Publications by authors named "David I Marks"

171 Publications

Molecular Classification Improves Risk Assessment in Adult BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL.

Blood 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Genomic classification has improved risk assignment of pediatric but not adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The international UKALLXII/ECOG-ACRIN E2993 (NCT00002514) trial accrued 1229 BCR-ABL1-negative adolescent/adult B-ALL patients (aged 14-65 years). While 93% of patients achieved remission, 41% relapsed at a median of 13 months (range 28 days to 12 years). Five-year overall survival (5yr-OS) was 42% (95% CI, 39, 44). Transcriptome sequencing (n=238), gene expression profiling (n=210), cytogenetics (n=197) and fusion PCR (n=274) enabled genomic subtyping of 282 patient samples, of which 264 were eligible for trial, accounting for 64.5% of E2993 patients. Among patients in the outcome analysis, 29.5% of cases had favorable outcomes with 5yr-OS of 65-80% and were deemed standard-risk (DUX4-rearranged [9.2%], ETV6-RUNX1/-like [2.3%], TCF3-PBX1 [6.9%], PAX5 P80R [4.1%], high-hyperdiploid [6.9%]); 50.2% had high-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 0-27% (Ph-like [21.2%], KMT2A-AFF1 [12%], low-hypodiploid/near-haploid [14.3%], BCL2/MYC-rearranged [2.8%]); and 20.3% had intermediate-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 33-45% (PAX5alt [12.4%], ZNF384/-like [5.1%], MEF2D-rearranged [2.8%]). IKZF1 alterations occurred in 86% of Ph-like and TP53 mutations occurred in low-hypodiploid (54%) and BCL2/MYC-rearranged patients (33%), but were not independently associated with outcome. Of patients considered high-risk for relapse based on presenting age and WBC count, 40% harbored subtype-defining genetic alterations associated with standard- or intermediate-risk outcomes. We identified distinct immunophenotypic features for DUX4-rearranged, PAX5 P80R, ZNF384-R/-like and Ph-like genotypes. These data in a large adult B-ALL cohort treated with a non-risk-adapted approach on a single trial show the prognostic importance of genomic analyses which may translate into future therapeutic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010144DOI Listing
April 2021

Return to Work Among Young Adult Survivors of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the United States.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Young adult (YA) survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for late psychosocial challenges, including the inability to return to work post-HCT. Work-related outcomes in this population remain understudied, however. We conducted this study to assess the post-HCT work status of survivors of allogeneic HCT who underwent HCT as YAs and to analyze the patient-, disease-, and HCT-related factors associated with their work status at 1 year post-HCT. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we evaluated the post-HCT work status (full-time, part-time work, unemployed, or medical disability) of 1365 YA HCT survivors who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2015. Percentages of work status categories were reported at 4 time points: 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-HCT. Percentages of post-HCT work status categories at the 1-year time point were also described in relation to survivors' pre-HCT work status categories. Factors associated with 1-year post-HCT work status (full-time or part-time work) were examined using logistic regression. From 6 months to 3 years post-HCT, the percentage of survivors working full-time increased from 18.3% to 50.7% and the percentage working part-time increased from 6.9% to 10.5%. Of patients in full-time work pre-HCT, 50% were unemployed or on medical disability at 1 year post-HCT. Female sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.77), HCT Comorbidity Index score ≥3 (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82), pre-HCT unemployment (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.56), medical disability (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.70), development of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.80), and relapse within 1 year post-HCT (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.56) were associated with a lower likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) with total body irradiation (TBI), MAC without TBI (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.53) was associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Graduate school-level education (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.10) was also associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Although the work status among YA HCT survivors continued to improve over time, a substantial subset became or remained unemployed or on medical disability. These findings underscore the need for effective interventions to support return to work in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Bortezomib-Based Induction Is Associated with Superior Outcomes in Light Chain Amyloidosis Patients Treated with Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Regardless of Plasma Cell Burden.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 16;27(3):264.e1-264.e7. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

The benefits of pre-transplant induction chemotherapy in light chain (AL) amyloidosis, a low burden plasma cell (PC) neoplasm associated with multiorgan dysfunction, is debatable, although with the availability of bortezomib, this approach is being increasingly pursued. We analyzed the outcomes of AL amyloidosis patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplant between 2014 and 2018 that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. Of 440 patients, 294 received bortezomib-based induction, and 146 received no induction. Patients receiving induction had greater PC burden compared to no induction (PC 10% or more, 39% versus 11%; P < .01). At 2 years, the induction group compared to no induction had lower relapse/progression: 13% (9% to 18%) versus 23% (16% to 32%) (P = .02); better progression-free survival (PFS): 82% (77% to 87%) versus 69% (61% to 77%) (P < .01); and similar overall survival (OS): 92% (88% to 95%) versus 89% (84% to 94%) (P = .22), findings that were confirmed on multivariate analysis. A subset analysis limited to patients with <10% PC also showed superior relapse/progression (hazard ratio [HR], .43; 95% confidence interval [CI], .24 to .78; P < .01) and PFS (HR, .43; 95% CI, .26 to .72; P < .01) for induction compared to no induction. Thus, we conclude that pre-transplant bortezomib-based induction was associated with improved relapse/progression and PFS in AL amyloidosis. Longer survival follow-up is warranted, as OS was excellent in both cohorts at 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010222PMC
March 2021

