using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and machine learning analysis methods. As such, 299 lamb loins were measured using a NIR fibre optic device, a sample was excised for Soxhlet determination of IMF content and prediction models were created using either PLS or machine learning analyses methods. IMF prediction model outcomes were similar between analysis methods with an R = 0.6 and RMSE = 0.84 and R = 0.65 and RMSE = 0.72, respectively. This study highlighted that spectra from one slaughter varied greatly from the two succeeding slaughters and wavelengths selected between studies are not consistent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108505DOI Listing
July 2021

Is meat from cull cows tougher?

Meat Sci 2021 Jul 18;177:108498. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

Meat from cull cows is traditionally sold in Australia for mincemeat, but this study examined whether there is potential to add value by identifying meat of higher quality from older cattle. Dentition and ossification score were recorded for 173 Angus cattle of known age, ranging from 26 months to 12.6 years. Longissimus and semitendinosus muscles were sampled to assess the effect of chronological age on shear force and connective tissue. Age explained variation in shear force of the semitendinosus better than in the longissimus muscle, but had little effect on shear force values per se. At 2 days postmortem, 18% of the longissimus muscles were classified as tender reaching 65% as ageing extended to 14 days. Soluble collagen was a better predictor of age than total collagen. This study shows that the current practice of routinely selling meat from culled cows as mincemeat overlooks a valuable opportunity to grade and sell a significant proportion at higher price as prime cuts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108498DOI Listing
July 2021

Post-mortem pH decline in lamb semitendinosus muscle and its relationship to the pH decline parameters of the longissimus lumborum muscle: A pilot study.

Meat Sci 2021 Jun 20;176:108473. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, New South Wales 2794, Australia.

This study compared longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles, in 48 lamb carcasses, to determine their pH decline parameters and achievement of ideal pH criteria (hitting the window). These include the pH at temperature 18 °C ([email protected]) and temperature at pH 6 ([email protected]). No practical difference were found between muscles for [email protected] or the [email protected], although there were differences between the experimental carcasses evaluated. Indeed, for all but three carcasses, there were insignificant differences between the LL and ST in terms of their [email protected] This outcome suggests that the lower value and more accessible ST muscle can be measured to determine lamb carcass pH decline parameters, instead of the LL. Because of the scale of this study, additional investigation is advised prior to any adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108473DOI Listing
June 2021

Intramuscular fat prediction of the semimembranosus muscle in hot lamb carcases using NIR.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 9;181:108404. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

The aim of the current study was to identify whether changes in pH or temperature during the development of rigor mortis influence spectral quality and thus the prediction of intramuscular fat (IMF) in hot lamb carcases. Semimembranosus muscles (SM) of 75 lamb carcases were measured pre-rigor 3 times (Runs 1-3) using a near infrared (NIR) spectrometer with muscle pH and temperature also recorded. Calibration models for the prediction of IMF showed that spectra measurements taken at Run 2 (R = 0.42, RMSE = 0.75) and Run 3 (R = 0.38, RMSE = 0.78) provided more accurate and precise models compared to Run 1 (R = 0.27, RMSE = 0.84). An association between spectral variance, internal and surface temperature of the SM was observed across runs. These results suggest that, as muscle temperature declined during the early post-mortem period there was an improved ability of NIR spectra to predict IMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108404DOI Listing
November 2021

Technological Quality, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profile of Broiler Meat Enhanced by Dietary Inclusion of Black Soldier Fly Larvae.

Foods 2021 Feb 2;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Environmental and Rural Science, Faculty of Science, Agriculture, Business and Law, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.

We evaluated the effects of full-fat black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) on broiler carcass composition, cut yield, and breast meat quality. Broilers were fed for 42 days with up to 20% dietary inclusion of BSFL (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%). On day 42, 120 broilers were slaughtered, and images were taken using computed tomography. Breasts, drumsticks, and thighs were collected for cut yield determination. The pH, color, lipid oxidation, cooking loss, shear force, amino acid profile, and fatty acid profile of the breast meat were assessed. There was no dietary effect on carcass composition or meat quality parameters except for fatty and amino acids compositions. When 20% BSFL was included in the diet, individual fatty and amino acids, such as lauric and myristic acids, aspartic acid, glutamine, and lysine, increased by 22.0-, 5.50-, 1.08-, 1.06-, and 1.06-fold, respectively ( < 0.05). Although total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, eicosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA) increased by 78% in the 20% BSFL inclusion group. In conclusion, up to 20%, dietary full-fat BSFL did not affect key meat characteristics but positively increased the levels of the health-claimable omega-3 fatty acid EPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913093PMC
February 2021

Investigation of the physicochemical, bacteriological, and sensory quality of beef steaks held under modified atmosphere packaging and representative of different ultimate pH values.

