Publications by authors named "David Driemeier"

125 Publications

The genetic diversity of "papillomavirome" in bovine teat papilloma lesions.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Jul 28;3(1):51. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brazil.

Background: Papillomaviruses are small nonenveloped, circular double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the Papillomaviridae family. To date, 29 Bos taurus papillomavirus (BPV) types have been described. Studies involving mixed BPV infections have rarely been reported in contrast to human papillomavirus (HPV), which is commonly described in numerous studies showing coinfections. Moreover, previous studies had shown that HPV coinfections increase the risk of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we used rolling-circle amplification followed by a high-throughput sequencing (RCA-HTS) approach in 23 teat papillomas from southern Brazil.

Results: Eleven well-characterized BPV types and 14 putative new BPV types were genetically characterized into the Xi, Epsilon and Dyoxipapillomavirus genera according to phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene, which expands the previous 29 BPV types to 43. Moreover, BPV coinfections were detected in the majority (56.3%) of the papilloma lesions analyzed, suggesting a genetic diverse "papillomavirome" in bovine teat warts.

Conclusions: The data generated in this study support the possibility that a wide range of BPV is probably underdetected by conventional molecular detection tools, and that BPV coinfections are underestimated and probably genetic diverse. Additionally, 14 new BPV types were characterized, increasing the knowledge regarding BPV genetic diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-021-00114-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317299PMC
July 2021

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Ionized Calcium-Binding Adapter Molecule 1 Immunostaining Score for the Central Nervous System of Horses With Non-suppurative Encephalitis and Encephalopathies.

Front Vet Sci 2021 9;8:660022. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Gießen, Germany.

Like humans, horses are susceptible to neurotropic and neuroinvasive pathogens that are not always readily identified in histological sections. Instead, alterations in astrocytes and microglia cells can be used as pathological hallmarks of injured nervous tissue in a variety of infectious and degenerative diseases. On the other hand, equine glial cell alterations are poorly characterized in diseases. Therefore, in this study, we provide a statistically proved score system to classify astrogliosis and microgliosis in the central nervous system (CNS) of horses, based on morphological and quantitative analyses of 35 equine cases of encephalitis and/or encephalopathies and four non-altered CNS as controls. For this system, we used glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) immunohistochemistry, allied to statistical analysis to confirm that the scores were correctly designated. The scores of alterations ranged from 0 (non-altered) to 3 (severely altered) and provided a helpful method for describing astrocytic and microglial alterations in horses suffering from inflammatory and degenerative lesions. This system could be a template for comparative studies in other animal species and could aid algorithms designed for artificial intelligence methods lacking a defined morphological pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.660022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299206PMC
July 2021

Pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia in a cat - Short communication.

Acta Vet Hung 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

An adult, mixed-breed, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV-) positive female cat was presented with mucosal jaundice and a history of anorexia and constipation for three days. Physical examination revealed splenomegaly, cachexia, and dehydration. Humane euthanasia was conducted, followed by postmortem examination. Grossly, the cat was icteric, and presented hepatomegaly with multifocal white spots and splenomegaly. Histologically, the bone marrow was nearly completely replaced by a proliferation of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts, and there was a proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. Similar neoplastic proliferation was observed infiltrating the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle, and lungs. Immunohistochemistry was performed for von Willebrand Factor (VWF), CD79α, CD3, feline immunodeficiency virus, FeLV, and CD61. Marked cytoplasmic labelling was observed in the neoplastic cells for FeLV, VWF and CD61, corroborating the diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2021.00025DOI Listing
July 2021

Naegleria fowleri-associated meningoencephalitis in a cow in Southern Brazil-first molecular detection of N. fowleri in Brazil.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Bairro Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

