Publications by authors named "David J Cohen"

594 Publications

The clinical significance of receiving a kidney allograft from deceased donor with chronic histologic changes.

Mod Pathol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Surgery, Division of Transplantation, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Allograft survival of deceased donor kidneys with suboptimal histology (DRTx/suboptimal histology: >10% glomerulosclerosis, >10% tubulointerstitial scarring, or >mild vascular sclerosis) is inferior to both DRTx with optimal histology (DRTx/optimal histology) and living donor kidneys irrespective of histologic changes (LRTx). In this report, we explored the reasons behind this guarded outcome with a special focus on the role of alloimmunity. We initially assessed gene expression in 39 time-zero allograft biopsies using the Nanostring 770 genes PanCancer Immune Profiling Panel. Subsequently, we studied 696 consecutive adult kidney allograft recipients that were grouped according to allograft type and histology at time-zero biopsy [DRTx/suboptimal histology (n = 194), DRTx/optimal histology (n = 166), and LRTx (n = 336)]. Part-1: Several immune pathways were upregulated in time-zero biopsies from DRTx/suboptimal histology (n = 11) compared to LRTx (n = 17) but not to DRTx/optimal histology (n = 11). Part-2: Amongst the three groups of recipients, DRTx/suboptimal histology had the highest incidence of acute rejection episodes, most of which occurred during the first year after transplantation (early rejection). This increase was mainly attributed to T cell mediated rejection, while the incidence of antibody-mediated rejection was similar amongst the three groups. Importantly, early acute T cell mediated rejection was a strong independent predictor for allograft failure in DRTx/suboptimal histology (adjusted HR: 2.13, P = 0.005) but not in DRTx/optimal histology nor in LRTx. Our data highlight an increased baseline immunogenicity in DRTx/suboptimal histology compared to LRTx but not to DRTx/optimal histology. However, our results suggest that donor chronic histologic changes in DRTx may help transfer such increased baseline immunogenicity into clinically relevant acute rejection episodes that have detrimental effects on allograft survival. These findings may provide a rationale for enhanced immunosuppression in recipients of DRTx with baseline chronic histologic changes to minimize subsequent acute rejection and to prolong allograft survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00815-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Specific MicroRNAs Found in Extracellular Matrix Vesicles Regulate Proliferation and Differentiation in Growth Plate Chondrocytes.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601 W. Main Street, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA.

Matrix vesicles (MVs) are extracellular organelles produced by growth plate cartilage cells in a zone-specific manner. MVs are similar in size to exosomes, but they are tethered to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via integrins. Originally associated with matrix calcification, studies now show that they contain matrix processing enzymes and microRNA that are specific to their zone of maturation. MVs produced by costochondral cartilage resting zone (RC) chondrocytes are enriched in microRNA 503 whereas those produced by growth zone (GC) chondrocytes are enriched in microRNA 122. MVs are packaged by chondrocytes under hormonal and factor regulation and release of their contents into the ECM is also under hormonal control, suggesting that their microRNA might have a regulatory role in growth plate proliferation and maturation. To test this, we selected a subset of these enriched microRNAs and transfected synthetic mimics back into RC and GC cells. Transfecting growth plate chondrocytes with select microRNA produced a broad range of phenotypic responses indicating that MV-based microRNAs are involved in the regulation of these cells. Specifically, microRNA 122 drives both RC and GC cells toward a proliferative phenotype, stabilizes the matrix and inhibits differentiation whereas microRNA 22 exerts control over regulatory factor production. This study demonstrates the strong regulatory capability possessed by unique MV enriched microRNAs on growth plate chondrocytes and their potential for use as therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00855-yDOI Listing
May 2021

A Composite Metric for Benchmarking Site Performance in TAVR: Results from the STS/ACC TVT Registry.

Circulation 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Penn Cardiovascular Outcomes, Quality, and Evaluative Research Center, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, Philadelphia, PA.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a transformative therapy for aortic stenosis. Despite rapid improvements in technology and techniques, serious complications remain relatively common and are not well described by single outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is site-level variation in TAVR outcomes in the United States using a novel 30-day composite measure. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the STS/ACC TVT Registry to develop a novel ranked composite performance measure that incorporates mortality and serious complications. The selection and rank order of the complications for the composite was determined by their adjusted association with 1-year outcomes. Sites whose risk-adjusted outcomes were significantly more or less frequent than the national average based on a 95% probability interval were classified as performing worse or better than expected. The development cohort consisted of 52,561 patients who underwent TAVR between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017. Based on the associations with 1-year risk-adjusted mortality and health status, we identified four periprocedural complications to include in the composite risk model in addition to mortality. Ranked empirically according to severity, these included stroke, major, life-threatening or disabling bleeding, stage III acute kidney injury, and moderate or severe peri-valvular regurgitation. Based on these ranked outcomes, we found that there was significant site-level variation in quality of care in TAVR in the United States. Overall, better than expected site performance was observed in 25/301 (8%) of sites; performance as expected was observed in 242/301 sites (80%); and worse than expected performance was observed in 34/301 (11%) of sites. Thirty-day mortality, stroke, major, life-threatening or disabling bleeding, and moderate or severe peri-valvular leak were each substantially more common in sites with worse than expected performance as compared with other sites. There was good aggregate reliability of the model. There are substantial variations in the quality of TAVR care received in the United States, and 11% of sites were identified as providing care below the average level of performance. Further study is necessary to determine structural, process-related, and technical factors associated with high- and low-performing sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051456DOI Listing
May 2021