Meat Sci 2021 Apr 25;174:108416. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; National R&D Center for Beef Processing Technology, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

The objective was to evaluate the effect of packaging conditions on bacteriological and biochemical changes in beef steaks classified here, as normal ultimate pH (pHu; 5.40-5.79), intermediate pHu (5.80-6.09) or high pHu (≥ 6.10). Steaks were packaged in vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging with high oxygen (HiO-MAP) or carbon monoxide (CO-MAP). Headspace, bacterial counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, pH, purge loss, surface color, lipid oxidation, and sensory attributes were monitored over a 14-day storage period at 2 °C. HiO-MAP and CO-MAP of high pHu steaks resulted in a bright red color even when observed to be spoilt. Reduced purge loss and lipid oxidation, as well as increased sensory acceptability were observed for steaks with elevated pHu. Higher pHu was also accompanied by an acceleration of microbial proliferation. Of all packaging types investigated, CO-MAP exerted the best preservation, regardless of pHu and based on its antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108416DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Carcass Chilling on the Palatability Traits and Safety of Fresh Red Meat.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2019 Nov 9;18(6):1676-1704. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Laboratory of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural Univ., Taian, Shandong, 271018, P. R. China.

Chilling procedures have been widely used in livestock abattoirs since the development of refrigeration systems. The major criteria when applying chilling regimes is not only complying with regulations, but economic concerns, and also meat safety and quality assurance requirements. Given recent developments, an updated review is required to guide the industry to choose the best chilling method and to inspire the development of new approaches to chilling. Thus in this paper, the quality and microbial safety of beef, lamb, pork, venison, and bison resulting from different chilling treatments has been reviewed, as well as the underlying mechanism(s) for the different impacts on meat quality traits as a result of different chilling regimes. The effect of fast chilling on the tenderness of beef and lamb is a focus, as some new findings, have recently been reported, while multistep chilling is highlighted as it incorporates the advantages of fast chilling to reduce carcass weight loss, resulting in similar quality improvements as found with slow chilling. It is, suggested, that if spray chilling can be combined with the second phase of multi-step chilling, it will benefit the meat industry in terms of both meat quality and safety. Future studies should focus on combinations of chilling methods with new technologies, such as medium voltage electrical stimulation, muscle stretching, or ultrasound and so on, to move meat quality and safety to a new level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12497DOI Listing
November 2019

Feeding unsaleable carrots to lambs increased performance and carcass characteristics while maintaining meat quality.

Meat Sci 2021 Mar 4;173:108402. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effect of feeding unsaleable carrots to lambs within a total-mixed ration (TMR) on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and sensory parameters. Thirty-six Australian Merino wether lambs were fed a control (barley-based) or carrot-based TMR for 11-weeks. Carrot-fed lambs had 2.7% higher cold dressing percentage (P = 0.03) while consuming less than control lambs. Subcutaneous fat of carrot-fed lambs contained less branch-chained, and more cis- and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids (FA; P ≤ 0.01) compared to control-fed lambs, which tended (P = 0.08) to have higher concentrations of polyunsaturated FA, despite the Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle being unchanged by diet. Under retail display conditions, L* and hue values were lower (P ≤ 0.04) for 5 d aged LL samples from carrot-fed lambs. No differences were observed in other meat quality and sensory parameters between diets. Therefore, feeding unsaleable carrots at 45% DM in a TMR can improve lamb performance and carcass characteristics, while maintaining meat quality and FA composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108402DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on shelf life and bacterial community of roast duck meat.

