Publications by authors named "David Glasscock"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of exhaustion symptoms in patients with stress-related and other psychiatric and somatic diagnoses.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 03 4;19(1):84. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Several rating scales assessing stress-related symptoms of exhaustion have emerged in recent years. However, more knowledge is needed about the performance of these rating scales in patients with stress-related disorders as well as in other patient groups. With the recently developed Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), we compared symptoms of exhaustion in different patient groups that were sorted according to diagnosis.

Methods: Patients were sampled consecutively from departments of occupational medicine (DOM) at three Danish hospitals. The total study group comprised 698 care-seeking patients (487 women). Patients with stress-related diagnoses (n = 217; the International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 code F43: reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorder) were compared to a diverse group of patients with a range of somatic diagnoses (n = 338) and to patients with other psychiatric diagnoses (n = 143), including subgroups with major depression disorder (n = 34; F32 and F33) and problems related to employment and unemployment (n = 99; Z56). The data were analysed using linear mixed models with the SPSS statistical program.

Results: The mean KEDS sum score in patients with stress-related diagnoses (29.3; SD = 8.0) was significantly higher than in patients with other psychiatric diagnoses (25.9; SD = 9.5) and in patients with somatic diagnoses (17.6; SD = 10.8). The subgroup with a major depression disorder had high mean KEDS sum scores (31.4, SD = 8.1), similar to patients with stress-related diagnoses, while the mean KEDS sum score in patients with problems related to employment and unemployment (Z56) was 23.5 (SD = 9.0). Young and old patients scored similarly on KEDS, but in patients with somatic diagnoses, female patients scored significantly higher than male patients.

Conclusion: The symptoms of exhaustion measured with KEDS were higher in patients with stress-related diagnoses and major depression disorder than in patients with somatic diagnoses. The intermediate level of the symptoms of exhaustion that were associated with problems related to employment and unemployment, (Z56) compared to the lower level of the symptoms with somatic diagnoses, suggests that KEDS might be useful in detecting mild, prodromal states of exhaustion. This needs further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2066-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399825PMC
March 2019

Recovery from work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial of a stress management intervention in a clinical sample.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2018 08 28;91(6):675-687. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Occupational Medicine, Danish Ramazzini Centre, Regional Hospital West Jutland-University Research Clinic, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400, Herning, Denmark.

Purpose: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions aimed at reducing work-related stress indicate that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is more effective than other interventions. However, definitions of study populations are often unclear and there is a lack of interventions targeting both the individual and the workplace. The aim of this study was to determine whether a stress management intervention combining individual CBT and a workplace focus is superior to no treatment in the reduction of perceived stress and stress symptoms and time to lasting return to work (RTW) in a clinical sample.

Methods: Patients with work-related stress reactions or adjustment disorders were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 57, 84.2% female) or a control group (n = 80, 83.8% female). Subjects were followed via questionnaires and register data. The intervention contained individual CBT and the offer of a workplace meeting. We examined intervention effects by analysing group differences in score changes on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). We also tested if intervention led to faster lasting RTW.

Results: Mean baseline values of PSS were 24.79 in the intervention group and 23.26 in the control group while the corresponding values for GHQ were 21.3 and 20.27, respectively. There was a significant effect of time. 10 months after baseline, both groups reported less perceived stress and improved mental health. 4 months after baseline, we found significant treatment effects for both perceived stress and mental health. The difference in mean change in PSS after 4 months was - 3.09 (- 5.47, - 0.72), while for GHQ it was - 3.91 (- 7.15, - 0.68). There were no group differences in RTW.

Conclusions: The intervention led to faster reductions in perceived stress and stress symptoms amongst patients with work-related stress reactions and adjustment disorders. 6 months after the intervention ended there were no longer differences between the groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-018-1314-7DOI Listing
August 2018

Work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention for psychological complaints in patients on sick leave due to work-related stress: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

J Negat Results Biomed 2017 Aug 22;16(1):13. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Danish Ramazzini Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, The Regional Hospital West Jutland - University Research Clinic, Herning, Denmark.

Background: Work-related stress is a global problem with negative implications for individuals and society. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a stress management intervention for patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints using a three-armed randomized controlled design.