Valve Academic Research Consortium 3: Updated Endpoint Definitions for Aortic Valve Clinical Research.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research.

Methods And Results: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs.

Conclusions: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.038DOI Listing
April 2021

Valve Academic Research Consortium 3: updated endpoint definitions for aortic valve clinical research.

Eur Heart J 2021 May;42(19):1825-1857

Columbia University Irving Medical Center/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY, USA.

Aims : The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research.

Methods And Results : Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs.

Conclusions : Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa799DOI Listing
May 2021

Two-year PAD-related health care costs in patients undergoing lower extremity endovascular revascularization: results from the LIBERTY 360° trial.

J Med Econ 2021 Jan-Dec;24(1):570-580

University of Missouri - Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Background: Multiple studies have demonstrated the high economic burden related to the management of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). This is the first study to examine long-term PAD-related costs among unselected patients undergoing endovascular intervention, and to investigate how clinical and anatomic factors impact cost outcomes over time.

Methods And Results: We performed a prospective health economic study alongside the LIBERTY 360° trial (ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier NCT01855412) - a prospective, multi-center study evaluating the long-term outcomes of endovascular revascularization to treat claudication or critical limb ischemia. Costs (2018) were calculated using a combination of standard "bottom-up" cost accounting methods (for index procedures), itemized hospital charges and department level cost-to-charge ratios (for non-procedural hospital resources), national Medicare Severity-Diagnosis Related Group-specific average reimbursements (for follow-up hospitalizations) and Medicare payments (for outpatient/chronic care). Methods for the analysis of censored cost data were used to adjust cost estimates for patients with incomplete follow-up. Independent predictors of cumulative 2-year costs were explored using generalized linear models. A total of 1,189 patients were included (500 Rutherford 2-3, 589 Rutherford 4-5, 100 Rutherford 6). Mean total costs associated with the index procedure hospitalization increased with Rutherford classification ($10,304, $11,418, and $19,403 for Rutherford 2-3, 4-5, and 6, respectively;  < 0.01 in all pairwise comparisons). Mean total 2-year follow-up costs were $11,416, $24,846, and $25,720 for Rutherford 2-3, 4-5, and 6, respectively ( < 0.001 comparing Rutherford 2-3 to the other 2 groups;  = 0.09 comparing Rutherford 4-5 and Rutherford 6). Key predictors of higher cumulative 2-year costs included female sex, pedal lesion location, severe lesion calcification, the presence of one or more chronic total occlusions, the number of wounds present on the target limb at baseline, and Rutherford classification.

Conclusions: Among patients with symptomatic lower extremity PAD undergoing endovascular revascularization, initial treatment costs and total 2-year costs vary significantly according to clinical and lesion-level characteristics, as well as symptom burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2021.1917141DOI Listing
April 2021

Predicting the EQ-5D from the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) in Patients with Heart Failure.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Introduction: Evaluation of health status benefits, cost-effectiveness, and value of new heart failure therapies is critical for supporting their use. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) measures patients' heart failure-specific health status, but does not provide utilities needed for cost-effectiveness analyses. We mapped the KCCQ scores to EQ-5D scores so that estimates of societal-based utilities can be generated to support economic analyses.

Methods: Using data from two U.S. cohort studies, we developed models for predicting EQ-5D utilities (3L and 5L versions) from the KCCQ (23- and 12-item versions). In addition to predicting scores directly, we considered predicting the five EQ-5D health state items and deriving utilities from the predicted responses, allowing different countries' health state valuations to be used. Model validation was performed internally via bootstrap and externally using data from two clinical trials. Model performance was assessed using R2, mean prediction error, mean absolute prediction error, and calibration of observed versus predicted values.

Results: The EQ-5D-3L models were developed from 1,000 health status assessments in 547 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while the EQ-5D-5L model was developed from 3,925 patients with HFrEF. For both versions, models predicting individual EQ-5D items performed as well as those predicting utilities directly. The selected models for the 3L had internally validated R-squares of 48.4-50.5% and 33.7-45.6% on external validation. The 5L version had validated R-square of 57.7%.

