Publications by authors named "David Gibbons"

52 Publications

The relative importance of COVID-19 pandemic impacts on biodiversity conservation globally.

Conserv Biol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Cambridge Conservation Initiative, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, U.K.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on almost all aspects of human society and endeavour; the natural world and its conservation have not been spared. Through a process of expert consultation, we identified and categorised, into 19 themes and 70 sub-themes, the ways in which biodiversity and its conservation has been or could be impacted by the pandemic globally; nearly 60% of which were broadly negative in impact. Subsequently, we created a compendium (see Supporting Information) of all themes and sub-themes, each with explanatory text, and in August 2020 a diverse group of experienced conservationists with expertise from across sectors and geographies assessed each sub-theme for its likely impact on biodiversity conservation globally. The 9 sub-themes ranked highest were all negative in impact. These were, in rank order: governments side-lining the environment during their economic recovery, reduced wildlife-based tourism income, increased habitat destruction, reduced government funding, increased plastic and other solid waste pollution, weakening of pro-nature regulations and their enforcement, increased illegal harvest of wild animals, reduced philanthropy, and threats to survival of conservation organisations. In combination, these impacts present a worrying future of increased threats to biodiversity conservation but reduced capacity to counter them. The highest-ranking positive impact, at 10, was the beneficial impact of wildlife trade restrictions. More optimistically, amongst impacts ranked 11 to 20, 6 were positive and 4 were negative. We hope our assessment will draw attention to the impacts of the pandemic, improving the conservation community's ability to respond to them in the future. Article impact statement: The COVID-19 pandemic presents increased threats to biodiversity conservation globally yet reduced capacity to counter them. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13781DOI Listing
May 2021

Endometrial Mesonephric-like Adenocarcinoma Presenting as an Ocular Lesion: A Case Report.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pathology, St. Vincent's University Hospital (S.A.L.N., A.D., S.K., D.G.) UCD School of Medicine and Medical Specialties (S.K., R.M.V., J.C., D.G.) Departments of Gynecological Oncology (R.M.V.) Oncology (J.C.), St. Vincent's University Hospital.

Endometrial mesonephric-like carcinoma (ML-CA) is a recently recognized subtype of aggressive endometrial adenocarcinoma that is morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to mesonephric carcinoma but not typically associated with mesonephric remnants. Here, we report a case of 58-yr-old female who had a past medical history of fibroids and of irregular menstrual bleeding for ~20 yr who presented with visual disturbance. On further investigation, she was found to have a large choroidal peri-papillary tumor of the right eye. A presumptive diagnosis of choroidal melanoma was made. Right eye enucleation was performed, and microscopy revealed moderately differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Further work up was advised. A uterine mass was identified on imaging followed by endometrial biopsy that showed a morphologically and immunohistochemically similar tumor to that in the eye. A hysterectomy was carried out and a malignant neoplasm with varying morphologic patterns including gland formation, solid sheets of tumor cells, cribriform, glomeruloid, spindled and papillary areas was seen. The immunohistochemical profile showed diffuse strong positivity for AE1/AE3, TTF1, P16, and vimentin. CD56, GATA3, Napsin A, and CD10 were focally positive. The neoplastic cells were negative for the following markers ER, PR, WT1, calretinin, and synaptophysin. PDL-1 was negative and mismatch repair protein was proficient. An identical KRAS mutation was detected in both the uterine corpus and ocular tumors. The findings are in keeping with a uterine mesonephric-like adenocarcinoma with an ocular metastasis. An Oncomine Focus-Mutation profile, Thermo-Fisher Scientific Inc., a 60 gene oncologic panel, performed on the ocular tumor, revealed no further mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0000000000000781DOI Listing
May 2021

Improving tumor budding reporting in colorectal cancer: a Delphi consensus study.

