Publications by authors named "David K Lerner"

10 Publications

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Sinonasal Issues After Maxillectomy With Free Flap Reconstruction: Incidence and Clinical Approach.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Objective: To characterize the clinical features associated with sinonasal complaints after maxillectomy with free flap reconstruction as well as propose a screening and treatment algorithm.

Methods: Retrospective review of patients who underwent maxillectomy and free flap reconstruction at a tertiary care center.

Results: Fifty-eight patients were included, 25 (43.1%) of them had documented sinonasal complaints postoperatively. Eleven patients subsequently underwent revision surgery for sinonasal complaints. Among the 25 patients with sinonasal complaints, 22 patients (88.0%) had nasal crusting, 17 (68.0%) had nasal obstruction, 12 (48.0%) had rhinorrhea, 9 (36.0%) had facial pain or pressure, and 7 (28.0%) had foul odor. Twenty-two patients (88.0%) had multiple sinonasal complaints. There was a higher incidence of both sinonasal complaints and surgical intervention in patients who underwent adjuvant radiation, but this was not statistically significant (47.7% vs 28.6%, P = .235; 29.4% vs 7.1%, P = .265).

Conclusions: Sinonasal complaints are common following free flap reconstruction for a maxillectomy defect and should be screened for at postoperative visits, with early referral to a rhinologist for consideration of endoscopic sinus surgery. Nonsurgical treatment strategies include large-volume nasal saline irrigations, xylitol irrigations for persistent inflammatory symptoms, and culture-directed antibiotic irrigations for persistent infectious symptoms.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 2021.
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June 2021

Implementation of a 4-dimensional computed tomography protocol for parathyroid adenoma localization.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 May-Jun;42(3):102907. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: To present the results of our implementation of a four-dimensional computed tomography- (4DCT) based parathyroid localization protocol for primary hyperparathyroidism at a safety net hospital.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism at Elmhurst Hospital Center from June 2016 - September 2019. Patients treated prior to the implementation of 4DCT during October 2018 served as historical controls for comparison. Imaging-related costs and hospital charges were obtained from the Radiology Department for each patient.

Results: Forty-two patients underwent parathyroid surgery during the study period. Twenty patients had undergone 4DCT while 22 had nuclear medicine studies with or without ultrasonography. The sensitivity and specificity of 4DCT was 90.4% and 100% respectively, compared to 63% and 93.7% for nuclear imaging studies and 41% and 95% for ultrasound. The mean number of glands explored was significantly less in the 4DCT group, 1.8 ± 1.19 versus 2.77 ± 1.26 (p = 0.01). There was no increase in infrastructure or personnel costs associated with 4DCT implementation.

Conclusions: 4DCT represents an increasingly common imaging modality for pre-operative parathyroid localization. Here we demonstrate that 4DCT is associated with a reduction in the number of glands explored and enables minimally invasive parathyroid surgery. 4DCT is a cost-effective and clinically sound localization study for parathyroid localization in an urban safety-net hospital.
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January 2021

Drivers of In-Hospital Costs Following Endoscopic Transphenoidal Pituitary Surgery.

Laryngoscope 2021 04 24;131(4):760-764. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Objective: To characterize the patient and clinical factors that determine variability in hospital costs following endoscopic transphenoidal pituitary surgery.

Methods: All endoscopic transphenoidal pituitary surgeries performed from January 1, 2015, to October 24, 2017, with complete data were evaluated in this retrospective single-institution study. The electronic medical record was reviewed for patient factors, tumor characteristics, and cost variables during each hospital stay. Multivariate linear regression was performed using Stata software.

Results: The analysis included 190 patients and average length of stay was 4.71 days. Average total in-hospital cost was $28,624 (95% confidence interval $25,094-$32,155) with average total direct cost of $19,444 ($17,136-$21,752) and total indirect cost of $9181 ($7592-$10,409). On multivariate regression, post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak was associated with a significant increase in all cost variables, including a total cost increase of $40,981 ($15,474-$66,489, P = .002). Current smoking status was associated with an increased total cost of $20,189 ($6,638-$33,740, P = .004). Self-reported Caucasian ethnicity was associated with a significant decrease in total cost of $6646 (-$12,760 to -$532, P = .033). Post-operative DI was associated with increased costs across all variables that were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Post-operative CSF leak, current smoking status, and non-Caucasian ethnicity were associated with significantly increased costs. Understanding of cost drivers of endoscopic transphenoidal pituitary surgery is critical for future cost control and value creation initiatives.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:760-764, 2021.
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April 2021

Factors Associated With Facial Nerve Paresis Following Gamma Knife for Vestibular Schwannoma.