Impact of Pretransplantation Renal Dysfunction on Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 26;27(5):410-422. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Renal dysfunction is a recognized risk factor for mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), yet our understanding of the effect of different levels of renal dysfunction at time of transplantation on outcomes remains limited. This study explores the impact of different degrees of renal dysfunction on HCT outcomes and examines whether the utilization of incremental degrees of renal dysfunction based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) improve the predictability of the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI). The study population included 2 cohorts: cohort 1, comprising patients age ≥40 years who underwent alloHCT for treatment of hematologic malignancies between 2008 and 2016 (n = 13,505; cohort selected given a very low incidence of renal dysfunction in individuals age <40 years), and cohort 2, comprising patients on dialysis at the time of HCT (n = 46). eGFR was measured using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) method. The patients in cohort 1 were assigned into 4 categories-eGFR ≥90 mL/min (n = 7062), eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min (n = 5264), eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min (n = 897), and eGFR <45 mL/min (n=282)-to assess the impact of degree of renal dysfunction on transplantation outcomes. Transplantation outcomes in patients on dialysis at the time of alloHCT were analyzed separately. eGFR <60 mL/min was associated with an increased risk for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and requirement for dialysis post-HCT. Compared with the eGFR ≥90 group, the hazard ratio (HR) for NRM was 1.46 (P = .0001) for the eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min group and 1.74 (P = .004) for the eGFR <45 mL/min group. Compared with the eGFR ≥90 mL/min group, the eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min group (HR, 2.45; P < .0001) and the eGFR <45 mL/min group (HR, 3.09; P < .0001) had a higher risk of renal failure necessitating dialysis after alloHCT. In addition, eGFR <45 mL/min was associated with an increased overall mortality (HR, 1.63; P < .0001). An eGFR-based revised HCT-CI was also developed and shown to be predictive of overall survival (OS) and NRM, with predictive performance similar to the original HCT-CI. Among 46 patients on dialysis at alloHCT, the 1-year probability of OS was 20%, and that of NRM was 67%. The degree of pretransplantation renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of OS, NRM, and probability of needing dialysis after alloHCT. An eGFR-based HCT-CI is a validated index for predicting outcomes in adults with hematologic malignancies undergoing alloHCT. The outcomes of alloHCT recipients on dialysis are dismal; therefore, one should strongly weigh the significant risks of being on hemodialysis as a factor in determining alloHCT candidacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168834PMC
May 2021

Efficacy of inotuzumab ozogamicin in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cancer 2021 Mar 24;127(6):905-913. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options.

Methods: The efficacy of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), a humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the cytotoxic antibiotic calicheamicin, was evaluated in R/R ALL patients in the phase 1/2 study 1010 (NCT01363297) and open-label, randomized, phase 3 study 1022 (INO-VATE; NCT01564784). This analysis focused specifically on Ph+ R/R ALL patients. In study 1022, Ph+ patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to InO (n = 22) or standard intensive chemotherapy (SC) (n = 27) and 16 Ph+ patients in study 1010 received InO.

Results: In study 1022, rates of complete remission/complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CR/CRi) and minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity (patients achieving CR/CRi) were higher with InO (CR/CRi = 73%; MRD = 81%) versus SC (CR/CRi = 56%; MRD = 33%). The corresponding rates in study 1010 were 56% (CR/CRi) and 100% (MRD). The hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rate in study 1022 was 41% versus 19% for InO versus SC; however, there was no benefit in overall survival (median OS: 8.7 vs 8.4 months; hazard ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.64-2.14]). The probability of being event-free (progression-free survival) at 12 months was greater with InO versus SC (20.1% vs 4.8%).

Conclusion: Given the substantial improvement in responses and rates of HSCT, InO is an important treatment option for patients with R/R Ph+ ALL. Future studies need to consider better characterization of disease characteristics, more sensitive MRD measurements, MRD-directed therapy before HSCT, and potentially combination therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983935PMC
March 2021

The diagnostic and clinical significance of granulomas in gastrointestinal biopsies from haematopoietic transplant patients.

Histopathology 2021 Apr 28;78(5):772-777. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK.

Aims: The diagnostic and clinical significance of granulomas in gastrointestinal (GI) biopsies from haematopoietic transplant patients remains disputed, especially following the proposal of cord colitis syndrome (CCS) as a new entity. The aim of the following study was to explore this controversy by identifying such biopsies with granulomas and detailing their clinicopathological associations.

Methods And Results: Twelve patients with granuloma-containing biopsies were identified from across three scenarios: prospectively during a GI pathologist's routine practice over a period of 5 years; retrospectively from a cohort of transplant patients with clinically validated GI graft versus host disease (GVHD); and retrospectively from a cohort of patients who had received umbilical cord blood (UCB). Their clinicopathological assessments (which included unique long-term patient follow-up) showed that granulomas are only rarely seen across all GI biopsies from haematopoietic transplant patients, and may uncommonly constitute a histological feature of GI GVHD. Granulomas-and especially well-defined, non-cryptolytic ones-are more commonly present in GI biopsies from UCB recipients, but do not show any accompanying histological features that are different from those seen in granuloma-containing biopsies from other patient groups. Furthermore, the three UCB recipients with granuloma-containing biopsies were clinically diagnosed with GVHD rather than CCS. Finally, polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) can present histologically as GI granulomatous inflammation that mimics Crohn's disease.