Methods: Participants were patients referred from three municipalities to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were: 1) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints, 2) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder or reactions to severe stress (ICD 10 code: F43,2 - F 43,9 not PTSD) or mild depressive episode (F 32.0). Through a double randomization procedure patients (n = 163) were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 58), a 'control group A' receiving a clinical examination (n = 56), or 'control group B' (n = 49) receiving no offers at the department. The intervention comprised six sessions of individual cognitive behavioral therapy and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaire data were analyzed with multivariate repeated measurements analysis. Primary outcomes assessed were perceived stress and general mental health. Secondary outcomes were sleep quality and cognitive failures. Follow-up was at four and 10 months after baseline.

Results: Complaints were significantly reduced in all groups over time. No group effects were observed between the intervention group and control group A that was clinically assessed. Significant group effects were found for perceived stress and memory when comparing the intervention group to group B, but most likely not due to an intervention effect.

Conclusion: Psychological complaints improved substantially over time in all groups, but there was no significant treatment effect on any outcomes when the intervention group was compared to control group A that received a clinical assessment.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN ISRCTN91404229. Registered 03 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12952-017-0078-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567478PMC
August 2017

Return to work after work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial of a work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2017 09 26;43(5):436-446. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

Danish Ramazzini Centre, Dept. of Occupational Medicine, The Regional Hospital West Jutland - University Research Clinic, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400, Herning, Denmark.

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a stress management intervention (SMI) on lasting return to work (RTW) among patients with work-related stress complaints. Methods Sickness benefit departments from three local municipalities referred patients on sick leave with work-related adjustment disorders or mild depression to the Department of Occupational Medicine, Regional Hospital West Jutland. A 2× randomization procedure allocated patients into one of three groups: intervention (N=58), control A (which received a clinical assessment; N=56), or control B (no assessment; N=49). Treatment comprised individual work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an optional workplace intervention. The outcome was time until lasting RTW (16 and 44 weeks follow-up) using register data. Results Median number of weeks until lasting RTW was 15, 19, and 32 for the intervention group, control A, and control B respectively. However, for group B, clinical assessment was not part of the inclusion process, which may have introduced selection bias. In the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, the intervention group exhibited significantly faster lasting RTW at 44 weeks; hazard ratio (HR) 1.57 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-2.44] relative to control group A, with a non-significant trend evident at 16 weeks; HR 1.70 (95% CI 0.94-3.10), when controlling for age, gender, occupation, sick leave during previous year, full or partial sick leave, and diagnosis. Unadjusted analyses remained directionally consistent but were reduced to marginal significance. Conclusions There was a tendency towards faster lasting RTW in the intervention group compared to control A, which received clinical assessment, in all analyses. The intervention group returned to work about 4 weeks earlier than control A, which could translate into substantial financial gains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3655DOI Listing
September 2017

Farmers' mental health: A longitudinal sibling comparison - the HUNT study, Norway.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2016 06 16;42(6):547-556. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU),Forskningsvegen 2, 7600 Levanger, Norway.

Objective: Studies of the mental health of farmers have been largely cross-sectional and possibly confounded. We performed a prospective cohort study as well as a sibling comparison to control for unmeasured confounding.

Methods: Our study included 76 583 participants aged ≥19 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008)]. We used the Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of mental distress. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between occupation at baseline and symptoms of mental distress 11 years later and fixed effects conditional logistic regression to compare farmers with their siblings working in other occupations.

Results: In the prospective cohort study, farmers had similar odds of having symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety as other manual occupational groups. Among all the occupational groups in the study, farmers had the highest odds of having symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.55, reference group: higher grade professionals]. Compared with their farming brothers and sisters, siblings in other occupations had lower odds of having high depression (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89) and anxiety (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00) scores in 2006-2008.

Conclusion: Farmers had higher odds of having high depression scores compared to both other occupational groups and their siblings who were not working as farmers, suggesting that working in agriculture may impact mental health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3595DOI Listing
June 2016

Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway.

BMJ Open 2015 Nov 2;5(11):e009114. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Hunt Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Levanger, Norway Psychiatric Department, Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Health Trust, Levanger, Norway.