Virchows Arch 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Tumor budding is a long-established independent adverse prognostic marker in colorectal cancer, yet methods for its assessment have varied widely. In an effort to standardize its reporting, a group of experts met in Bern, Switzerland, in 2016 to reach consensus on a single, international, evidence-based method for tumor budding assessment and reporting (International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference [ITBCC]). Tumor budding assessment using the ITBCC criteria has been validated in large cohorts of cancer patients and incorporated into several international colorectal cancer pathology and clinical guidelines. With the wider reporting of tumor budding, new issues have emerged that require further clarification. To better inform researchers and health-care professionals on these issues, an international group of experts in gastrointestinal pathology participated in a modified Delphi process to generate consensus and highlight areas requiring further research. This effort serves to re-affirm the importance of tumor budding in colorectal cancer and support its continued use in routine clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03059-9DOI Listing
March 2021

A retrospective comparison of salivary gland fine needle aspiration reporting with the Milan system for reporting salivary gland cytology.

Cytopathology 2020 05 18;31(3):208-214. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a routine sampling method in the diagnostic work up of salivary gland lesions. Despite universal use, no standardised classification existed for the cytopathological reporting of such entities until recently. The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology (MSRSGC) aims to standardise the reporting of these lesions, offering risk of malignancy rates and clinical management recommendations.

Methods: We retrospectively applied MSRSGC to cases reported over a 5-year period. Salivary FNA specimens were reclassified according to the MSRSGC as (I) non-diagnostic, (II) non-neoplastic, (III) atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), (IV) benign neoplasm and salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, (V) suspicious for malignancy, and (VI) malignant. Cases with surgical resections were documented and risk of malignancy calculated for each group, where possible. We compared our outcomes with similar studies performed since publication of the Milan criteria.

Results: In total, 192 specimens were reassigned as non-diagnostic (n = 30), non-neoplastic (n = 31), AUS (n = 1), benign neoplasm (n = 97) and salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (n = 4), suspicious for malignancy (n = 3), and malignant (n = 26). There were 73 surgical resections. Our calculated risk of malignancy was within the proposed MSRSGC rates for the non-diagnostic, benign neoplasm and malignant groups. One AUS case did not undergo surgery. Benign and malignant sensitivities and specificities for the original reporting categories were 88.24% and 95.72%, and 100% and 95.45% for the MSRSGC, respectively.

Conclusion: Salivary gland FNA has high diagnostic accuracy and the MSRSGC offers standardised reporting and assistance in the stratification of cases. This may improve communication between pathologists and clinicians with improved outcomes for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12811DOI Listing
May 2020

A Horizon Scan of Emerging Global Biological Conservation Issues for 2020.

Trends Ecol Evol 2020 01 5;35(1):81-90. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.

In this horizon scan, we highlight 15 emerging issues of potential relevance to global conservation in 2020. Seven relate to potentially extensive changes in vegetation or ecological systems. These changes are either relatively new, for example, conversion of kelp forests to simpler macroalgal systems, or may occur in the future, for example, as a result of the derivation of nanocelluose from wood or the rapid expansion of small hydropower schemes. Other topics highlight potential changes in national legislation that may have global effect on international agreements. Our panel of 23 scientists and practitioners selected these issues using a modified version of the Delphi technique from a long-list of 89 potential topics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2019.10.010DOI Listing
January 2020