Conclusions: Granulomas in GI biopsies of haematopoietic transplant patients may often indicate a treatable aetiology such as GVHD or PTLD. Granulomas are more commonly seen in GI biopsies from UCB recipients, but do not necessarily indicate a diagnosis of CCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14303DOI Listing
April 2021

BEAM-Campath Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant for Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Lymphoma: High Incidence of Long-Term Mixed Donor-Recipient Chimerism and the Response to Donor Lymphocyte Infusions.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 3;26(12):2271-2278. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom.

BiCNU (carmustine), etoposide, Ara-C, melphalan (BEAM) and Campath conditioning was developed to reduce the high transplant-related mortality in patients with lymphoma while delivering intensive antilymphoma immunotherapy, as well as to some extent a platform for allogeneic stem cell engraftment. Significant numbers of patients appeared to have persistent recipient-derived hematopoiesis, and therefore we retrospectively analyzed patients with lymphoma undergoing BEAM-Campath conditioned allogeneic stem cell transplantation at our center (2003 to 2017) to characterize the patterns of chimerism and patient outcomes. Chimerism was analyzed with short tandem repeat PCR. Mixed donor-recipient chimerism (MDRC) was defined as 5% to 94.9% donor. Fifty-two patients (n = 30 male), with a median age of 45 years, were identified with histologic diagnoses of Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n = 7), low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 16), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 10), and T cell lymphoma (n = 6). Pretransplant, 93% achieved complete response (52%) or partial response (41%) with a median of 3 prior therapies (n = 3 prior autologous stem cell transplantation). Donors were Matched sibling donors (MSD) (n = 21), matched unrelated donors (MUD) (n = 24), miss-matched unrelated donors (MMUD) (n = 6), and syngeneic (n = 1). Acute graft-versus host disease (GVHD) developed in 52% (81% grade I to II) and chronic GVHD (83% extensive) in 12%. MDRC of T cells (MDRCt) developed in 62% (n = 32), and 29% (n = 15) developed MDRC of myeloid cells (MDRCm) at a median onset of 100 days. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was given to 17 patients, with a median starting dose of 1 × 10/kg. The first DLI was given at a median of 225 days post-transplant (range, 99 days to 5.3 years). Of these, 9 developed acute post-DLI GVHD and 2 limited chronic GVHD. Conversion to full donor occurred in 47% MDRCt and 50% MDRCm. Multivariate analysis identified sibling donor type as associated with increased MDRCt (P = .035; hazard ratio [HR], 0.17) and reduced total nucleated cell dose with increased MDRCm (P = .021; HR, 0.76). The median follow-up was 6 years, and 2-year NRM cumulative incidence was 16% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7% to 27%). Ten-year progression and extensive GVHD-free survival was 45% (95% CI, 28% to 61%), and overall survival was 66% (95% CI, 50% to 78%). One-year landmark analysis identified no increased GVHD or relapse risk with MDRCt or MDRCm but reduced nonrelapse mortality (NRM) risk with MDRCt (P = .001). BEAM-Campath allografts for high-risk lymphoma achieve long-term disease-free survival with low rates of GVHD and transplant-related mortality. The frequent development of myeloid MDRC demonstrates that BEAM-Campath is a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen in almost a third of patients. MDRCt is associated with reduced NRM, but neither MDRCt or MDRCm is associated with increased GVHD or relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.028DOI Listing
December 2020

Inotuzumab ozogamicin for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: outcomes by disease burden.

Blood Cancer J 2020 08 7;10(8):81. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, 92697, USA.

Adults with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL) have a poor prognosis, especially if disease burden is high. This post hoc analysis of the phase 3 INO-VATE trial examined the efficacy and safety of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) vs. standard of care chemotherapy (SC) among R/R ALL patients with low, moderate, or high disease burden, respectively, defined as bone marrow blasts (BMB) < 50% (n = 53 vs. 48), 50-90% (n = 79 vs. 83), and >90% (n = 30 vs. 30). Patients in the InO vs. SC arm with low, moderate, and high BMB%, respectively, had improved rates of complete remission/complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (74% vs. 46% [p = 0.0022], 75 vs. 27% [p < 0.0001], and 70 vs. 17% [p < 0.0001]), and improved overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.64 [p = 0.0260], 0.81 [p = 0.1109], and 0.60 [p = 0.0335]). Irrespective of BMB%, cytopenias were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events, and post-transplant veno-occlusive disease was more common with InO vs. SC. Patients with extramedullary disease or lymphoblastic lymphoma showed similar efficacy and safety outcomes. This favorable benefit-to-risk ratio of InO treatment irrespective of disease burden supports its use in challenging and high disease burden subpopulations. INO-VATE is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov : #NCT01564784.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00345-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414105PMC
August 2020

Reduced intensity conditioning for acute myeloid leukemia using melphalan- vs busulfan-based regimens: a CIBMTR report.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(13):3180-3190

Texas Transplant Institute, San Antonio, TX.