Otol Neurotol 2020 01;41(1):e83-e88

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Objective: Evaluate the incidence of and potential contributory factors to facial nerve paresis and other cranial neuropathies (CN) following stereotactic radiosurgery with Gamma Knife (GK) for primary treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS).

Study Design: Retrospective chart review.

Setting: Tertiary referral center.

Patients: Charts were reviewed for all adult patients receiving primary GK treatment for unilateral VS between 2005 and 2013. Patients with NF2 or previous surgery were excluded from analysis.

Intervention: GK radiosurgery.

Main Outcome Measures: The incidence of new-onset facial nerve paresis after primary GK treatment of VS was evaluated. Secondary endpoints included other cranial neuropathies.

Results: One hundred thirty-three patients with VS received primary GK therapy. Posttreatment CN developed in 33 patients (24.8%). Twelve patients (9.0%) experienced trigeminal paresthesia, 11 (8.3%) developed sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) requiring steroids, and seven (5.3%) demonstrated facial paresis. The mean maximum cochlear dose was 15.49 Gy in patients with facial paresis compared with 12.42 Gy in subjects without facial paresis (p = 0.032). Subjects with facial paresis were more likely to have a lateral tumor without fundal fluid on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (71%) compared with subjects without facial paresis (43%).

Conclusions: In the treatment of VS with primary GK, maximum cochlear dose was significantly associated with facial paresis. Laterally extending tumors without fundal fluid on MRI experienced higher rates of facial paresis. These factors should be considered during GK treatment planning for VS.
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January 2020

Clinical and Radiographic Characteristics of Sinonasal Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder and Invasive Fungal Sinusitis.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2019;81(5-6):294-303. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA,

Background: Sinonasal posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious but uncommon complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that can overlap in many features with invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS).

Objective: To identify clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features that may help to differentiate sinonasal IFS and PTLD in the posttransplant population.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with posttransplant sinonasal PTLD and IFS to evaluate for clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics.

Results: A total of 4 patients with sinonasal PTLD and 10 posttransplant IFS patients were evaluated. A total of 2 of 4 PTLD patients presented with a symptom duration of greater than 3 months compared to none in the IFS group (p = 0.07). Mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 2,976 per mm3 (range 2,488-3,462) in the PTLD group compared to 773 per mm3 (range 0.0-2,744) in the IFS group (p = 0.01). Both PTLD lesions with available diffusion-weighted imaging demonstrated diffusion restriction on magnetic resonance im-aging (MRI) compared to zero of the IFS lesions (p = 0.10). No PTLD lesions demonstrated mucosal infarcts compared to three of seven IFS lesions (p = 0.23).

Conclusion: IFS was associated with a significantly lower ANC at the time of diagnosis compared to PTLD. Additionally, three other measures trend towards association with their respective pathology. PTLD typically has a more chronic time course than IFS, diffusion restriction on MRI is predominantly associated with PTLD patients, and mucosal infarct on MRI is more suggestive of IFS. Additionally, all cases of sinonasal PTLD arose following solid organ transplantation. These factors may assist clinicians during diagnosis.
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July 2020

Vestibular Schwannoma Tumor Size Is Associated With Acute Vestibular Symptoms After Gamma Knife Therapy.

Otol Neurotol 2019 09;40(8):1088-1093

Department of Otorhinolaryngology.

Objective: To assess how pretreatment vestibular schwannoma (VS) tumor characteristics are associated with vestibular symptoms after gamma knife (GK) surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review of patients undergoing GK treatment for VS at our institution from 2005 to 2018.

Setting: Academic tertiary referral center.

Patients: Patients receiving primary GK surgery for vestibular schwannomas with at least 6 months of follow up. Patients with neurofibromatosis 2 or previous surgery were excluded.