Conclusion: Mappings from the KCCQ to the EQ-5D can yield estimates of societal-based utilities to support cost-effectiveness analyses when EQ-5D data are not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcab014DOI Listing
March 2021

#SoMe for #IC: Optimal use of social media in interventional cardiology.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, and Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, Providence, Rhode Island.

Social media allows interventional cardiologists to disseminate and discuss research and clinical cases in real-time, to demonstrate and learn innovative techniques, to build professional networks, and to reach out to patients and the general public. Social media provides a democratic platform for all participants to influence the conversation and demonstrate their expertise. This review addresses the use of social media for these purposes in interventional cardiology, as well as respect for patient privacy, how to get started on social media, the creation of high-impact social media content, and the role of traditional journals in the age of social media. In the future, we hope that interventional cardiology fellowship programs will incorporate social media training into their curricula. In addition, professional societies may adapt to the rapid dissemination of data on social media by developing processes to update guidelines more rapidly and more frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29643DOI Listing
March 2021

Outcomes 2 Years After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients at Low Surgical Risk.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Mar;77(9):1149-1161

Department of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, Canada.

Background: In low surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, the PARTNER 3 (Safety and Effectiveness of the SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve in Low Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis) trial demonstrated superiority of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus surgery for the primary endpoint of death, stroke, or re-hospitalization at 1 year.

Objectives: This study determined both clinical and echocardiographic outcomes between 1 and 2 years in the PARTNER 3 trial.

Methods: This study randomly assigned 1,000 patients (1:1) to transfemoral TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve versus surgery (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 1.9%; mean age: 73 years) with clinical and echocardiography follow-up at 30 days and at 1 and 2 years. This study assessed 2-year rates of the primary endpoint and several secondary endpoints (clinical, echocardiography, and quality-of-life measures) in this as-treated analysis.

Results: Primary endpoint follow-up at 2 years was available in 96.5% of patients. The 2-year primary endpoint was significantly reduced after TAVR versus surgery (11.5% vs. 17.4%; hazard ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.88; p = 0.007). Differences in death and stroke favoring TAVR at 1 year were not statistically significant at 2 years (death: TAVR 2.4% vs. surgery 3.2%; p = 0.47; stroke: TAVR 2.4% vs. surgery 3.6%; p = 0.28). Valve thrombosis at 2 years was increased after TAVR (2.6%; 13 events) compared with surgery (0.7%; 3 events; p = 0.02). Disease-specific health status continued to be better after TAVR versus surgery through 2 years. Echocardiographic findings, including hemodynamic valve deterioration and bioprosthetic valve failure, were similar for TAVR and surgery at 2 years.

Conclusions: At 2 years, the primary endpoint remained significantly lower with TAVR versus surgery, but initial differences in death and stroke favoring TAVR were diminished and patients who underwent TAVR had increased valve thrombosis. (Safety and Effectiveness of the SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve in Low Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis [PARTNER 3]; NCT02675114).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.052DOI Listing
March 2021

3-Year Outcomes of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Patients With Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Mar;77(8):1029-1040

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/GreggWStone.

Background: In the COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial, transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) resulted in fewer heart failure hospitalizations (HFHs) and lower mortality at 24 months in patients with heart failure (HF) with mitral regurgitation (MR) secondary to left ventricular dysfunction compared with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) alone.

Objectives: This study determined if these benefits persisted to 36 months and if control subjects who were allowed to cross over at 24 months derived similar benefit.

Methods: This study randomized 614 patients with HF with moderate-to-severe or severe secondary MR, who remained symptomatic despite maximally tolerated GDMT, to TMVr plus GDMT versus GDMT alone. The primary effectiveness endpoint was all HFHs through 24-month follow-up. Patients have now been followed for 36 months.

Results: The annualized rates of HFHs per patient-year were 35.5% with TMVr and 68.8% with GDMT alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 0.63; p < 0.001; number needed to treat (NNT) = 3.0; 95% CI: 2.4 to 4.0). Mortality occurred in 42.8% of the device group versus 55.5% of control group (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.85; p = 0.001; NNT = 7.9; 95% CI: 4.6 to 26.1). Patients who underwent TMVr also had sustained 3-year improvements in MR severity, quality-of-life measures, and functional capacity. Among 58 patients assigned to GDMT alone who crossed over and were treated with TMVr, the subsequent composite rate of mortality or HFH was reduced compared with those who continued on GDMT alone (adjusted HR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.78; p = 0.006).

Conclusions: Among patients with HF and moderate-to-severe or severe secondary MR who remained symptomatic despite GDMT, TMVr was safe, provided a durable reduction in MR, reduced the rate of HFH, and improved survival, quality of life, and functional capacity compared with GDMT alone through 36 months. Surviving patients who crossed over to device treatment had a prognosis comparable to those originally assigned to transcatheter therapy. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation [COAPT]; NCT01626079).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.047DOI Listing
March 2021

Cerebral Embolic Protection and Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Results from the TVT Registry.