There is a lack of large comparative study on the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transplantation using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) and fludarabine/melphalan (FM) regimens. Adult AML patients from Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received first RIC allo-transplant between 2001 and 2015 were studied. Patients were excluded if they received cord blood or identical twin transplant, total body irradiation in conditioning, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with in vitro T-cell depletion. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS), secondary end points were leukemia-free survival (LFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and GVHD. Multivariate survival model was used with adjustment for patient, leukemia, and transplant-related factors. A total of 622 patients received FM and 791 received FB RIC. Compared with FB, the FM group had fewer transplant in complete remission (CR), fewer matched sibling donors, and less usage of anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab. More patients in the FM group received marrow grafts and had transplantation before 2005. OS was significantly lower within the first 3 months posttransplant in the FM group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.82, P < .001), but was marginally superior beyond 3 months (HR = 0.87, P = .05). LFS was better with FM compared with FB (HR = 0.89, P = .05). NRM was significantly increased in the FM group during the first 3 months of posttransplant (HR = 3.85, P < .001). Long-term relapse was lower with FM (HR = 0.65, P < .001). Analysis restricted to patients with CR showed comparable results. In conclusion, compared with FB, the FM RIC showed a marginally superior long-term OS and LFS and a lower relapse rate. A lower OS early posttransplant within 3 months was largely the result of a higher early NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362362PMC
July 2020

Timing of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 14;61(12):2811-2820. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

While TKI are the preferred first-line treatment for chronic phase (CP) CML, alloHCT remains an important consideration. The aim is to estimate residual life expectancy (RLE) for patients initially diagnosed with CP CML based on timing of alloHCT or continuation of TKI in various settings: CP1 CML, CP2 + [after transformation to accelerated phase (AP) or blast phase (BP)], AP, or BP. Non-transplant cohort included single-institution patients initiating TKI and switched TKI due to failure. CIBMTR transplant cohort included CML patients who underwent HLA sibling matched (MRD) or unrelated donor (MUD) alloHCT. AlloHCT appeared to shorten survival in CP1 CML with overall mortality hazard ratio (HR) for alloHCT of 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.9;  = .02). In BP CML, there was a trend toward higher survival with alloHCT; HR = 0.7 (0.5-1.1;  = .099). AlloHCT in CP2 + [HR = 2.0 (0.8-4.9),  = .13] and AP [HR = 1.1 (0.6-2.1);  = .80] is less clear and should be determined on a case-by-case basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1783444DOI Listing
December 2020

The Impact of Donor Type on Outcomes and Cost of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Pediatric Leukemia: A Merged Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Pediatric Health Information System Analysis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 09 25;26(9):1747-1756. Epub 2020 May 25.

Cancer Care Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare utilization (HCU). To date, no multicenter comparative cost analyses have specifically evaluated alloHCT in children with acute leukemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the relationship between survival and HCU while investigating the hypothesis that matched sibling donor (MSD) alloHCT has significantly lower inpatient HCU with unrelated donor (URD) alloHCT, and that among URDs, umbilical cord blood (UCB) alloHCT will have higher initial utilization but lower long-term utilization. Clinical and transplantation outcomes data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were merged with inpatient cost data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database using a probabilistic merge methodology. The merged dataset comprised US patients age 1 to 21 years who underwent alloHCT for acute leukemia between 2004 and 2011 with comprehensive CIBMTR data at a PHIS hospital. AlloHCT was analyzed by donor type, with specific analysis of utilization and costs using PHIS claims data. The primary outcomes of overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and inpatient costs were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox and Poisson models. A total of 632 patients were identified in both the CIBMTR and PHIS data. The 5-year LFS was 60% for MSD alloHCT, 47% for well-matched matched unrelated donor bone marrow (MUD) alloHCT, 48% for mismatched unrelated donor alloHCT, and 45% for UCB alloHCT (P = .09). Total adjusted costs were significantly lower for MSD alloHCT versus MUD alloHCT by day 100 (adjusted cost ratio [ACR], .73; 95% confidence interval [CI], .62 to .86; P < .001), and higher for UCB alloHCT versus MUD alloHCT (ACR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.45; P < .001). By 2 years, total adjusted costs remained significantly lower for MSD alloHCT compared with MUD alloHCT (ACR, .67; 95% CI, .56 to .81; P < .001) and higher for UCB alloHCT compared with MUD alloHCT (ACR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.52; P = .0280). Our data show that UCB and MUD alloHCT provide similar survival outcomes; however, MUD alloHCT has a significant advantage in cost by day 100 and 2 years. More research is needed to determine whether the cost difference among URD alloHCT approaches remains significant with a larger sample size and/or beyond 2 years post-alloHCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518194PMC
September 2020

Survival following allogeneic transplant in patients with myelofibrosis.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1965-1973