Food Res Int 2020 11 28;137:109645. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of different packaging methods on the shelf life and bacterial communities of roast duck meat. Samples were packaged under the following five conditions: overwrapped packaging (OWP), 100% N (100% N-MAP), 30% CO/70% N (30% CO-MAP), 50% CO/50% N (50% CO-MAP), and 0.4% CO/30% CO/69.6% N (CO-MAP). Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were monitored during 14 days of chilled storage (0-4 °C). Results showed that MAP samples obtained higher and more stable redness, better sensory scores, and lower lipid oxidation, compared with OWP, in which CO-MAP samples had the lowest TBARS values (0.13-0.22 MDA/kg) during storage. Moreover, 30% CO-MAP, 50% CO-MAP, and CO-MAP effectively retarded the onset of bacterial spoilage and extended shelf life by 7 days compared with 100% N-MAP and OWP treatments. Additionally, bacterial succession was significantly affected by the gas composition used in the packages, especially the dominant biota at the end of storage, which played an important role in the spoilage of roast duck meat under specific packaging. On day 14, Pseudoalteromonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. became the most predominate genera in OWP, 100% N-MAP, and 50% CO-MAP, respectively. Notably, Vibrio spp. was dominant in both 30% CO-MAP and CO-MAP, indicating 0.4% CO did not exert a further inhibitory effect on this genus. Additionally, the growth inhibition of Pseudoalteromonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Leuconostoc spp. by high CO concentration might be the reason for MAP (CO/N) samples having lower levels of TVC. Globally, these results indicate that 30% CO-MAP, 50% CO-MAP, and CO-MAP are promising packaging methods to improve roast duck meat quality and achieve shelf life extension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109645DOI Listing
November 2020

Determination of a pH threshold for dark cutting beef based on visual evaluation by Asian consumers.

Meat Sci 2021 Feb 14;172:108347. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; National R&D Center for Beef Processing Technology, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

This study defined the pH threshold for dark cutting beef of Asian consumers using a web-based survey and examined their preferences for beef appearance. Ninety individual images of beef steaks with different pH values were randomly selected to be scored by 4322 respondents. Gender, age and beef eating habits of respondents were found to impact on color preferences. With respondent's visual score of 4 set as the acceptance threshold, linear regression analysis between visual scores and beef instrumental colorimetrics, showed that the acceptance thresholds of instrumental color values were L* ≥ 31.4, a* ≥ 16.4, b* ≥ 6.5, chroma ≥17.4 and hue ≥22.5. These corresponded to pH threshold values of 6.11, 6.20, 6.28, 6.25 and 6.29, respectively. This pH benchmark (6.11 to 6.29) for dark cutters is higher than pH thresholds applied in most countries, indicating that Asian consumers prefer darker meat than expected, however, the likely tenderness of beef with pH's at this level merits consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108347DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of medium voltage electrical stimulation and prior ageing on beef shear force during superchilled storage.

Meat Sci 2021 Feb 24;172:108320. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; National R&D Center for Beef Processing Technology, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

The effect of medium voltage electrical stimulation (ES), prior ageing (0-4 °C, 7 days), and their combination on the decrease of shear force in beef during superchilled storage (-4 °C) for 24 weeks was evaluated, in the context of a high shear force obtained under this storage condition. Both ES and prior ageing significantly reduced the initial Warner-Bratzler shear force, and the combination of ES and prior ageing shortened the storage time needed to reach an acceptable shear force of superchilled beef, which is mainly due to increased myofibrillar degradation as indicated by changes in desmin (P < 0.01, r = 0.35). Additionally, ES and prior ageing did not negatively affect lipid oxidation, total volatile basic nitrogen or water loss of superchilled beef. Consequently, ES combined with ageing for 7 days offered an effective approach for decreasing shear force and ensuring good quality superchilled beef.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108320DOI Listing
February 2021

Molecular signatures of beef tenderness: Underlying mechanisms based on integromics of protein biomarkers from multi-platform proteomics studies.

Meat Sci 2021 Feb 19;172:108311. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

INRAE, Université Clermont Auvergne, VetAgro Sup, UMR Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

Over the last two decades, proteomics have been employed to decipher the underlying factors contributing to variation in the quality of muscle foods, including beef tenderness. One such approach is the application of high-throughput protein analytical platforms in the identification of meat quality biomarkers. To broaden our understanding about the biological mechanisms underpinning meat tenderization across a large number of studies, an integromics study was performed to review the current status of protein biomarker discovery targeting beef tenderness. This meta-analysis is the first to gather and propose a comprehensive list of 124 putative protein biomarkers derived from 28 independent proteomics-based experiments, from which 33 robust candidates were identified worthy of evaluation using targeted or untargeted data-independent acquisition proteomic methods. We further provide an overview of the interconnectedness of the main biological pathways impacting tenderness determination after multistep analyses including Gene Ontology annotations, pathway and process enrichment and literature mining, and specifically discuss the major proteins and pathways most often reported in proteomics research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108311DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of packaging methods combined with frozen temperature on the color of frozen beef rolls.