Circulation 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY; St. Francis Hospital, Roslyn, NY.

Stroke remains a devastating complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which has persisted despite refinements in technique and increased operator experience. While cerebral embolic protection devices (EPDs) have been developed to mitigate this risk, data regarding their impact on stroke and other outcomes after TAVR are limited. We performed an observational study using data from the STS/ACC-TVT Registry. Patients were included if they underwent elective or urgent transfemoral TAVR between January 2018 and December 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital stroke. To adjust for confounding, the association between EPD use and clinical outcomes was evaluated using instrumental variable (IV) analysis, a technique designed to support causal inference from observational data, with site-level preference for EPD use within the same quarter of the procedure as the instrument. We also performed a propensity score-based secondary analysis using overlap weights. Our analytic sample included 123,186 patients from 599 sites. The use of EPD during TAVR increased over time, reaching 28% of sites and 13% of TAVR procedures by December 2019. There was wide variation in EPD use across hospitals, with 8% of sites performing >50% of TAVR procedures with an EPD and 72% performing zero procedures with an EPD in the last quarter of 2019. In our primary analysis using the IV model, there was no association between EPD use and in-hospital stroke (adjusted relative risk (0.90 [95% CI: 0.68, 1.13], absolute risk difference -0.15% [95% CI: -0.49, 0.20]). However, in our secondary analysis using the propensity score-based model, EPD use was associated with 18% lower odds of in-hospital stroke (adjusted OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.69, 0.97], absolute risk difference -0.28% [95% CI: -0.52, -0.03]). Results were generally consistent across the secondary endpoints as well as subgroup analyses. In this nationally-representative observational study, we did not find an association between EPD use for TAVR and in-hospital stroke in our primary IV analysis, and found only a modestly lower risk of in-hospital stroke in our secondary propensity-weighted analysis. These findings provide a strong basis for large-scale RCTs to test whether EPDs provide meaningful clinical benefit for patients undergoing TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.052874DOI Listing
February 2021

Ticagrelor Monotherapy Versus Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy After PCI: An Individual Patient-Level Meta-Analysis.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb;14(4):444-456

Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care & Research, Cotignola, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare ticagrelor monotherapy with dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.

Background: The role of abbreviated DAPT followed by an oral P2Y inhibitor after PCI remains uncertain.

Methods: Two randomized trials, including 14,628 patients undergoing PCI, comparing ticagrelor monotherapy with standard DAPT on centrally adjudicated endpoints were identified, and individual patient data were analyzed using 1-step fixed-effect models. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019143120). The primary outcomes were the composite of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding tested for superiority and, if met, the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year, tested for noninferiority against a margin of 1.25 on a hazard ratio (HR) scale.

Results: Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding occurred in fewer patients with ticagrelor than DAPT (0.9% vs. 1.7%, respectively; HR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41 to 0.75; p < 0.001). The composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 231 patients (3.2%) with ticagrelor and in 254 patients (3.5%) with DAPT (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.10; p < 0.001 for noninferiority). Ticagrelor was associated with lower risk for all-cause (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.96; p = 0.027) and cardiovascular (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.99; p = 0.044) mortality. Rates of myocardial infarction (2.01% vs. 2.05%; p = 0.88), stent thrombosis (0.29% vs. 0.38%; p = 0.32), and stroke (0.47% vs. 0.36%; p = 0.30) were similar.

Conclusions: Ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower risk for major bleeding compared with standard DAPT, without a concomitant increase in ischemic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.11.046DOI Listing
February 2021

Practical Application of Patient-Reported Health Status Measures for Transcatheter Valve Therapies: Insights From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Mar 18;14(3):e007187. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO (V.H., A.O.M., J.A.S., S.V.A.).

Background: Health status assessment is essential for documenting the benefit of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair on patients' symptoms, function, and quality of life. Health status can also be a powerful marker for subsequent clinical outcomes, but its prognostic importance around the time of both TAVR and transcatheter mitral valve repair has not been fully defined.

Methods: Among 73 699 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR or transcatheter mitral valve repair between 2011 and 2018 (mean age, 81.9±7.0 years, 53% men, 92% TAVR), we constructed sequential models examining the association of health status (as assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Overall Summary Score; KCCQ-OS) at baseline, 30 days, change from baseline to 30 days, and combinations of these assessments with death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization from 30 days to 1 year.

Results: Although higher baseline KCCQ-OS and 30-day KCCQ-OS scores were each associated with lower risk of death and HF hospitalization (in individual models and in a model including both measures), the 30-day KCCQ-OS was most predictive (death: hazard ratio, 0.89 per 5-point increase [95% CI, 0.89-0.90]; HF hospitalization: hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.90-0.91]). The 30-day KCCQ-OS also was most predictive when included in a separate model with change in KCCQ from baseline to 30 days. Similar findings were noted for the outcomes of death and of HF hospitalization, unadjusted and adjusted for patient factors. All interaction terms between procedure type and KCCQ were not significant, suggesting that health status provided similar prognostic information in both procedures.