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative therapy for myelofibrosis (MF). In this large multicenter retrospective study, overall survival (OS) in MF patients treated with allogeneic HCT (551 patients) and without HCT (non-HCT) (1377 patients) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards model. Survival analysis stratified by the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) revealed that the first year of treatment arm assignment, due to upfront risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM), HCT was associated with inferior OS compared with non-HCT (non-HCT vs HCT: DIPSS intermediate 1 [Int-1]: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26, P < .0001; DIPSS-Int-2 and higher: HR, 0.39, P < .0001). Similarly, in the DIPSS low-risk MF group, due to upfront TRM risk, OS was superior with non-HCT therapies compared with HCT in the first-year post treatment arm assignment (HR, 0.16, P = .006). However, after 1 year, OS was not significantly different (HR, 1.38, P = .451). Beyond 1 year of treatment arm assignment, an OS advantage with HCT therapy in Int-1 and higher DIPSS score patients was observed (non-HCT vs HCT: DIPSS-Int-1: HR, 2.64, P < .0001; DIPSS-Int-2 and higher: HR, 2.55, P < .0001). In conclusion, long-term OS advantage with HCT was observed for patients with Int-1 or higher risk MF, but at the cost of early TRM. The magnitude of OS benefit with HCT increased as DIPSS risk score increased and became apparent with longer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218417PMC
May 2020

Composite GRFS and CRFS Outcomes After Adult Alternative Donor HCT.

J Clin Oncol 2020 06 4;38(18):2062-2076. Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Clinical Hematology, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: There is no consensus on the best choice of an alternative donor (umbilical cord blood [UCB], haploidentical, one-antigen mismatched [7/8]-bone marrow [BM], or 7/8-peripheral blood [PB]) for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients lacking an HLA-matched related or unrelated donor.

Methods: We report composite end points of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD)-free relapse-free survival (CRFS) in 2,198 patients who underwent UCB (n = 838), haploidentical (n = 159), 7/8-BM (n = 241), or 7/8-PB (n = 960) HCT. All groups were divided by myeloablative conditioning (MAC) intensity or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), except haploidentical group in which most received RIC. To account for multiple testing, < .0071 in multivariable analysis and < .00025 in direct pairwise comparisons were considered statistically significant.

Results: In multivariable analysis, haploidentical group had the best GRFS, CRFS, and overall survival (OS). In the direct pairwise comparison of other groups, among those who received MAC, there was no difference in GRFS or CRFS among UCB, 7/8-BM, and 7/8-PB with serotherapy (alemtuzumab or antithymocyte globulin) groups. In contrast, the 7/8-PB without serotherapy group had significantly inferior GRFS, higher cGVHD, and a trend toward worse CRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.69; = .002) than the 7/8-BM group and higher cGVHD and trend toward inferior CRFS (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.63; = .0006) than the UCB group. Among patients with RIC, all groups had significantly inferior GRFS and CRFS compared with the haploidentical group.

Conclusion: Recognizing the limitations of a registry retrospective analysis and the possibility of center selection bias in choosing donors, our data support the use of UCB, 7/8-BM, or 7/8-PB (with serotherapy) grafts for patients undergoing MAC HCT and haploidentical grafts for patients undergoing RIC HCT. The haploidentical group had the best GRFS, CRFS, and OS of all groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302955PMC
June 2020

At three years, patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are still at risk for relapse. Results of the international MRC UKALLXII/ECOG E2993 trial.

Br J Haematol 2020 10 27;191(1):37-43. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

University College London, London, UK.

Late relapse [>3 years from complete remission (CR)] in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), is unusual. Data from the MRC UKALLXII/ECOG E2993 trial are presented to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of late relapse in adult ALL. Of 1,909 patients, 1,752 (92%) achieved CR and among these 757 (43·2%) relapsed; 691 (91·3%) within three years and 66 (8·7%) beyond. Among these 66 patients, median time to relapse was 47 (37-144) months. Relapse beyond three years occurred in 3·8% of all who achieved CR. The cumulative risk of relapse was 40%, 43% and 45% at three, five and ten years respectively. Out of the 1 752 patients who achieved CR, 11·7% underwent autologous and 40·6% allogeneic transplant, while in CR1. Of the autologous patients, 43·2% relapsed early and 3·4% relapsed late. However, among the allogeneic patients, 13·2% relapsed early and only 1·3% late. The five-year overall survival from relapse was 5·8% and 20% in the early and late relapse patients respectively. In conclusion, late relapse in adults with ALL is not uncommon, and is associated with better outcome after relapse compared to early relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687130PMC
October 2020

Late effects after ablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adolescent and young adult acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Adv 2020 03;4(6):983-992

Department of Haematology and Oncology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

There is marked paucity of data regarding late effects in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated late effects and survival in 826 1-year disease-free survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML, with an additional focus on comparing late effects based upon MAC type (total body irradiation [TBI] vs high-dose chemotherapy only). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of subsequent neoplasms was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-6%); 10-year cumulative incidence of nonmalignant late effects included gonadal dysfunction (10%; 95% CI, 8%-13%), cataracts (10%; 95% CI, 7%-13%), avascular necrosis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-10%), diabetes mellitus (5%; 95% CI, 3%-7%), and hypothyroidism (3%; 95% CI, 2%-5%). Receipt of TBI was independently associated with a higher risk of cataracts only (hazard ratio [HR], 4.98; P < .0001) whereas chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was associated with an increased risk of cataracts (HR, 3.22; P = .0006), avascular necrosis (HR, 2.49; P = .006), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 3.36; P = .03). Estimated 10-year overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 73% and 70%, respectively, and did not differ on the basis of conditioning type. In conclusion, late effects among survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML are frequent and are more closely linked to cGVHD than type of conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094022PMC
March 2020