Objectives: Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension.

Methods: We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995-97) aged 20-61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25,521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension.

Results: Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86).

Conclusions: Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636626PMC
November 2015

Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

J Agromedicine 2016 ;21(1):24-33

a HUNT Research Center, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine , the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) , Levanger , Norway.

Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1059924X.2015.1106375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720047PMC
January 2017

Changes in self-reported sleep and cognitive failures: a randomized controlled trial of a stress management intervention.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2014 Nov;40(6):569-81

Arbejdsmedicinsk Klinik, Regionshospitalet Herning, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400 Herning, Denamark.

Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a stress management intervention combining individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a brief workplace intervention on self-reported measures of sleep and cognitive functioning among patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints.

Methods: Participants were patients referred to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were (i) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints and (ii) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder/reactions to stress or mild depression. Participants (N=137) were randomized to either an intervention (N=57) or control (N=80) group. The intervention comprised six sessions with a psychologist and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaires were answered at baseline and after 4, and 10 months.

Results: Symptoms were significantly reduced over time in both groups but there was no significant treatment effect on sleep or cognitive outcomes at any time point. From 0-4 months, there was a tendency for larger improvements in the intervention group with regards to sleep and cognitive failures in distraction. Although neither was significant, the results came close to significance depicting a small effect size (Cohen's d) on sleep complaints and distractions (but not memory).

Conclusions: The specific intervention was not superior to the control condition in reducing symptoms of sleep problems and cognitive difficulties at any time point during the 10-month follow-up period. Substantial improvements in symptoms over time were seen in both groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3460DOI Listing
November 2014

Can negative life events and coping style help explain socioeconomic differences in perceived stress among adolescents? A cross-sectional study based on the West Jutland cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2013 Jun 2;13:532. Epub 2013 Jun 2.

Danish Ramazzini Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, Regional Hospital Herning, Herning, Denmark.

Background: Previous research suggests that perceived stress in adolescence is socially patterned, but that this relationship may depend on the measure of socioeconomic status (SES) used. This study examines if social gradients in perceived stress, negative life events, and coping exist amongst Danish adolescents, and, if life events and coping strategies can partly account for an association between SES and perceived stress. These relationships are studied separately for two different measures of SES.

Methods: Questionnaire data were collected from 3054 14-15 year old youths (83% response rate) during baseline measurement in the West Jutland birth cohort study. Parents were identified via the Central Office of Civil Registration in which the respondents are linked to their parents or guardians via their CPR-number, a personal identification number given to everyone in Denmark. The study employs data from two independent sources, adolescent self-report data (stress, life events and coping) and national registers (parental educational level, household income and confounder variables). Ordinary Least Squares regression estimated the effects of parental SES, negative life events and coping on perceived stress. Analyses were stratified by gender.

Results: Girls reported more perceived stress than boys. SES accounted for a small but significant amount of the variance in perceived stress. Lower parental education and lower household income were associated with higher stress levels irrespective of gender, but the social gradient was strongest amongst girls when parents' education was used to measure SES, and strongest for boys when income was used. Life events and coping were also found to be associated with SES and both mediated part of the SES-perceived stress relationship. In general, the social gradient in perceived stress was accounted for by the study variables to a higher degree among girls than among boys.

Conclusions: Lower parental education and household income are associated with higher levels of perceived stress amongst Danish adolescents. Furthermore, both life events and coping appear to mediate this relation. Gender differences in the ways SES and stress are related may exist.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3679909PMC
June 2013

[Social inequality and health in adolescents].

Ugeskr Laeger 2010 Mar;172(11):857-63

Arbejdsmedicinsk Klinik, Regionshospitalet Herning, DK-7400 Herning, Denmark.

Introduction: Previous studies indicate that social disparities in health exist in the Danish population. We examined the relationship between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and a number of indicators of physical and mental health amongst 14-15 year old adolescents from the former Ringkoebing County, now a part of the Central Jutland Region, Denmark. SES was measured in terms of education and income, which, in part, correspond with the concepts of cultural and economic capital.