Naegleria fowleri, a free-living and thermophilic ameba, is the etiological agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is a rare and highly fatal neurologic disease in humans, and has been rarely documented in animal species. This report describes the pathological and etiological findings of a fatal case of N. fowleri-associated meningoencephalitis in a cow in Southern Brazil. Microscopic findings were consistent with severe, multifocal, hemorrhagic, and necrosuppurative meningoencephalitis associated with a large number of amebic trophozoites compatible with N. fowleri. Brain samples subjected to molecular assays generated a 315 bp fragment, which presented 99% identity with a N. fowleri sequence previously deposited in GenBank. This is the first study reporting the molecular detection of N. fowleri in a case of cattle meningoencephalitis in Latin America, and the obtained sequence represents the first GenBank deposit of N. fowleri identified in Brazil to this day. Additionally, the case reported is the second occurrence of N. fowleri-associated disease in the same city, drawing attention to the local importance of infection by this ameba and potential risk for human infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07209-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Investigation of Mycobacterium bovis and Metastrongylus sp. co-infection and its relationship to tuberculosis lesions' occurrence in wild boars.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Aug 24;77:101674. Epub 2021 May 24.

Centro de Pesquisa em Saúde Animal, Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor, Departamento de Diagnóstico e Pesquisa Agropecuária, Secretaria da Agricultura, Pecuária e Desenvolvimento Rural, Estrada Do Conde, 6000 - Sans Souci, 92990-000, Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Animal tuberculosis (aTB) is a zoonotic disease characterized by granulomatous lesions on affected tissues, occurring as a consequence of immunological response to infection. Mycobacterium bovis, the main causative agent of aTB, was investigated in Brazilian wild boars with 37.7 % (29/77) positivity. Among these animals, most had no macroscopic tuberculosis-like lesions (89.6 %; 26/29). The existence of co-infections, which may alter an individual's immune response to an immunological challenge, could influence the formation of tuberculosis lesions. Therefore, we investigated Metastrongylus sp. and aTB co-infection to seek an explanation for the absence of macroscopic lesions in aTB. Of the tested animals, 77.9 % (60/77) had Metastrongylus sp., however, there was no association between its occurrence and the pattern of aTB lesions. The absence of tuberculous lesions in infected animals is worrisome, especially to hunters who handle their carcasses, potentially assuming that the animal is healthy. Studies evaluating other possibilities that can explain the absence of lesions in infected animals should be carried out to better understand these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2021.101674DOI Listing
August 2021

Swine polioencephalomyelitis in Brazil: identification of Teschovirus A, Sapelovirus A, and Enterovirus G in a farm from Southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Sep 22;52(3):1617-1622. Epub 2021 May 22.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Porcine encephalomyelitis can be associated with many etiologies, including viral agents, such as Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV), and Porcine astrovirus (PoAstV). In this study, we investigated the presence of these viruses in a neurological disease outbreak in a swine farm in Southern Brazil. The piglet production farm unity had 1200 weaning piglets, and 40 piglets with neurological signs such as motor incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of hind limbs, with an evolution time of approximately 4 days. Among these, 10 piglets were submitted to postmortem examination. Gross lesions were restricted to a mild enlargement of the nerve roots and ganglia of spinal cord segments. The microscopic lesions were characterized by nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and ganglioneuritis with evident neuronal degeneration and necrosis. Samples of the central nervous system (CNS), cerebrospinal fluid, and feces were collected and submitted to molecular analysis. PTV was identified in all samples of the CNS, while eight of the piglets were also positive for PSV, and seven were positive for Porcine enterovirus (EV-G). PoAstV was identified in a pool of feces of healthy animals used as controls. This study demonstrates the occurrence of encephalomyelitis associated with PTV on a swine farm in Southern Brazil, as well as the presence of other viruses such as PSV, EV-G, and PoAstV in the swineherd. Sequences of the fragments that were previously amplified by PCR showed a high similarity to PTV 6. Herein, we describe the first case report of severe swine polioencephalomyelitis associated with PTV in South America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00509-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Rangelia vitalii molecular and histological quantification in tissues comparing crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) and domestic dogs.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 09 2;12(5):101731. Epub 2021 May 2.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FAVET), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Rangeliosis is a condition transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum and caused by the protozoan parasite Rangelia vitalii in canids. In domestic dogs, the disease causes a severe hemolytic disease, while in wild canids the piroplasm is often detected without any clinical abnormality. This study aimed to detect and quantify the number of copies of the R. vitalii Hsp70 gene (indirect parasite burden) in several organs of domestic and South American wild canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) to elucidate distinct clinical presentations of rangeliosis in these species. A total of seven domestic dogs that died due to rangeliosis and 38 wild foxes were initially included, with all dogs presenting histological and molecular features of rangeliosis, while eight C. thous were positive at the molecular analysis for R. vitalii. Fragments of 22 organs collected from domestic (n = 7) and wild foxes (n = 8) were employed for histological and molecular quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction aiming at the Hsp70 gene. Histologically, parasitophorous vacuoles were constantly detected in the dogs, while these were detected only in two C. thous. Parasitic burden was significantly higher in the digestive, cardiorespiratory, endocrine, genitourinary, and skeletal-muscle systems of domestic dogs when compared to wild foxes. In the hematopoietic system of wild canids, some organs, such as the lymph nodes and tonsils, presented significantly lower amounts of R. vitalii, while other organs (spleen, bone marrow, and blood) had results similar to those of domestic dogs. Additionally, the central nervous system of both domestic and wild canids presented a similar quantity of R. vitalii. The etiological agent is possibly maintained through an asexual reproductive process (merogony) in both domestic and wild species. Nonetheless, a limited or short-duration schizogony phase occurs in C. thous, which would designate this species as a possible reservoir host for the agent. Dogs, in contrast, would most likely act as accidental hosts, presenting a severe and more pathogenic schizogony phase, resulting in characteristic clinical and pathological rangeliosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101731DOI Listing
September 2021