Indications for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Immune Effector Cell Therapy: Guidelines from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 9;26(7):1247-1256. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

BMT & Cellular Therapy Program, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) published its first white paper on indications for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 2015. It was identified at the time that periodic updates of indications would be required to stay abreast with state of the art and emerging indications and therapy. In recent years the field has not only seen an improvement in transplantation technology, thus widening the therapeutic scope of HCT, but additionally a whole new treatment strategy using modified immune effector cells, including chimeric antigen receptor T cells and engineered T-cell receptors, has emerged. The guidelines review committee of the ASTCT deemed it optimal to update the ASTCT recommendations for indications for HCT to include new data and to incorporate indications for immune effector cell therapy (IECT) where appropriate. The guidelines committee established a multiple stakeholder task force consisting of transplant experts, payer representatives, and a patient advocate to provide guidance on indications for HCT and IECT. This article presents the updated recommendations from the ASTCT on indications for HCT and IECT. Indications for HCT/IECT were categorized as (1) Standard of care, where indication is well defined and supported by evidence; (2) Standard of care, clinical evidence available, where large clinical trials and observational studies are not available but have been shown to be effective therapy; (3) Standard of care, rare indication, for rare diseases where demonstrated effectiveness exists but large clinical trials and observational studies are not feasible; (4) Developmental, for diseases where preclinical and/or early-phase clinical studies show HCT/IECT to be a promising treatment option; and (5) Not generally recommended, where available evidence does not support the routine use of HCT/IECT. The ASTCT will continue to periodically review these guidelines and update them as new evidence becomes available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.03.002DOI Listing
July 2020

Recent Advances in the Management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2020 02 20;21(3):23. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Bristol Haematology and Oncology Centre, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK.

Opinion Statement: The last few years have seen unprecedented advances in treatment options for patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in adulthood. New targeted drug therapies have been shown in randomised trials to offer significant survival improvements above standard-of-care (SoC) for relapsed disease, whilst being relatively well tolerated. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T) has offered spectacular promise amongst the young adult population, with the possibility of cure for refractory disease. It has reversed the paradigm that transplant is the only curative option at relapse. Data is awaited regarding its effectiveness in the older adult population. Nelarabine represents an advance, but there remains a pressing need to develop new therapies with efficacy against T-ALL, especially in the relapse setting.Outcomes for younger adults have improved with the adoption of paediatric-like regimens, with a focus on dose intensity and heavy use of pegylated asparaginase. Defining who falls into the "young adult" category and would benefit from this approach remains a controversial area. In elderly patients with ALL, the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and reduction in standard chemotherapy intensity (especially for those with Philadelphia-positive disease) have significantly reduced treatment-associated mortality and resulted in durable remissions with good quality of life.Bone marrow transplantation remains a key therapy in adult ALL, and is still the treatment of choice for relapsed disease. The mortality associated with a myeloablative approach can be substantially lowered by reduced intensity conditioning, without an apparently significant reduction in efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11864-020-0712-8DOI Listing
February 2020

How many serial sections are needed to detect apoptosis in endoscopic biopsies with gastrointestinal graft versus host disease?

J Clin Pathol 2020 Jun 22;73(6):358-360. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK.

Aims: The hallmark histological feature of acute gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GI GVHD) is epithelial apoptosis. This is the first formal evaluation of how many serial sections are required to consistently detect apoptotic bodies in endoscopic biopsies from various GI locations in patients with clinically validated GI GVHD.

Methods, Results And Conclusions: Assessment of 1008 serial sections showed that apoptotic bodies are uniformly distributed among such sections of gastric, duodenal and colorectal biopsies from these patients. Assessment of 59 further biopsies showed that assessing 12 serial sections should suffice to detect GVHD in gastric, duodenal and colorectal biopsies using thresholds of one apoptotic body per biopsy fragment or one apoptotic body per 4 mm. Assessing 12 serial sections should also suffice to detect GVHD in duodenal and colorectal biopsies using the threshold of 6 apoptotic bodies per 10 contiguous crypts, but it remains uncertain whether this assessment and threshold can be applied to gastric biopsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2019-206310DOI Listing
June 2020

Predictors of Loss to Follow-Up Among Pediatric and Adult Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Survivors: A Report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 11;26(3):553-561. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Blood & Marrow Transplantation Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.

Follow-up is integral for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) care to ensure surveillance and intervention for complications. We characterized the incidence of and predictors for being lost to follow-up. Two-year survivors of first allogeneic HCT (10,367 adults and 3865 children) or autologous HCT (7291 adults and 467 children) for malignant/nonmalignant disorders between 2002 and 2013 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research were selected. The cumulative incidence of being lost to follow-up (defined as having missed 2 consecutive follow-up reporting periods) was calculated. Marginal Cox models (adjusted for center effect) were fit to evaluate predictors. The 10-year cumulative incidence of being lost to follow-up was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12% to 14%) in adult allogeneic HCT survivors, 15% (95% CI, 14% to 16%) in adult autologous HCT survivors, 25% (95% CI, 24% to 27%) in pediatric allogeneic HCT survivors, and 24% (95% CI, 20% to 29%) in pediatric autologous HCT survivors. Factors associated with being lost to follow-up include younger age, nonmalignant disease, public/no insurance (reference: private), residence farther from the tranplantation center, and being unmarried in adult allogeneic HCT survivors; older age and testicular/germ cell tumor (reference: non-Hodgkin lymphoma) in adult autologous HCT survivors; older age, public/no insurance (reference: private), and nonmalignant disease in pediatric allogeneic HCT survivors; and older age in pediatric autologous HCT survivors. Follow-up focusing on minimizing attrition in high-risk groups is needed to ensure surveillance for late effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367505PMC
March 2020