Meat Sci 2021 Jan 2;171:108292. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, PR China; Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, New South Wales 2794, Australia.

Beef rolls for hot pot are usually stored and transported in a frozen state, and the beef color deteriorates quickly. This paper reports on an investigation into the effect of packaging method, freezing temperature and storage time on instrumental color, pH, myoglobin state, lipid oxidation (TBARS) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of beef rolls. It was shown that the color of beef rolls at -18 °C was better than that at -12 °C overall, and the OxyMb% and pH values were higher, while the MetMb% and TBARS were lower with storage at -18 °C. With the extension of storage time, the instrumental color, OxyMb% and pH values of beef rolls decreased. Correspondingly, the MetMb% and TBARS showed an upward trend. However, the TVB-N of all treatments did not exceed the Chinese standard during 180d of storage. The results of this paper provide a number of recommendations for the storage of frozen beef rolls to extend color-shelf life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108292DOI Listing
January 2021

Meat of South American camelids - Sensory quality and nutritional composition.

Meat Sci 2021 Jan 24;171:108285. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

Meat contains a range of nutrients in a highly bioavailable form and when meat is excluded from the diet, without being replaced with suitable alternatives, nutrient deficiencies may occur. For this reason, it is very important to extend our knowledge of nutrients in alternative red meats, such as that provided from the South American camelids- llama and alpaca. This review summarises the current information on the nutritional and sensory parameters of llama and alpaca meat and factors affecting quality. South American camelids produce lean carcases, with an uneven fat distribution across the carcase. Llama and alpaca meat quality traits are mostly influenced by animal nutrition, animal age and processing methods. A feeding strategy based on pasture and hay supplement of barley and alfalfa, and processing younger animals (18 months) has improved the fatty acid composition respectively in llama and alpaca meat, whereas meat colour and tenderness are influenced by processing treatments including electrical stimulation, tenderstretching and enzymatic infusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108285DOI Listing
January 2021

The Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation and Heat Stress on Carcass Characteristics, Muscle Nutritional Profile and Functionality of Lamb Meat.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 28;10(8). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Animal Production Sciences, Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.

The impact of antioxidant supplementation and short-term heat stress on lamb body weight gain, meat nutritional profile and functionality (storage stability of lipids and colour) of lamb meat was investigated. A total of 48 crossbred ((Merino × Border Leicester) × Dorset) lambs (42 ± 2 kg body weight, 7 mo age) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments ( = 16) by liveweight (LW) that differed in dosage of vitamin E and selenium (Se) in the diet. Vitamin E and Se levels in the control (CON), moderate (MOD) and supranutritional (SUP) dietary treatments were 28, 130 and 228 mg/kg DM as α-tocopherol acetate and 0.16, 0.66 and 1.16 mg Se as SelPlex™/kg DM, respectively. After four weeks of feeding in individual pens, including one week of adaptation, lambs were exposed to two heat treatments. Animals were moved to metabolism cages for one week and subjected to heat treatments: thermoneutral (TN; 18-21 °C and 40-50% relative humidity) and heat stress (HS; 28-40 °C and 30-40% relative humidity) conditions, respectively. Final LW and hot carcass weight were influenced by dietary treatments with higher final live weight (FLW) ( = 0.05; 46.8 vs. 44.4 and 43.8 kg, respectively) and hot carcass weight (HCW) ( = 0.01; 22.5 vs. 21.3 and 21.0 kg, respectively) recorded in lambs fed the SUP as opposed to the CON and MOD diets. Vitamin E concentration in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle tended to be higher in lambs fed MOD or SUP diets than the CON group. Lipid oxidation of aged meat at 72 h of simulated retail display was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Short-term (one week) heat stress treatment significantly increased muscle linoleic acid and total omega-6 concentrations compared with the CON group. The results demonstrate that four-week antioxidant supplementation at the SUP level improved animal productivity by increasing LW and carcass weight and the functionality of meat exhibited by reduced lipid oxidation. An increase in muscle omega-6 fatty acid concentration from short-term heat stress may induce oxidative stress via proinflammatory action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460097PMC
July 2020

Effects of microbiota dynamics on the color stability of chilled beef steaks stored in high oxygen and carbon monoxide packaging.

Food Res Int 2020 08 6;134:109215. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; National R&D Center for Beef Processing Technology, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China.