Conclusions: The patient's assessment of their health status immediately before and 30 days after TAVR and transcatheter mitral valve repair is associated with subsequent risk of death and HF hospitalization, with the 30-day assessment being most strongly associated with outcomes. Our findings support the routine use of KCCQ data as a prognostic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.007187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982132PMC
March 2021

Prevalence and predictors of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among solid organ transplant recipients with confirmed infection.

Am J Transplant 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Center for Liver Disease and Transplantation, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, New York.

It remains uncertain whether immunocompromised patients including solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients will have a robust antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We enrolled all adult SOT recipients at our center with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent antibody testing with a single commercially available anti-nucleocapsid antibody test at least 7 days after diagnosis in a retrospective cohort. Seventy SOT recipients were studied (56% kidney, 19% lung, 14% liver ± kidney, and 11% heart ± kidney recipients). Thirty-six (51%) had positive anti-nucleocapsid antibody testing, and 34 (49%) were negative. Recipients of a kidney allograft were less likely to have positive antibody testing compared to those who did not receive a kidney (p = .04). In the final multivariable model, the years from transplant to diagnosis (OR 1.26, p = .002) and baseline immunosuppression with more than two agents (OR 0.26, p = .03) were significantly associated with the antibody test result, controlling for kidney transplantation. In conclusion, among SOT recipients with confirmed infection, only 51% of patients had detectable anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, and transplant-related variables including the level and nature of immunosuppression were important predictors. These findings raise the concern that SOT recipients with COVID-19 may be less likely to form SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014874PMC
February 2021

Definitions and Clinical Trial Design Principles for Coronary Artery Chronic Total Occlusion Therapies: CTO-ARC Consensus Recommendations.

Circulation 2021 Feb 1;143(5):479-500. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, NY (D.K., Z.A.A., A.M., J.W.M.).

Over the past 2 decades, chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention has developed into its own subspecialty of interventional cardiology. Dedicated terminology, techniques, devices, courses, and training programs have enabled progressive advancements. However, only a few randomized trials have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention. Moreover, several published observational studies have shown conflicting data. Part of the paucity of clinical data stems from the fact that prior studies have been suboptimally designed and performed. The absence of standardized end points and the discrepancy in definitions also prevent consistency and uniform interpretability of reported results in CTO intervention. To standardize the field, we therefore assembled a broad consortium comprising academicians, practicing physicians, researchers, medical society representatives, and regulators (US Food and Drug Administration) to develop methods, end points, biomarkers, parameters, data, materials, processes, procedures, evaluations, tools, and techniques for CTO interventions. This article summarizes the effort and is organized into 3 sections: key elements and procedural definitions, end point definitions, and clinical trial design principles. The Chronic Total Occlusion Academic Research Consortium is a first step toward improved comparability and interpretability of study results, supplying an increasingly growing body of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046754DOI Listing
February 2021

RNU (-Nude) Rats Demonstrate an Improved Ability to Regenerate Muscle in a Volumetric Muscle Injury Compared to Sprague Dawley Rats.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2021 Jan 15;8(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.

Products developed for skeletal muscle regeneration frequently incorporate allogeneic and xenogeneic materials to elicit a regenerative response to heal skeletal muscle wounds. To avoid graft rejection in preclinical studies, immunodeficient rodents are used. Whether the immunodeficiency alters the host response to the material in skeletal muscle has not been studied. In this study, we hypothesized that an allogeneic acellular skeletal muscle grafts implanted in an immunodeficient rat (RNU, -deficient) would exhibit better new muscle fiber formation compared to grafts implanted in immunocompetent Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Decellularized SD skeletal muscle matrix (DMM) was implanted in the gastrocnemius (N = 8 rats/group). 56 days after surgery, animal gait was examined and animals were euthanized. Muscle force was assessed and fiber number as well as immune cell infiltrate was measured by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Animal gait and percent recovery of muscle force were unchanged in both groups, but newly regenerated muscle fibers increased in RNU rats. Macrophage staining for CD68 was higher in RNU rats than in SD rats. These data show differences in muscle regeneration between animal models using the same biomaterial treatment, but these differences could not be ascribed to the immune response. Overall, our data provide awareness that more studies are needed to understand how host responses to biomaterials differ based on the animal model used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8010012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830033PMC
January 2021

Impact of COPD on Outcomes After MitraClip for Secondary Mitral Regurgitation: The COAPT Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 12;13(23):2795-2803

Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York, USA; The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and outcomes after transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) for severe secondary mitral regurgitation.

Background: TMVr with the MitraClip improves clinical and health-status outcomes in patients with heart failure and severe (3+ to 4+) secondary mitral regurgitation. Whether these benefits are modified by COPD is unknown.