Thoracic spinal cord neuromodulation obtunds dorsal root ganglion afferent neuronal transduction of the ischemic ventricle.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 11 20;317(5):H1134-H1141. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Neurocardiology Research Program of Excellence, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Aberrant afferent signaling drives adverse remodeling of the cardiac nervous system in ischemic heart disease. The study objective was to determine whether thoracic spinal dorsal column stimulation (SCS) modulates cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic ventricle. In anesthetized canines ( = 16), extracellular activity generated by 62 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) soma (T1-T3), with verified myocardial ischemic (MI) sensitivity, were evaluated with and without 20-min preemptive SCS (T1-T3 spinal level; 50 Hz, 90% motor threshold). Transient MI was induced by 1-min coronary artery occlusion (CAO) of the left anterior descending (LAD) or circumflex (LCX) artery, randomized as to sequence. LAD and LCX CAO activated cardiac-related DRG neurons (LAD: 0.15 ± 0.04-1.05 ± 0.20 Hz, < 0.00002; LCX: 0.08 ± 0.02-1.90 ± 0.45 Hz, < 0.0003). SCS decreased basal neuronal activity of neurons that responded to LAD (0.15 ± 0.04 to 0.02 ± 0.01 Hz, < 0.006) and LCX (0.08 ± 0.02 to 0.02 ± 0.01 Hz, < 0.003). SCS suppressed responsiveness to transient MI (LAD: 1.05 ± 0.20-0.03 ± 0.01 Hz; < 0.0001; LCX: 1.90 ± 0.45-0.03 ± 0.01 Hz; < 0.001). Suprathreshold SCS (1 Hz) did not activate DRG neurons antidromically ( = 10 animals). Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was associated with a rapid increase in DRG activity to a maximum of 4.39 ± 1.07 Hz at 20 s after VF induction and a return to 90% of baseline within 10 s thereafter. SCS obtunds the capacity of DRG ventricular neurites to transduce the ischemic myocardium to second-order spinal neurons, a mechanism that would blunt reflex sympathoexcitation to myocardial ischemic stress, thereby contributing to its capacity to cardioprotect. Aberrant afferent signaling drives adverse remodeling of the cardiac nervous system in ischemic heart disease. This study determined that thoracic spinal column stimulation (SCS) obtunds the capacity of dorsal root ganglia ventricular afferent neurons to transduce the ischemic myocardium to second-order spinal neurons, a mechanism that would blunt reflex sympathoexcitation to myocardial ischemic stress. This modulation does not reflect antidromic actions of SCS but likely reflects efferent-mediated changes at the myocyte-sensory neurite interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00257.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6879916PMC
November 2019

Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy Management of the Axilla in Primary Breast Carcinoma.

Acta Cytol 2019 20;63(4):314-318. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Pathology Department, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Context: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is frequently used to stage the axilla preoperatively in patients with primary breast carcinoma. In the light of the ACOSOG-Z0011 and AMAROS trials that specified sentinel lymph node biopsy as an inclusion criterion, the role of FNAB in axillary staging is changing.

Objective: This article will review the diagnostic accuracy of FNAB in staging of the axilla in patients with primary breast carcinoma. The efficacy of axillary FNAB compared with core-needle biopsy will be evaluated. The evolving approach to staging of the axilla, in the light of ACOSOG-Z0011 and AMAROS trials, will be discussed.

Data Sources: Data were sourced from published peer-reviewed articles in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines including the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer and those from the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), Union for International Cancer (UICC), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and the American Society of Breast Surgeons.

Conclusions: FNAB of the axilla is almost 100% specific with a sensitivity between 40 and 90%. A positive FNAB reduces the need for a second axillary procedure by up to 20% with reduced morbidity and cost. The recent ACOSOG-Z0011 and AMAROS trials have reduced the use of FNAB axilla in American protocols, but it remains the standard of care in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496159DOI Listing
July 2019

Ten Years On: A Review of the First Global Conservation Horizon Scan.

Trends Ecol Evol 2019 02 2;34(2):139-153. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.

Our first horizon scan, conducted in 2009, aimed to identify novel but poorly known issues with potentially significant effects on global conservation of biological diversity. Following completion of the tenth annual scan, we reviewed the 15 topics identified a decade ago and assessed their development in the scientific literature and news media. Five topics, including microplastic pollution, synthetic meat, and environmental applications of mobile-sensing technology, appeared to have had widespread salience and effects. The effects of six topics were moderate, three have not emerged, and the effects of one topic were low. The awareness of, and involvement in, these issues by 12 conservation organisations has increased for most issues since 2009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2018.12.003DOI Listing
February 2019

A Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation in 2019.

Trends Ecol Evol 2019 01 13;34(1):83-94. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK.