Main Outcome Measures: The presence of posttreatment vestibular symptoms within 6 months after GK. Clinical records were assessed for pretreatment tumor, patient, and treatment characteristics that impacted posttreatment symptoms.

Results: All patients received radiation doses between 12 and 13 Gy. Of 115 patients, the average age was 60. Thirty-seven (32%) patients developed vestibular symptoms within 6 months post-GK, and 18 patients were referred for vestibular rehabilitation. Ten of 13 patients undergoing vestibular rehabilitation reported improvement. Overall, 112 patients had tumor measurements. Pretreatment tumors were significantly smaller for patients with acute vestibular symptoms (mean 1.43 cm versus 1.71 cm, p = 0.007). On multivariate analysis, smaller tumor size (p = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.12-0.73]) was significantly associated with vestibular symptoms within 6 months of GK. Patients with tumors less than 1.6 cm were more likely to receive referrals for vestibular rehabilitation within 6 months posttreatment (25% versus 9.4%, p = 0.026, OR = 3.22, 95% CI [1.00, 11.32]).

Conclusions: Smaller vestibular schwannomas were significantly associated with higher rates of post-GK vestibular symptoms. Pretreatment tumor size may be used to counsel patients on the likelihood of post-GK vestibular symptoms and vestibular rehabilitation.
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September 2019

Endoscopic endonasal resection versus open surgery for pediatric craniopharyngioma: comparison of outcomes and complications.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Jun 7:1-10. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Objective: Craniopharyngioma represents up to 10% of pediatric brain tumors. Although these lesions are benign, attempts at gross-total resection (GTR) can lead to serious complications. More conservative approaches have emerged but require adjuvant radiation. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) aimed at GTR has the potential to result in fewer complications, but there has been limited comparison to open surgery. The authors performed a review of these two approaches within their institution to elucidate potential benefits and complication differences.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients undergoing resection of craniopharyngioma at their institution between 2001 and 2017. Volumetric analysis of tumor size and postoperative ischemic injury was performed. Charts were reviewed for a number of outcome measures.

Results: A total of 43 patients with an average age of 8.2 years were identified. Open surgery was the initial intervention in 15 and EES in 28. EES was performed in patients 3-17 years of age. EES has been the only approach used since 2011. In the entire cohort, GTR was more common in the EES group (85.7% vs 53.3%, p = 0.03). Recurrence rate (40% vs 14.2%, p = 0.13) and need for adjuvant radiation (20.0% vs 10.7%, p = 0.71) were higher in the open surgical group, although not statistically significant. Pseudoaneurysm development was only observed in the open surgical group. Volumetric imaging analysis showed a trend toward larger preoperative tumor volumes in the open surgical group, so a matched cohort analysis was performed with the largest tumors from the EES group. This revealed no difference in residual tumor volume (p = 0.28), but the volume of postoperative ischemia was still significantly larger in the open group (p = 0.004). Postoperative weight gain was more common in the open surgical group, a statistically significant finding in the complete patient group that trended toward significance in the matched cohort groups. Body mass index at follow-up correlated with volume of ischemic injury in regression analysis of the complete patient cohort (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: EES was associated with similar, if not better, extent of resection and significantly less ischemic injury than open surgery. Pseudoaneurysms were only seen in the open surgical group. Weight gain was also less prevalent in the EES cohort and appears be correlated with extent of ischemic injury at time of surgery.
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June 2019

The impact of expanded endonasal skull base surgery on midfacial growth in pediatric patients.

Laryngoscope 2020 02 9;130(2):338-342. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Objective: Surgical resection of skull base tumors in children is increasingly accomplished through an expanded endonasal approach (EEA). We aim to evaluate the potential effect of the EEA on midfacial growth as a result of iatrogenic damage to nasal growth zones.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of children undergoing craniopharyngioma resection via an open transcranial or EEA. Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated for growth in four midfacial measurements based on established cephalometric landmarks: anterior midface height, posterior midface height, palatal length, and sella-nasion distance. Statistical analysis was conducted using a mixed-effects linear regression model.