Methods: COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) was an open-label, multicenter, randomized trial of TMVr plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone. Patients on corticosteroids or continuous oxygen were excluded. Multivariable models were used to examine the associations of COPD with mortality, heart failure hospitalization (HFH), and health status and to test whether COPD modified the benefit of TMVr compared with GDMT.

Results: Among 614 patients, 143 (23.2%) had COPD. Among patients treated with TMVr, unadjusted analyses demonstrated increased 2-year mortality in those with COPD (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 3.26), but this association was attenuated after risk adjustment (adjusted HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.87 to 2.52). Although TMVr led to reduced 2-year mortality among patients without COPD (adjusted HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.67), for patients with COPD, 2-year all-cause mortality was similar after TMVr versus GDMT alone (adjusted HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.54 to 1.65; p = 0.04), findings that reflect offsetting effects on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. In contrast, TMVr reduced HFH (adjusted HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.83] vs. 0.46 [95% CI: 0.34 to 0.63]; p = 0.89) and improved both generic and disease-specific health status to a similar extent compared with GDMT alone in patients with and without COPD (p >0.30 for all scales).

Conclusions: In the COAPT trial, COPD was associated with attenuation of the survival benefit of TMVr versus GDMT compared with patients without COPD. However, the benefits of TMVr on both HFH and health status were similar regardless of COPD. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Trial] [COAPT]; NCT01626079).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.09.023DOI Listing
December 2020

Site-Level Variability in 30-Day Patient Outcomes After Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in the United States.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 12 7;13(12):e006878. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Saint Lukes' Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO (A.O.M., A.K.C., J.S., V.H., P.G.J., S.V.A., S.V.A., J.A.S.).

Background: Clinical trials have demonstrated health status benefit of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) with MitraClip in patients with mitral valve regurgitation. Real-world site-level variability in health status outcomes for TMVr, and factors associated with this variability, are unknown.

Methods: All patients undergoing TMVr procedure with MitraClip between November 2013 and March 2019 in the Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry were included. Health status was measured at baseline and 30 days with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) Overall Summary (OS) score. Site-level variability in 30-day change in KCCQ-OS was examined by calculating the median odds ratio from a hierarchical logistic regression model, with ≥20-point improvement as the dependent variable. To define the extent to which patient characteristics, procedural characteristics (residual mitral valve regurgitation, periprocedural bleeding), site volume, and patients' baseline health status accounted for variability in outcomes, the proportion of variability () explained by sequentially adding these variables to the model was quantified.

Results: Across 339 sites, 12 415 patients (mean age 79.0±9.5 years, 46.1%. females, 89.5% White) completed baseline and 30-day health status assessments. Mean KCCQ-OS score was 43.0±24.4 at baseline and 67.0±24.9 at 30-day follow-up. Across sites, the proportion of patients achieving a ≥20-point improvement in KCCQ-OS ranged from 12.5% to 100% and the adjusted median odds ratio was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.46-1.69). The greatest contribution to the variability in health status outcomes was from patients' baseline KCCQ-OS score (=25%) with <1% of the variability explained by patient and procedural characteristics, and annual site volume.

Conclusions: There is moderate variation across sites in their patients' achievement of health status benefits from TMVr, with patient's baseline health status accounting for the largest proportion of this variation. This underscores the importance of patient selection in supporting more consistent health status benefit from TMVr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738373PMC
December 2020

Unmeasured, unknown, and hidden: Confounders are not always in plain sight.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, Mo.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.07.095DOI Listing
November 2020

STS-ACC TVT Registry of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Feb 16;111(2):701-722. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The STS-ACC TVT Registry (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry) from 2011 to 2019 has collected data on 276,316 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) at sites in all U.S. states. Volumes have increased every year, exceeding surgical aortic valve replacement in 2019 (72,991 vs. 57,626), and it is now performed in all U.S. states. TAVR now extends from extreme- to low-risk patients. This is the first presentation on 8,395 low-risk patients treated in 2019. In 2019, for the entire cohort, femoral access increased to 95.3%, hospital stay was 2 days, and 90.3% were discharged home. Since 2011, the 30-day mortality rate has decreased (7.2% to 2.5%), stroke has started to decrease (2.75% to 2.3%), but pacemaker need is unchanged (10.9% to 10.8%). Alive with acceptable patient-reported outcomes is achieved in 8 of 10 patients at 1 year. The Registry is a national resource to improve care and analyze TAVR's evolution. Real-world outcomes, site performance, and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 will be subsequently studied. (STS/ACC Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry [TVT Registry]; NCT01737528).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.09.002DOI Listing
February 2021

STS-ACC TVT Registry of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 11;76(21):2492-2516