We present the results of our tenth annual horizon scan. We identified 15 emerging priority topics that may have major positive or negative effects on the future conservation of global biodiversity, but currently have low awareness within the conservation community. We hope to increase research and policy attention on these areas, improving the capacity of the community to mitigate impacts of potentially negative issues, and maximise the benefits of issues that provide opportunities. Topics include advances in crop breeding, which may affect insects and land use; manipulations of natural water flows and weather systems on the Tibetan Plateau; release of carbon and mercury from melting polar ice and thawing permafrost; new funding schemes and regulations; and land-use changes across Indo-Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2018.11.001DOI Listing
January 2019

A review of predation as a limiting factor for bird populations in mesopredator-rich landscapes: a case study of the UK.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2018 11 22;93(4):1915-1937. Epub 2018 May 22.

RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Edinburgh, EH12 9DH, U.K.

The impact of increasing vertebrate predator numbers on bird populations is widely debated among the general public, game managers and conservationists across Europe. However, there are few systematic reviews of whether predation limits the population sizes of European bird species. Views on the impacts of predation are particularly polarised in the UK, probably because the UK has a globally exceptional culture of intensive, high-yield gamebird management where predator removal is the norm. In addition, most apex predators have been exterminated or much depleted in numbers, contributing to a widely held perception that the UK has high numbers of mesopredators. This has resulted in many high-quality studies of mesopredator impacts over several decades. Here we present results from a systematic review of predator trends and abundance, and assess whether predation limits the population sizes of 90 bird species in the UK. Our results confirm that the generalist predators Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Crows (Corvus corone and C. cornix) occur at high densities in the UK compared with other European countries. In addition, some avian and mammalian predators have increased numerically in the UK during recent decades. Despite these high and increasing densities of predators, we found little evidence that predation limits populations of pigeons, woodpeckers and passerines, whereas evidence suggests that ground-nesting seabirds, waders and gamebirds can be limited by predation. Using life-history characteristics of prey species, we found that mainly long-lived species with high adult survival and late onset of breeding were limited by predation. Single-brooded species were also more likely to be limited by predation than multi-brooded species. Predators that depredate prey species during all life stages (i.e. from nest to adult stages) limited prey numbers more than predators that depredated only specific life stages (e.g. solely during the nest phase). The Red Fox and non-native mammals (e.g. the American Mink Neovison vison) were frequently identified as numerically limiting their prey species. Our review has identified predator-prey interactions that are particularly likely to result in population declines of prey species. In the short term, traditional predator-management techniques (e.g. lethal control or fencing to reduce predation by a small number of predator species) could be used to protect these vulnerable species. However, as these techniques are costly and time-consuming, we advocate that future research should identify land-use practices and landscape configurations that would reduce predator numbers and predation rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12426DOI Listing
November 2018

A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

Trends Ecol Evol 2018 01 4;33(1):47-58. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK.

This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.006DOI Listing
January 2018

An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides. Part 2: impacts on organisms and ecosystems.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 9;28(10):11749-11797. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071, Orléans, France.

New information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods. Little new information has been gathered on soil organisms. The impact on marine and coastal ecosystems is still largely uncharted. The chronic lethality of neonicotinoids to insects and crustaceans, and the strengthened evidence that these chemicals also impair the immune system and reproduction, highlights the dangers of this particular insecticidal class (neonicotinoids and fipronil), with the potential to greatly decrease populations of arthropods in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Sublethal effects on fish, reptiles, frogs, birds, and mammals are also reported, showing a better understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity of these insecticides in vertebrates and their deleterious impacts on growth, reproduction, and neurobehaviour of most of the species tested. This review concludes with a summary of impacts on the ecosystem services and functioning, particularly on pollination, soil biota, and aquatic invertebrate communities, thus reinforcing the previous WIA conclusions (van der Sluijs et al. 2015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0341-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921077PMC
March 2021

Tumor Budding and PDC Grade Are Stage Independent Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Mismatch Repair Deficient Colorectal Cancer.

Am J Surg Pathol 2018 Jan;42(1):60-68

Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park.

Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) despite its association with poor histologic grade often has improved prognosis compared with MMR proficient CRC. Tumor budding and poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) may predict metastatic potential of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). In addition, their assessment may be more reproducible than the evaluation of other histopathologic parameters. Therefore, we wished to determine their potential as prognostic indicators in a cohort of dMMR CRC patients relative to histologic grade. We investigated the predictive value of conventional WHO grade, budding, PDC grade and other histopathologic parameters on the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and clinical outcome in 238 dMMR CRCs. MMR status was determined by immunohistochemistry for the mismatch repair proteins hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hPMS2. Tumor budding and PDCs were highly correlated (r=0.701; P<0.000). Both budding and PDC grade were associated with WHO grade, perineural invasion, lympho-vascular invasion, and extramural vascular invasion, and the presence of LNM in dMMR CRC (P<0.009). Independent predictors of LNM were PDC grade (odds ratio, 4.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-10.04; P=0.011) and EMVI (odds ratio, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.56-9.19; P<0.000). Only pTstage (hazard ratio [HR], 4.11; 95% CI, 1.48-11.36; P=0.007) and tumor budding (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.72-5.19; P<0.000) were independently associated with worse disease-free survival (DFS). If tumor budding was excluded from the model, PDC grade became significant for DFS (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.34-4.09; P=0.003). WHO Grade does not independently correlate with clinical outcome in dMMR CRC. PDC grade and extramural vascular invasion are independent predictors of LNM. Tumor budding and pTstage are the best predictors of DFS. If tumor budding cannot be assessed, PDC grade may be used as a prognostic surrogate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000000931DOI Listing
January 2018

Atypia of Undetermined Significance in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspirates: a 4-Year Audit of Thy3a Reporting.

Eur Thyroid J 2017 Sep 17;6(5):271-275. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Pathology, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Objective: Thyroid nodules are common within the general population. Cytological analysis of fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of these lesions allows for identification of those that require further surgery. A numerical classification system is in place to streamline reporting. The 3a category is used for lesions that are neither benign nor malignant but show atypia of undetermined significance. We reviewed our use and clinical outcomes of Thy3a over a 4-year period.

Methods: All thyroid FNAs performed at this institute from January 2012 to December 2015 were identified from our laboratory information system using SNOMED codes. Cytology was correlated with histology.

Results: Of the 1,259 FNAs reported at this institute, Thy3a constituted only 1.2% ( = 16) of all cases, with a malignancy rate of 7%. Five Thy3a cases had a repeat FNA that was reported as Thy2 (benign), 1 as Thy1c (cyst), 1 as Thy3f (follicular lesion), and 1 as Thy5 (malignant). Six cases without repeat FNA were follicular adenomas at resection. Two cases were lost to follow-up. Within all thyroid cytology categories in this 4-year period, we had a false-positive rate of 1.9% and a false-negative rate of 0.3%.

Conclusions: The Thy3a subclassification has varied diagnostic criteria and lacks reproducibility. Despite the rare use of the Thy3a category at our centre, our diagnostic accuracy remained high. At this time, further Thy3a cohort studies are required to assess the real benefits of this category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000478773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5649310PMC
September 2017

Thoracic spinal cord and cervical vagosympathetic neuromodulation obtund nodose sensory transduction of myocardial ischemia.

Auton Neurosci 2017 12 18;208:57-65. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

UCLA Neurocardiology Research Program of Excellence, Los Angeles, CA, United States; UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Autonomic regulation therapy involving either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or spinal cord stimulation (SCS) represents emerging bioelectronic therapies for heart disease. The objective of this study was to determine if VNS and/or SCS modulate primary cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic myocardium.

Methods: Using extracellular recordings in 19 anesthetized canines, of 88 neurons evaluated, 36 ventricular-related nodose ganglia sensory neurons were identified by their functional activity responses to epicardial touch, chemical activation of their sensory neurites (epicardial veratridine) and great vessel (descending aorta or inferior vena cava) occlusion. Neural responses to 1min left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion (CAO) were then evaluated. These interventions were then studied following either: i) SCS [T1-T3 spinal level; 50Hz, 90% motor threshold] or ii) cervical VNS [15-20Hz; 1.2× threshold].