Anabolic-androgenic steroids impair mitochondrial function and redox status in the heart and liver of mice.

Steroids 2021 Aug 11;172:108861. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Neurotrauma and Biomarkers, PPG-Ciências Biológicas Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Supraphysiological doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause long-term functional abnormalities, particularly in the heart and liver, which may only represent the later-stage of the cumulative damage caused by dysfunctional organelles. We investigated whether mid-term supraphysiological doses of Testosterone and Nandrolone impair mitochondrial Ca and membrane potential (ΔΨm) dynamics, and redox machinery in the heart and liver of mice. CF1 albino mice were treated daily with 15 mg/kg of Nandrolone (ND) or Testosterone (T), or oil (vehicle) for 19 days. Preparations enriched in mitochondria from the heart or liver were used to perform assays of Ca influx/efflux, ΔΨm, and HO production. ND significantly impaired mitochondrial Ca influx in the heart, and ΔΨm in both organs. ND and T increased HO levels in the heart and liver relative to controls. Also, ND increased oxidative damage to lipids and proteins (TBARS and carbonyls) in the heart, and both AAS decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in the heart and liver. In summary, supraphysiological doses of ND, and in a lesser extend T, impaired mitochondrial Ca influx and ΔΨm, and redox homeostasis being early mechanistic substrates for inducing heart and liver tissue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2021.108861DOI Listing
August 2021

Pathology of Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis in Cattle.

J Comp Pathol 2021 Apr 20;184:7-11. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

We describe the pathology of gastrointestinal tuberculosis in three cows. Gross lesions were found in the jejunum and ileum in all cases, and were characterized by button-shaped ulcers in the mucosa overlying Peyer's patches and adjacent mucosa. One case had similar changes in the pyloric region of the abomasum. In the affected intestinal segments, marked granulomatous inflammation effaced the lymphoid follicles of Peyer's patches and often extended transmurally. Transmural granulomatous inflammation was also found in the abomasum of one cow. Acid-fast bacilli were identified by the Ziehl-Neelsen method and the lesions were immunolabelled by an anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antibody. M. tuberculosis var. bovis was isolated in one case. Disseminated tuberculosis and marked lung lesions in all cows suggested that the gastrointestinal lesions were most likely secondary to pulmonary infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2021.01.008DOI Listing
April 2021

Pathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Thyroid Neoplasms in Cats.