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The STS-ACC TVT Registry (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry) from 2011 to 2019 has collected data on 276,316 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) at sites in all U.S. states. Volumes have increased every year, exceeding surgical aortic valve replacement in 2019 (72,991 vs. 57,626), and it is now performed in all U.S. states. TAVR now extends from extreme- to low-risk patients. This is the first presentation on 8,395 low-risk patients treated in 2019. In 2019, for the entire cohort, femoral access increased to 95.3%, hospital stay was 2 days, and 90.3% were discharged home. Since 2011, the 30-day mortality rate has decreased (7.2% to 2.5%), stroke has started to decrease (2.75% to 2.3%), but pacemaker need is unchanged (10.9% to 10.8%). Alive with acceptable patient-reported outcomes is achieved in 8 of 10 patients at 1 year. The Registry is a national resource to improve care and analyze TAVR's evolution. Real-world outcomes, site performance, and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 will be subsequently studied. (STS/ACC Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry [TVT Registry]; NCT01737528).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.09.595DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of Deceased Donor Kidney Procurement Biopsy Technique on Histologic Accuracy.

Kidney Int Rep 2020 Nov 14;5(11):1906-1913. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: The factors that influence deceased donor kidney procurement biopsy reliability are not well established. We examined the impact of biopsy technique and pathologist training on procurement biopsy accuracy.

Methods: We retrospectively identified all deceased donor kidney-only transplants at our center from 2006 to 2016 with both procurement and reperfusion biopsies performed and information available on procurement biopsy technique and pathologist (n = 392). Biopsies were scored using a previously validated system, classifying "suboptimal" histology as the presence of at least 1 of the following: glomerulosclerosis ≥11%, moderate/severe interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, or moderate/severe vascular disease. We calculated relative risk ratios (RRR) to determine the influence of technique (core vs. wedge) and pathologist (renal vs. nonrenal) on concordance between procurement and reperfusion biopsy histologic classification.

Results: A total of 171 (44%) procurement biopsies used wedge technique, and 221 (56%) used core technique. Results of only 36 biopsies (9%) were interpreted by renal pathologists. Correlation between procurement and reperfusion glomerulosclerosis was poor for both wedge ( = 0.11) and core ( = 0.14) biopsies. Overall, 34% of kidneys had discordant classification on procurement versus reperfusion biopsy. Neither biopsy technique nor pathologist training was associated with concordance between procurement and reperfusion histology, but a larger number of sampled glomeruli was associated with a higher likelihood of concordance (adjusted RRR = 1.12 per 10 glomeruli, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.22).

Conclusions: Biopsy technique and pathologist training were not associated with procurement biopsy histologic accuracy in this retrospective study. Prospective trials are needed to determine how to optimize procurement biopsy practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609887PMC
November 2020

Cardiovascular- and Bleeding-Related Hospitalization Rates With Edoxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Based on Results of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 11 5;13(11):e006511. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine (D.J.C., E.A.M.).

Background The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) demonstrated noninferiority of once-daily 60 mg (30 mg dose-reduced) edoxaban compared with warfarin for prevention of stroke/systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. No previous analysis has explored the impact of treatment with edoxaban versus warfarin on rates of hospitalizations. Methods Detailed healthcare resource utilization data from ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 for the 14 024 randomized patients who received at least one dose of study drug were used to compare the rates of bleeding- and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations for edoxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalization rates were calculated for each treatment group, and relative rates were estimated using Poisson regression. The influence of patient characteristics on the impact of edoxaban versus warfarin was evaluated through the inclusion of interaction terms. Results The overall rate of cardiovascular- or bleeding-related hospitalization was significantly lower for edoxaban than warfarin (relative rate [RR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.97], =0.003). Rates of hospitalizations for cardiovascular reasons (RR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.97], =0.004), stroke (RR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.72-0.88], <0.0001), and for each stroke subtype (ischemic: RR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.99], =0.03; hemorrhagic: RR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.54-0.68], <0.0001) were also lower for edoxaban. Notably, significantly greater reductions with edoxaban versus warfarin were seen for ischemic stroke-related hospitalizations in vitamin K antagonist naive patients and patients with CHADS scores 4 to 6, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, age ≥75, and no previous coronary artery disease. For nonstroke bleeding-related hospitalizations, greater reductions with edoxaban were seen in vitamin K antagonist naive patients, patients with CHADS scores 4 to 6, and patients with moderate renal dysfunction. Conclusions Edoxaban 60 mg (30 mg dose-reduced) was associated with a significantly lower overall rate of cardiovascular- or bleeding-related hospitalization and significant reductions in the subcategories of cardiovascular-related, stroke-related, bleed-related, and nonstroke cardiovascular-related hospitalizations, when compared with warfarin. These results suggest the potential for cost offsets with edoxaban, with even greater reductions in higher-risk patients. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00781391.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006511DOI Listing
November 2020

Analysis of Adverse Events Related to Impella Usage (from the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience and National Inpatient Sample Databases).