Results: LAD occlusion activated 66% of identified nodose ventricular sensory neurons (0.33±0.08-0.79±0.20Hz; baseline to CAO; p<0.002). Basal activity of cardiac-related nodose neurons was differentially reduced by VNS (0.31±0.11 to 0.05±0.02Hz; p<0.05) as compared to SCS (0.36±0.12 to 0.28±0.14, p=0.59), with their activity response to transient LAD CAO being suppressed by either SCS (0.85±0.39-0.11±0.04Hz; p<0.03) or VNS (0.75±0.27-0.12±0.05Hz; p<0.04). VNS did not alter evoked neural responses of cardiac-related nodose neurons to great vessel occlusion.

Conclusions: Both VNS and SCS obtund ventricular ischemia induced enhancement of nodose afferent neuronal inputs to the medulla.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2017.08.005DOI Listing
December 2017

Gastric foveolar dysplasia: a survey of reporting habits and diagnostic criteria.

Pathology 2017 Jun 21;49(4):391-396. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, University Health Network/University of Toronto, Canada.

This study aimed to ascertain views, incidence of reporting and diagnostic criteria for gastric foveolar dysplasia. A questionnaire, a post-questionnaire discussion and microscopic assessment of selected cases was conducted by gastrointestinal pathologists to explore the above-stated aims. Fifty-four percent of respondents never or rarely diagnosed gastric foveolar-type dysplasia. The general consensus was that round nuclei, lack of nuclear stratification, presence of inflammation/damage and surface maturation favoured reactive change; while architectural abnormalities/complexity and nuclear enlargement mainly were used to separate low-grade from high-grade foveolar dysplasia. Immunohistochemistry was rarely used to make the diagnosis of dysplasia and was thought not to be of help in routine practice. Inter-observer agreement in grading of dysplasia versus reactive, and the type of dysplasia (foveolar versus adenomatous), was substantial/almost perfect amongst 35.7% and 21.4% of participants, respectively. This reflects low reproducibility in making these diagnoses. In conclusion, foveolar dysplasia was a rarely made diagnosis among 14 gastrointestinal pathologists, there are no uniform criteria for diagnosis and there is poor inter-observer agreement in separating low-grade foveolar dysplasia from reactive gastric mucosa and low-grade adenomatous dysplasia. Greater awareness and agreed criteria will prevent misdiagnosis of low-grade foveolar dysplasia as reactive, and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2017.01.007DOI Listing
June 2017

High grade follicular lymphoma in a patient receiving adalimumab and methotrexate for pityriasis rubra pilaris.

J Dermatolog Treat 2017 12 9;28(8):764-765. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

a The Charles Centre, Department of Dermatology , St. Vincent's University Hospital , Dublin , Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2017.1303572DOI Listing
December 2017

Remote Video Auditing in the Surgical Setting.

AORN J 2017 Feb;105(2):159-169

Remote video auditing, a method first adopted by the food preparation industry, was later introduced to the health care industry as a novel approach to improving hand hygiene practices. This strategy yielded tremendous and sustained improvement, causing leaders to consider the potential effects of such technology on the complex surgical environment. This article outlines the implementation of remote video auditing and the first year of activity, outcomes, and measurable successes in a busy surgery department in the eastern United States. A team of anesthesia care providers, surgeons, and OR personnel used low-resolution cameras, large-screen displays, and cell phone alerts to make significant progress in three domains: application of the Universal Protocol for preventing wrong site, wrong procedure, wrong person surgery; efficiency metrics; and cleaning compliance. The use of cameras with real-time auditing and results-sharing created an environment of continuous learning, compliance, and synergy, which has resulted in a safer, cleaner, and more efficient OR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2016.11.019DOI Listing
February 2017

A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

Trends Ecol Evol 2017 01 10;32(1):31-40. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK.

We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.11.005DOI Listing
January 2017

International evolution of fat, oil and grease (FOG) waste management - A review.