The microbiota influence on meat color stability of chilled beef steaks under two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems was studied: HiOx-MAP (80% O/20% CO) and CO-MAP (0.4% CO/30% CO/69.6% N). Steaks were stored for up to 20 days at 2 °C. Headspace gas composition and color stability were evaluated. High-throughput sequencing analyses were performed to characterize bacterial community dynamics. For HiOx-MAP steaks, Pseudomonas spp. became the dominant species, and an increased oxygen consumption caused by these bacteria contributed to metmyoglobin (MetMb) formation from day 10. Functional analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing predicted higher abundance of genes related to amino acid and lipid metabolism in HiOx-MAP bacterial communities compared to CO-MAP bacterial communities, which probably accelerated meat discoloration. Lactic acid bacteria dominated in CO-MAP steaks, in which Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. contributed to improve redness and chroma, and reduce MetMb%, respectively. These findings help our understanding of color stability in CO-MAP steaks in comparison to HiOx-MAP steaks as influenced by the microbial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109215DOI Listing
August 2020

Temperature-time combination effects on aged beef volatile profiles and their relationship to sensory attributes.

Meat Sci 2020 Oct 16;168:108193. Epub 2020 May 16.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia; Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, NSW Department of Primary Industries & Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Beef ageing (in vacuo) for tenderisation and flavour development may be accelerated by favourable temperature-time combinations (TTCs), however the effect of such manipulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generated during cooking, is unknown. We compared VOCs from grilled beef longissimus lumborum muscle samples which had been subjected to different TTCs. The TTCs consisted of combinations of temperatures (~ 3, 5, or 7 °C) and ageing time periods (6, 8, 10 or 12 d); as well as control samples, which were held at 0-2 °C for a total of 14 d. Sensory quality attributes of these same samples were measured by untrained consumer panellists. Generally, it was found that TTCs had negligible effects on grilled beef VOCs and were comparable to controls. Furthermore, many VOCs were significantly related to flavour intensity, flavour liking and overall liking. These findings support the use of TTCs as a viable means to accelerate the rate of beef ageing without compromising quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108193DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of cooking on the nutritive quality, sensory properties and safety of lamb meat: Current challenges and future prospects.

Meat Sci 2020 Sep 29;167:108172. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, No. 1 Nongda South Rd, Xi Beiwang, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

Lamb meat is cooked using different methods which help to impart good taste, flavour and aroma and they also improve the nutritional quality and ensure food safety. However traditional methods also induce some potential health hazards i.e. formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic aromatic amines and acrylamides. These harmful compounds are produced through protein aggregation (protein increased with loss of water), lipid degradation (lipid breakdown due to cooking), oxidation (radicals formation due to heat and oxygen combination), and the Maillard reaction (reaction between sugars and amino acids). This review focuses on: 1) the use of modern cooking technologies to reduce the generation of hazardous compounds by a) applying low temperature cooking with minimum contact with the meat; b) faster cooking, with the added benefits of minimum nutritional losses and less energy consumption 2) the adoption of natural plant sources as extracts to: a) inhibit lipid oxidation; b) improve the stability of meat products to limit the generation of hazardous compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108172DOI Listing
September 2020

Preliminary investigation for the prediction of intramuscular fat content of lamb in-situ using a hand- held NIR spectroscopic device.

Meat Sci 2020 Aug 18;166:108153. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Innovation, Armidale NSW 2350, Australia; NSW Department of Primary Industries, Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, Cowra NSW 2794, Australia.

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is critical in the determination of eating quality. At present the Australian lamb industry has no ability to measure IMF as carcases are not split and processing speeds of up to 15 animals per minute prohibit the use of traditional methods. Consequently, the potential for a hand-held Near- Infrared (NIR) device to predict the IMF content of lamb topside in-situ was investigated. Models demonstrated that there is an ability to predict the IMF content of topside (R = 0.58, RMSEP = 0.85) using NIR spectra collected at 24 h post-mortem and loin (R = 0.50, RMSEP = 0.91). However, the models were limited by the range and distribution of the lamb population measured. Thus, further research is required to determine whether these models can be improved by increasing the range of data in the calibration models and considering alternate methods of analysis which are suitable for skewed populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108153DOI Listing
August 2020

Preliminary investigation of the use of Raman spectroscopy to predict beef spoilage in different types of packaging.

Meat Sci 2020 Jul 2;165:108136. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, Australia.