Results: Twenty-two patients underwent an EEA (n = 12) or open transcranial approach (n = 10) for tumor resection with 3 years of imaging follow-up. There was no difference in midfacial growth between groups for each measurement. Compared to the open group, patients undergoing EEA demonstrated relative anterior midface height growth of -0.42 mm (P = 0.880), posterior midface height growth of -0.44 mm (P = 0.839), palatal length growth of 0.35 mm (P = 0.894), and sella-nasion distance growth of -2.16 (P = 0.365).

Conclusion: We found no difference in midfacial growth measurements between patients undergoing craniopharyngioma resection via an EEA and the open transcranial route after 3 years of imaging follow-up. Preliminary results on midfacial growth demonstrate that the EEA is a safe alternative to traditional transcranial approaches for the pediatric population. Further investigation with larger sample size and longer duration of follow-up is warranted to more thoroughly investigate the long-term implications of the EEA to the skull base.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 130:338-342, 2020.
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February 2020

Laryngeal Cryptococcosis: An Evolving Rare Clinical Entity.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2019 May 24;128(5):472-479. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: Describe the demographics and clinical manifestations of laryngeal cryptococcosis. Develop a simple approach to the diagnostic workup and treatment of localized laryngeal cryptococcal infection.

Methods: A new case of laryngeal cryptococcosis encountered at our institution is presented and placed in context of the literature surrounding prior reported cases. PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were queried from inception to August 2018 with the terms Larynx or Laryngeal and Cryptococcosis or Cryptococcus by two independent reviewers for English-language cases of cryptococcal infection of the larynx.

Results: Twenty-nine unique cases of laryngeal cryptococcosis were identified. Median age at presentation was 65 years old. All patients presented with persistent or progressive hoarseness. Lesions were predominantly on the true vocal cords (79%), 38% associated with an adherent white exudate or leukoplakia. A minority (28%) was immunocompromised, and of the remaining immunocompetent hosts, 67% were found to be using nebulized or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) prior to infection. Diagnosis should be suspected in patients with chronic laryngitis or mass lesions with the aforementioned risk factors. Diagnosis was made by histopathology with cryptococcal yeasts identified on methenamine silver (55%) and/or mucicarmine stains (48%). Serum cryptococcal antigen testing was unreliable (sensitivity = 39%). The mainstay of effective treatment was prolonged oral Fluconazole therapy, with two cases of laser therapy ablation of residual lesions. Improvement in voice and vocal lesions varied from weeks to months.

Conclusions: Laryngeal cryptococcosis is a rare cause of persistent hoarseness, which appears to be clinically evolving and more frequently affecting immunocompetent hosts chronically using nebulized or inhaled corticosteroids. Laryngeal cryptococcal infection is readily treatable with prolonged oral antifungals once biopsy and histopathological stains confirm the diagnosis.
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May 2019

ACTH Prevents Deficits in Fear Extinction Associated with Early Life Seizures.

Front Neurol 2016 2;7:65. Epub 2016 May 2.

Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Vermont College of Medicine , Burlington, VT , USA.

Objective: Early life seizures (ELS) are often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that are detrimental to quality of life. In a rat model of ELS, we explored long-term cognitive outcomes in adult rats. Using ACTH, an endogeneous HPA-axis hormone given to children with severe epilepsy, we sought to prevent cognitive deficits. Through comparisons with dexamethasone, we sought to dissociate the corticosteroid effects of ACTH from other potential mechanisms of action.

Results: Although rats with a history of ELS were able to acquire a conditioned fear learning paradigm and controls, these rats had significant deficits in their ability to extinguish fearful memories. ACTH treatment did not alter any seizure parameters but nevertheless was able to significantly improve this fear extinction, while dexamethasone treatment during the same period did not. This ACTH effect was specific for fear extinction deficits and not for spatial learning deficits in a water maze. Additionally, ACTH did not alter seizure latency or duration suggesting that cognitive and seizure outcomes may be dissociable. Expression levels of melanocortin receptors, which bind ACTH, were found to be significantly lower in animals that had experienced ELS than in control animals, potentially implicating central melanocortin receptor dysregulation in the effects of ELS, and suggesting a mechanism of action for ACTH.

Interpretation: Taken together, these data suggest that early treatment with ACTH can have significant long-term consequences for cognition in animals with a history of ELS independently of seizure cessation and may act in part through a CNS melanocortin receptor pathway.
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May 2016