J Environ Manage 2017 Feb 9;187:424-435. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

UCD School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

In recent years, issues relating to fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems have intensified. In the media, sewer blockages caused by FOG waste deposits, commonly referred to as 'fatbergs', are becoming a reminder of the problems that FOG waste can cause when left untreated. These FOG blockages lead to sanitary sewer overflows, property flooding and contamination of water bodies with sewage. Despite these financial and environmentally detrimental effects, a homogenous FOG waste management method has not been developed internationally. However, some successful enduring FOG management programmes have been established, such as in Dublin city and in Scandinavian countries. The aim of this paper is to carry out a review on existing FOG research and management approaches. FOG management involves comprehending: (1) FOG deposition factors in the sewer, (2) FOG prevention and awareness tactics undertaken internationally and (3) potential utilisation methods for FOG waste. This review will highlight that preventing FOG from entering the sewer is the most common approach, often through simple awareness campaigns. The diverted FOG is rarely valorised to bioenergy or biomaterials, despite its potential. Thus, all facets of the FOG waste lifecycle must be identified and managed. Advancements in processes and techniques must be assessed to best determine the future evolution of FOG waste management to assist in achieving a sustainable urban environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.11.003DOI Listing
February 2017

A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2016.

Trends Ecol Evol 2016 Jan 11;31(1):44-53. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Natural Environment Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1EU, UK.

This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic environment, building artificial oceanic islands, and the incorporation of ecological civilization principles into government policies in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.11.007DOI Listing
January 2016

Erratum to: A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Jan;23(1):947

Pierre Mineau Consulting, 124 Creekside Drive, Salt Spring Island, BC, V8K 2E4, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5692-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4969919PMC
January 2016

Heart failure induces changes in acid-sensing ion channels in sensory neurons innervating skeletal muscle.

J Physiol 2015 Oct 23;593(20):4575-87. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.

Heart failure is associated with diminished exercise capacity, which is driven, in part, by alterations in exercise-induced autonomic reflexes triggered by skeletal muscle sensory neurons (afferents). These overactive reflexes may also contribute to the chronic state of sympathetic excitation, which is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of heart failure. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are highly expressed in muscle afferents where they sense metabolic changes associated with ischaemia and exercise, and contribute to the metabolic component of these reflexes. Therefore, we tested if ASICs within muscle afferents are altered in heart failure. We used whole-cell patch clamp to study the electrophysiological properties of acid-evoked currents in isolated, labelled muscle afferent neurons from control and heart failure (induced by myocardial infarction) mice. We found that the percentage of muscle afferents that displayed ASIC-like currents, the current amplitudes, and the pH dose-response relationships were not altered in mice with heart failure. On the other hand, the biophysical properties of ASIC-like currents were significantly different in a subpopulation of cells (40%) from heart failure mice. This population displayed diminished pH sensitivity, altered desensitization kinetics, and very fast recovery from desensitization. These unique properties define these channels within this subpopulation of muscle afferents as being heteromeric channels composed of ASIC2a and -3 subunits. Heart failure induced a shift in the subunit composition of ASICs within muscle afferents, which significantly altered their pH sensing characteristics. These results might, in part, contribute to the changes in exercise-mediated reflexes that are associated with heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP270690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606529PMC
October 2015

A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2015.

Trends Ecol Evol 2015 Jan 27;30(1):17-24. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Quantitative & Applied Ecology Group, National Environmental Research Program Environmental Decisions Hub, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.

This paper presents the results of our sixth annual horizon scan, which aims to identify phenomena that may have substantial effects on the global environment, but are not widely known or well understood. A group of professional horizon scanners, researchers, practitioners, and a journalist identified 15 topics via an iterative, Delphi-like process. The topics include a novel class of insecticide compounds, legalisation of recreational drugs, and the emergence of a new ecosystem associated with ice retreat in the Antarctic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.11.002DOI Listing
January 2015

Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.