Material And Methods: Information concerning parents' level of education and income was obtained from central registers via Statistics Denmark. Health-related data for a total of 3,058 adolescents, corresponding to a response rate of 83%, was gathered via questionnaires. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) were calculated and are used in the article as risk estimates.

Results: Adolescents with less educated parents had a significantly greater risk of poor self-rated health, high self-perceived stress and being overweight, compared with those with better educated parents. The most substantial difference was seen for self-rated health with a PPR of 3.44. Adolescents with low-income parents had poorer health when compared with higher-income groups on eight out of 11 health indicators. Most noticeable were differences for self-rated health and self-perceived stress with PPRs of 1.86 and 1.54, respectively.

Conclusion: The study shows that social disparities in health exist among adolescents from the western part of central Jutland corresponding to the former Ringkoebing County. Both low parental education and income had a negative effect on adolescent health. The study also indicates that education and income affect health in different ways. For this reason it is desirable to use both indicators as measures of SES when studying social disparities in health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2010

Worker participation in change processes in a Danish industrial setting.

Am J Ind Med 2006 Sep;49(9):767-79

Department of Occupational Medicine, Herning Hospital, Herning, Denmark.

Background: Improving the design, management and organization of work may be an important step in improving occupational health. An intervention, guided by the principles of participatory action research (PAR), is directed at traditional work environment problems in the epoxy plastic industry, that is, eczema and accident-related injuries.

Methods: The study population consisted of employees at two wind turbine- manufacturing plants. A quasi-experimental design was employed with before and after measurements and a comparison group with a 3(1/2) year follow-up period.

Results: The role of employee elected safety representatives was changed from one of controlling and "policing" to that of safety advisors. The attitudes of employees also changed, from an individualistic understanding of safety as the responsibility of the single employee, to a more collective understanding of safety as being everyone's shared responsibility. Structural changes led to a less hierarchical management system. This process led eventually to the establishment of self-governing work groups in which each member had a well-defined area of responsibility. The change process was associated with improvements in the psychosocial work environment and safety climate, a 66% reduction in the incidence of eczema, and a 48.6% reduction in the incidence of occupational accidents. In the comparison population, a twin factory under the same company, similar but delayed and less dramatic changes also occurred.

Conclusions: Implementation of a comprehensive intervention was followed by improved employee perceptions of the company's safety standards and the psychosocial work environment, as well as by substantial reductions in the incidence of eczema and occupational accidents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.20350DOI Listing
September 2006

[Occupational accidents at a shipyard].

Ugeskr Laeger 2004 Nov;166(49):4468-71

Herning Sygehus, Arbejdsmedicinsk Klinik.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2004

[Occupational accidents in Denmark--occurrence and prevention].

Ugeskr Laeger 2004 Nov;166(49):4464-7

Herning Sygehus, Arbejdsmedicinsk Klinik.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2004

Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2003 Aug;29(4):288-96

Department of Occupational Medicine, Herning Hospital, Herning, Denmark.

Objectives: This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.

Methods: From a random sample of farms in the county of Ringkoebing, Denmark, 393 farms with 1597 residents and employees participated in a weekly self-registration of work-related accidents and injuries during 1 year. Worktasks and time at risk were recorded. A questionnaire including items on safety behavior was also mailed to each farm. Thereafter, the farms were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Two hundred and one farms with 990 persons at risk participated in the intervention study. The main outcome measures were the number and severity of accidents, safety behavior, and farmsite safety audits.

Results: Pre- and postmeasurements showed a substantial reduction in injury rates in the intervention group in comparison with a slight reduction in the control group. In a multivariate regression analysis the intervention effect was estimated to be a 30% injury-rate reduction of all injuries, while there was a 42% reduction for medically treated injuries only. Although none of these effects are statistically significant with the present sample size, their magnitude and direction support an intervention effect. The measures of safety behavior revealed significant improvements, and this finding supports the conclusion that the intervention effect was positive, since they concern some of the mediating factors on the pathway from intervention to improved injury rates.

Conclusions: This intervention, which focused on safety behavior and was performed as a randomized controlled trial, was followed by a substantial reduction in the number of farm injuries. The reduction was particularly marked for the more severe injuries demanding medical treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.733DOI Listing
August 2003
-->