In this study, pH, meat color analysis, microbial counts and Raman spectroscopic data were obtained from beef steaks stored at 4 °C for up to 21 days using two different packaging methods: vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Models using partial least square regression (PLSR), indicated that Raman spectroscopy was able to predict total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) measured at 21d post mortem (TVC in VP: R = 0.99, RMSEP = 0.61; TVC in MAP: R = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.38; LAB in VP: R = 0.99, RMSEP = 0.54; LAB in MAP: R = 0.75, RMSEP = 0.60). The results of this study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy may have potential for the rapid determination of meat spoilage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108136DOI Listing
July 2020

Using shear force, sarcomere length, particle size, collagen content, and protein solubility metrics to predict consumer acceptance of aged beef tenderness.

J Texture Stud 2020 08 17;51(4):559-566. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra, New South Wales, Australia.

In this study, the relationship between sensory evaluation and several objective metrics of beef tenderness was tested. Objective metrics included shear force, sarcomere length, collagen content, myofibrillar, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility and particle size analysis. These results were compared to consumer panel scores of tenderness for the same aged beef striploin (longissimus lumborum muscle) samples. There was found to be a significant relationship between sarcomere length, shear force, and particle size with tenderness scores. Collagen content and protein solubilities were not associated to tenderness scores (p > 0.05). Sarcomere length contributions for explaining tenderness variation were overlapped by the contributions of shear force (collinearity). Independent models demonstrated that the lower 95% confidence interval of the fitted regression line exceeded 50% acceptance of tenderness when shear force values <42.6 N and when particle size values <198 μm. We can recommend these as thresholds for consumer acceptance of beef tenderness, although considerations of sample type, analytical methodology, and consumer demographics should be made prior to their adoption. This provision was based on the variation in tenderness scores evident between individual panelists and experimental striploins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12523DOI Listing
August 2020

Shelf-life and bacterial community dynamics of vacuum packaged beef during long-term super-chilled storage sourced from two Chinese abattoirs.

Food Res Int 2020 04 23;130:108937. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; National R&D Center for Beef Processing Technology, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; Jiangsu Synergetic Innovation Center of Meat Production and Processing Quality and Safety Control, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210000, PR China. Electronic address:

This study explored the shelf-life and bacterial community dynamics of beef cuts stored at super-chilled conditions (-1 ± 0.5 °C) for 20 weeks when sourced from two Chinese abattoirs, in order to determine whether domestic beef has equivalent quality as that imported from Australia. The initial total viable counts (TVC) were 4.15 and 4.87 log CFU/cm in beef from abattoirs A and B, respectively at the commencement of the storage period. The TVC of beef from abattoir A was above 6.0 log CFU/cm at 6 weeks and kept below 7.0 log CFU/cm at 20 weeks; while the counts were above 6.0 log CFU/cm at 3 weeks and reached at 7.3~7.6 log CFU/cm in beef from abattoir B. The beef shelf-life was deemed less than 12 and 9 weeks in abattoirs A and B, respectively, based on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) threshold, although all samples were acceptable organoleptically. High-throughput sequencing showed that the initial bacteria community and bacterial succession during storage were different between the two abattoirs. Carnobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. dominated in both abattoirs throughout 3-9 weeks while Serratia spp. co-dominated in abattoir B, and Lactobacillus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were dominant for the rest of storage in abattoir A and B, respectively. Overall, the high initial TVC is a concern compared to imported beef from Australia. To achieve comparable shelf-life, domestic super-chilled stored beef would need to be sourced from abattoirs employing effective decontamination technologies or where strict hygiene procedures are adopted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108937DOI Listing
April 2020

The effect of whole carcase medium voltage electrical stimulation, tenderstretching and longissimus infusion with actinidin on alpaca meat quality.

Meat Sci 2020 Jun 3;164:108107. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

The effect on alpaca meat quality from applying medium voltage electrical stimulation (ES) in combination with tenderstretching (TS; pubic symphysis suspended) to whole carcases was investigated, along with the effect of actinidin infusion on alpaca longissimus (LTL) quality. Carcases (n = 36) were allocated to either no ES + achilles hung; or ES + TS. The left- and right-hand side LTL of each carcase was allocated to one of three infusion treatments; no infusion (control), infusion with water or infusion with enzyme. Processing treatments reduced LTL and semimembranosus shear force without negatively impacting colour or oxidation traits. Infusion with enzyme reduced LTL shear force relative to control and water treatments but resulted in reduced consumer acceptance. The use of TS with ES in commercial alpaca processing is supported. There was no advantage to infusing alpaca LTL with actinidin as results indicate a net negative effect on consumer acceptance of this novel meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108107DOI Listing
June 2020
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