Ecology 2014 Jul;95(7):1809-18

Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment of the viability of populations under unknown future environmental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-0733.1DOI Listing
July 2014

A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Jan 18;22(1):103-18. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, UK,

Concerns over the role of pesticides affecting vertebrate wildlife populations have recently focussed on systemic products which exert broad-spectrum toxicity. Given that the neonicotinoids have become the fastest-growing class of insecticides globally, we review here 150 studies of their direct (toxic) and indirect (e.g. food chain) effects on vertebrate wildlife--mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. We focus on two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and a third insecticide, fipronil, which also acts in the same systemic manner. Imidacloprid and fipronil were found to be toxic to many birds and most fish, respectively. All three insecticides exert sub-lethal effects, ranging from genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, and impaired immune function, to reduced growth and reproductive success, often at concentrations well below those associated with mortality. Use of imidacloprid and clothianidin as seed treatments on some crops poses risks to small birds, and ingestion of even a few treated seeds could cause mortality or reproductive impairment to sensitive bird species. In contrast, environmental concentrations of imidacloprid and clothianidin appear to be at levels below those which will cause mortality to freshwater vertebrates, although sub-lethal effects may occur. Some recorded environmental concentrations of fipronil, however, may be sufficiently high to harm fish. Indirect effects are rarely considered in risk assessment processes and there is a paucity of data, despite the potential to exert population-level effects. Our research revealed two field case studies of indirect effects. In one, reductions in invertebrate prey from both imidacloprid and fipronil uses led to impaired growth in a fish species, and in another, reductions in populations in two lizard species were linked to effects of fipronil on termite prey. Evidence presented here suggests that the systemic insecticides, neonicotinoids and fipronil, are capable of exerting direct and indirect effects on terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate wildlife, thus warranting further review of their environmental safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3180-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4284370PMC
January 2015

The frequencies and clinical implications of mutations in 33 kinase-related genes in locally advanced rectal cancer: a pilot study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2014 Aug 4;21(8):2642-9. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC: T3/4 and/or node-positive) is treated with preoperative/neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but responses are not uniform. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), MAP kinase (MAPK), and related pathways are implicated in rectal cancer tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the association between genetic mutations in these pathways and LARC clinical outcomes.

Methods: We genotyped 234 potentially clinically relevant nonsynonymous mutations in 33 PI3K and MAPK pathway-related genes, including PIK3CA, PIK3R1, AKT, STK11, KRAS, BRAF, MEK, CTNNB1, EGFR, MET, and NRAS, using the Sequenom platform. DNA samples were extracted from pretreatment LARC biopsy samples taken from 201 patients who were then treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgical resection.

Results: Sixty-two mutations were detected in 15 genes, with the highest frequencies occurring in KRAS (47 %), PIK3CA (14 %), STK11 (6.5 %), and CTNNB1 (6 %). Mutations were detected in BRAF, NRAS, AKT1, PIK3R1, EGFR, GNAS, MEK1, PDGFRA, ALK, and TNK2, but at frequencies of <5 %. As expected, a pathologic complete response (pCR) was associated with improved 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio, 0.074; 95 % CI 0.01-0.54; p = 0.001). Mutations in PI3K pathway-related genes (odds ratio, 5.146; 95 % CI 1.17-22.58; p = 0.030), but not MAPK pathway-related genes (p = 0.911), were associated with absence of pCR after neoadjuvant CRT. In contrast, in patients who did not achieve pCR, mutations in PI3K pathway-related genes were not associated with recurrence-free survival (p = 0.987). However, in these patients, codon 12 (G12D/G12 V/G12S) and 13 mutations in KRAS were associated with poor recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.579; 95 % confidence ratio, 1.00-2.48; p = 0.048).

Conclusions: Mutations in kinase signaling pathways modulate treatment responsiveness and clinical outcomes in LARC and may constitute rational targets for novel therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-014-3658-xDOI Listing
August 2014

A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2014.

Trends Ecol Evol 2014 Jan 11;29(1):15-22. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK.

This paper presents the output of our fifth annual horizon-scanning exercise, which aims to identify topics that increasingly may affect conservation of biological diversity, but have yet to be widely considered. A team of professional horizon scanners, researchers, practitioners, and a journalist identified 15 topics which were identified via an iterative, Delphi-like process. The 15 topics include a carbon market induced financial crash, rapid geographic expansion of macroalgal cultivation, genetic control of invasive species, probiotic therapy for amphibians, and an emerging snake fungal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884124PMC
January 2014