Am J Cardiol 2021 02 2;140:91-94. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; Division of Cardiology, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.

Impella devices are increasingly utilized for hemodynamic support in high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiogenic shock despite a lack of randomized clinical trial data showing clinical benefit and newer observational data suggesting harm. In this retrospective analysis, our aim was to determine the most common adverse events associated with Impella usage reported annually to the Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database and to estimate via the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database the number of percutaneous ventricular assist devices utilized and associated with inpatient mortality since introduction of the Impella. Among the 885 complete reports submitted to the MAUDE database from 2008 to 2019 related to Impella usage, there were 1,206 complications coded; 88.2% of reports occurred from 2016 to 2019. Among patients with adverse events reported, bleeding (32.8%), device deployment or retrieval issues (18.2%), vascular complications (15.8%), and death (12.4%) were the most common, and 7.9% of all complications were attributable to operator decision-making or technique. From 2007 to 2017 there was a >100-fold increase in percutaneous ventricular assist devices use with an increase and plateau in in-hospital mortality to 31% from 2012 to 2016 based on NIS data. In conclusion, Impella use has increased substantially over the last decade but remains associated with high inpatient mortality and serious complications based on data from the NIS and MAUDE databases. These findings emphasize the need for high quality randomized controlled trials to determine the clinical utility of Impella in high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiogenic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.10.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796940PMC
February 2021

Baseline Functional Capacity and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Heart Failure With Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 10;13(20):2331-2341

Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York; The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of baseline functional status and its impact on the outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) in patients with heart failure (HF) with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR).

Background: The COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial demonstrated that TMVr with the MitraClip in patients with HF with moderate to severe or severe SMR improved health-related quality of life. The clinical utility of a baseline assessment of functional status for evaluating prognosis and identifying candidates likely to derive a robust benefit from TMVr has not been previously studied in patients with HF with SMR.

Methods: The COAPT study was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label trial of TMVr with the MitraClip plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone in patients with HF, left ventricular ejection fraction 20% to 50%, and moderate to severe or severe SMR. Baseline functional status was assessed by 6-min walk distance (6MWD).

Results: Patients with 6MWD less than the median (240 m) were older, were more likely to be female, and had more comorbidities. After multivariate modeling, age (p = 0.005), baseline hemoglobin (p = 0.007), and New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms (p < 0.0001) were independent clinical predictors of 6MWD. Patients with 6MWD <240 m versus ≥240 m had a higher unadjusted and adjusted rate of the 2-year composite of all-cause death or HF hospitalization (64.4% vs. 48.6%; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.98; p = 0.001). However, there was no interaction between baseline 6MWD and the relative effectiveness of TMVr plus GDMT versus GDMT alone with respect to the composite endpoint (p = 0.633).

Conclusions: Baseline assessment of functional capacity by 6MWD was a powerful discriminator of prognosis in patients with HF with SMR. TMVr with the MitraClip provided substantial improvements in clinical outcomes for this population irrespective of baseline functional capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.07.030DOI Listing
October 2020

NYHA Functional Classification and Outcomes After Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Heart Failure: The COAPT Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 10;13(20):2317-2328

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of MitraClip implantation versus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) according to baseline functional status as assessed by the widely used New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification.

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) and impaired functional status at baseline have poor prognosis. Whether the effects of transcatheter repair of secondary SMR in patients with HF are influenced by baseline functional status is unknown.

Methods: In the COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial, patients with HF with moderate to severe or severe SMR who remained symptomatic despite maximally tolerated GDMT were randomized to MitraClip implantation versus GDMT alone. Outcomes were evaluated according to baseline functional status as assessed using the NYHA functional classification. The primary endpoint of interest was the rate of death or HF-related hospitalization (HFH) at 2 years in time-to-first-event analyses.

Results: Among 613 randomized patients, 240 were in NYHA functional class II (39.2%), 322 were in NYHA functional class III (52.5%), and 51 were in ambulatory NYHA functional class IV (8.3%). Rates of death or HFH were progressively higher with increasing NYHA functional class. Compared with GDMT alone, MitraClip implantation resulted in lower 2-year rates of death or HFH consistently in patients in NYHA functional class II (39.7% vs. 63.7%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 0.77), NYHA functional class III (46.6% vs. 65.5%; HR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.82), and NYHA functional class IV (66.7% vs. 85.2%; HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.28 to 1.10; p = 0.86). Greater improvements in quality of life at 2 years were observed in patients treated with the MitraClip compared with GDMT irrespective of baseline functional status.

Conclusions: The NYHA functional classification provides prognostic utility in patients with HF and moderate to severe or severe SMR. In the COAPT trial, the benefits of MitraClip implantation were consistent in patients with better or worse functional status as assessed by NYHA functional class. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Trial] [COAPT]; NCT01626079).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.06.058DOI Listing
October 2020