Comprehensive Prognostication in Critically Ill Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Patients: Results from Merging the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS) Registries.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 26;26(2):333-342. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Critically ill pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients may benefit from early and aggressive interventions aimed at reversing the progression of multiorgan dysfunction. Therefore, we evaluated 25 early risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) mortality to improve mortality prognostication. We merged the Virtual Pediatric Systems and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research databases and analyzed 936 critically ill patients ≤21 years of age who had undergone allogeneic HCT and subsequently required PICU admission between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. Of 1532 PICU admissions, the overall PICU mortality rate was 17.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.6% to 19.4%) but was significantly higher for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (44.0%), renal replacement therapy (56.1%), or extracorporeal life support (77.8%). Mortality estimates increased significantly the longer that patients remained in the PICU. Of 25 HCT- and PICU-specific characteristics available at or near the time of PICU admission, moderate/severe pre-HCT renal injury, pre-HCT recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity, <100-day interval between HCT and PICU admission, HCT for underlying acute myeloid leukemia, and greater admission organ dysfunction as approximated by the Pediatric Risk of Mortality 3 score were each independently associated with PICU mortality. A multivariable model using these components identified that patients in the top quartile of risk had 3 times greater mortality than other patients (35.1% versus 11.5%, P < .001, classification accuracy 75.2%; 95% CI, 73.0% to 77.4%). These data improve our working knowledge of the factors influencing the progression of critical illness in pediatric allogeneic HCT patients. Future investigation aimed at mitigating the effect of these risk factors is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.09.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943183PMC
February 2020

Impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes of adult Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a study by the Acute Leukemia Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Haematologica 2020 05 26;105(5):1329-1338. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Cytogenetic risk stratification at diagnosis has long been one of the most useful tools to assess prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To examine the prognostic impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we studied 1731 adults with Philadelphia-negative ALL in complete remission who underwent myeloablative or reduced intensity/non-myeloablative conditioning transplant from unrelated or matched sibling donors reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. A total of 632 patients had abnormal conventional metaphase cytogenetics. The leukemia-free survival and overall survival rates at 5 years after transplantation in patients with abnormal cytogenetics were 40% and 42%, respectively, which were similar to those in patients with a normal karyotype. Of the previously established cytogenetic risk classifications, modified Medical Research Council-Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score was the only independent prognosticator of leukemia-free survival (=0.03). In the multivariable analysis, monosomy 7 predicted post-transplant relapse [hazard ratio (HR)=2.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04-4.27] and treatment failure (HR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.20-3.24). Complex karyotype was prognostic for relapse (HR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.06-2.69), whereas t(8;14) predicted treatment failure (HR=2.85; 95% CI: 1.35-6.02) and overall mortality (HR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.44-6.41). This large study suggested a novel transplant-specific cytogenetic scheme with adverse [monosomy 7, complex karyotype, del(7q), t(8;14), t(11;19), del(11q), tetraploidy/near triploidy], intermediate (normal karyotype and all other abnormalities), and favorable (high hyperdiploidy) risks to prognosticate leukemia-free survival (=0.02). Although some previously established high-risk Philadelphia-negative cytogenetic abnormalities in ALL can be overcome by transplantation, monosomy 7, complex karyotype, and t(8;14) continue to pose significant risks and yield inferior outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.220756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193485PMC
May 2020

A Phase 3 Randomized Study of Remestemcel-L versus Placebo Added to Second-Line Therapy in Patients with Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 05 7;26(5):835-844. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Uncontrolled studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be effective against acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). We conducted a multicenter, randomized study to assess the efficacy of using ex vivo cultured adult human MSC (remestemcel-L) in addition to second-line therapy to treat steroid-refractory aGVHD (NCT00366145). In total, 260 patients, 6 months to 70 years of age, were enrolled from August 2006 to May 2009 and were randomized 2:1 to receive 8 intravenous infusions of remestemcel-L or placebo, given over 4 weeks, in addition to second-line therapy according to institutional standards. Four additional infusions over 4 weeks were indicated for patients with incomplete response at day 28. Randomization was stratified by aGVHD grade. Efficacy and safety were assessed through 180 days of follow-up, with the primary endpoint being durable complete response (DCR), defined as complete resolution of aGVHD symptoms for any period of at least 28 days after beginning treatment. Remestemcel-L did not meet the primary endpoint of greater DCR in the intent-to-treat population (35% versus 30%; P = 0.42). In post hoc analyses, patients with liver involvement who received at least 1 infusion of remestemcel-L had a higher DCR, and higher overall complete or partial response rate (OR) than those who received placebo (29% versus 5%; P = .047). Among high-risk patients (aGVHD grades C and D), remestemcel-L demonstrated significantly higher OR at day 28 than placebo (58% versus 37%; P = 0.03). Furthermore, pediatric patients had a higher OR with MSCs compared with placebo (64% versus 23%; P = .05). Similar rates of adverse events were observed between treatment groups. Remestemcel-L was safe and well tolerated. Results of this study did not demonstrate superior DCR compared with placebo when added to standard of care. The favorable clinical responses seen in some patient subsets may warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.08.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060124PMC
May 2020

Burden of hospitalization in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated with Inotuzumab Ozogamicin versus standard chemotherapy treatment.

Cancer Med 2019 10 22;8(13):5959-5968. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Inotuzumab Ozogamicin (INO), has demonstrated an improvement in overall survival, high rate of complete remission, favorable patient-reported outcomes, and manageable safety profile vs standard of care (SoC; intensive chemotherapy) for relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the phase 3 INO-VATE trial. With a one-hour weekly dosing schedule, INO might be associated with lower healthcare system burden. This study analyses hospitalizations for INO vs SoC.

Methods: All patients receiving study treatment in the INO-VATE trial were included. The days hospitalized during study treatment was calculated. Due to different treatment durations for INO and SoC (median of 3 vs 1 cycles), number of hospital days was mainly reported per observed patient month. Hospital days per patient month were analyzed for different treatment cycles, subgroups, and main reasons for hospitalization. Differences between treatments were analyzed by the incidence rate ratio (IRR).

Results: Overall, 82.9% and 94.4% INO and SoC patients experienced at least one hospitalization. The mean hospitalization days per patient month was 7.6 and 18.4 days for INO and SoC (IRR = 0.413, P < .001), which corresponds to patients spending 25.0% and 60.5% of their treatment time in a hospital. Main hospitalization reasons were R/R ALL treatment (5.2 (INO) vs 14.0 (SoC) days, IRR = 0.368, P < .001), treatment toxicities (1.4 vs 2.8 days, IRR = 0.516, P < .001) or other reasons (1.0 vs 1.6 days, IRR 0.629, P < .001).

Conclusions: Inotuzumab Ozogamicin treatment in R/R ALL is associated with a lower hospitalization burden compared with SoC. It is likely this lower burden has a favorable impact on healthcare budgets and cost-effectiveness considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6792500PMC
October 2019

Prognostic Score and Cytogenetic Risk Classification for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients: Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Report.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 08 28;25(16):5143-5155. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: To develop a prognostic model and cytogenetic risk classification for previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Experimental Design: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 606 patients with CLL who underwent RIC allogeneic HCT between 2008 and 2014 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Results: On the basis of multivariable models, disease status, comorbidity index, lymphocyte count, and white blood cell count at HCT were selected for the development of prognostic model. Using the prognostic score, we stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk [4-year progression-free survival (PFS) 58%, 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, < 0.0001; 4-year overall survival (OS) 70%, 57%, 54%, and 38%, respectively, < 0.0001]. We also evaluated karyotypic abnormalities together with del(17p) and found that del(17p) or ≥5 abnormalities showed inferior PFS. Using a multivariable model, we classified cytogenetic risk into low, intermediate, and high ( < 0.0001). When the prognostic score and cytogenetic risk were combined, patients with low prognostic score and low cytogenetic risk had prolonged PFS (61% at 4 years) and OS (75% at 4 years).

Conclusions: In this large cohort of patients with previously treated CLL who underwent RIC HCT, we developed a robust prognostic scoring system of HCT outcomes and a novel cytogenetic-based risk stratification system. These prognostic models can be used for counseling patients, comparing data across studies, and providing a benchmark for future interventions. For future study, we will further validate these models for patients receiving targeted therapies prior to HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697588PMC
August 2019

Inferior Outcomes with Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil after Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 31;25(9):1744-1755. Epub 2019 May 31.

Cancer Transplant Institute, Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA; Arizona Oncology, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA.

Combination therapy with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), such as cyclosporine (CSA) or tacrolimus (Tac), and methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a widely used approach to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention. Data on the comparative effectiveness of MMF compared with MTX are limited and conflicting, however. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for adult patients undergoing first myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an HLA-identical matched related donor (MRD; n = 3979) or matched unrelated donor (URD; n = 4163) using CSA+MMF, CSA+MTX, Tac+MMF, or Tac+MTX for GVHD prevention between 2000 and 2013. Within the MRD cohort, 2252 patients received CSA+MTX, 1391 received Tac+MTX, 114 received CSA+MMF, and 222 received Tac+MMF. Recipients of CSA+MMF had a higher incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 2.20; P < .001) and grade III-IV (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.83; P < .001) compared with Tac+MTX. The use of CSA+MMF was also associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.73 to 3.09; P < .001) due to higher transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (HR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.61 to 6.23; P < .001) compared with Tac+MTX. Within the URD cohort, 974 patients received CSA+MTX, 2697 received Tac+MTX, 68 received CSA+MMF, and 424 received Tac+MMF. CSA+MMF was again significantly associated with a higher incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.57 to 3.42; P <0001), worse OS (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.35; P < .001), and higher TRM (HR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.00 to 4.77; P < .001), compared with Tac+MTX and other regimens. Thus, this large retrospective comparison of MMF versus MTX in combination with CSA or Tac demonstrates significantly worse GVHD and survival outcomes with CSA+MMF compared with Tac+MTX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039394PMC
September 2019