J Comp Pathol 2021 Apr 2;184:44-55. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

There are few pathological and immunohistochemical descriptions of thyroid neoplasms in cats. We investigated neoplasms of the thyroid in 31 cats (average age 15.6 years) in Southern Brazil. Most (96.8%) of these cases were classified as follicular adenomas and were predominantly unilateral and multinodular. Histologically, macrofollicular adenomas were the most common type observed. Carcinomas represented 3.2% of the investigated tumours. By immunohistochemical labelling, thyroglobulin was expressed more commonly than paired box gene 8 or thyroid transcription factor 1 in the follicular adenomas. One carcinoma was immunopositive for thyroglobulin, pancytokeratin, chromogranin A and synaptophysin, suggestive of a calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2021.01.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Causes of death in beef cattle in southern Brazil.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Jul 9;33(4):677-683. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculdade de Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

We determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in beef cattle in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, based on pathology laboratory submissions. Postmortem examinations were conducted on 1,277 beef cattle that died between 2008 and 2018. Information regarding age, time of the year, breed, and regional location were analyzed statistically. Most cattle were from the surrounding region of Porto Alegre, and 78.7% of the analyzed cases had diagnostic value. The diagnostic category with most cases was infectious and/or parasitic diseases (60%), followed by toxic and toxicoinfectious (25%). Most cases occurred in the fall. Major disease conditions identified included hemoprotozoal infection (18.2%), rabies (8.2%), and plant intoxications by spp. (8.5%) and (4.6%). Hemoprotozoal infection occurred at a higher frequency in young cattle, mainly in animals up to 1 y old. Intoxication by spp. was more frequent in cattle 2-3 y old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10406387211007952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229822PMC
July 2021

A new highly divergent copiparvovirus in sheep.

Arch Virol 2021 May 10;166(5):1517-1520. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

The subfamily Parvovirinae within the family Parvoviridae consists of viruses that can infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts and cause effects ranging from severe disease to asymptomatic infection. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was utilized to analyze samples obtained from an abortion outbreak in a sheep flock to identify a putative viral etiology. A highly divergent nearly complete parvovirid genome sequence, approximately 4.9 kb in length, was determined. The nonstructural protein (NS1) amino acid (aa) sequence of this virus shared less than 30% identity with those of other copiparvoviruses and less than 22% identity with those of members of other genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae. Phylogenetically, this virus, which we have provisionally named "sheep copiparvovirus 1", formed a cluster with copiparvovirus sequences and should be classified as a member of a new species in the genus Copiparvovirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05020-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular identification of Mycobacterium spp. isolated from Brazilian wild boars.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jan 4;48(1):1025-1031. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Centro de Pesquisa em Saúde Animal, Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor, Departamento de Diagnóstico e Pesquisa Agropecuária, Secretaria da Agricultura, Pecuária e Desenvolvimento Rural, Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are susceptible to mycobacterial infections, including tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Recently, Mycobacterium spp. infections were described in Brazilian wild boars, which can act as bacterial reservoirs. Here, we aim to characterize 15 Mycobacterium spp. isolates from Brazilian wild boars' tissues through partial sequencing of the heat shock protein 65 (hsp65) gene and phylogenetic analysis. The isolates were classified as M. tuberculosis (33.3%), M. colombiense (33.3%), M. avium subsp. hominissuis (13.3%), M. parmense (13.3%) and M. mantenii (6.66%). The isolates classified as M. tuberculosis were confirmed as variant bovis by PCR. At phylogenetic analysis some isolates formed separated clades, indicating genetic variability. Different Mycobacterium species were recovered from wild boars circulating in Brazil, including mycobacteria associated to zoonotic infections, such as M. tuberculosis. In addition, this is the first report in Brazilian wild boars on M. mantenii and M. parmense detection, two recently described pathogenic mycobacteria. However, the isolates' genetic diversity-i.e. identities lower than 100% when compared to reference sequences-suggests that other genotyping tools would allow a deeper characterization. Nonetheless, the reported data contributes to the knowledge on mycobacterial infections in wild boars from Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06118-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Chymase inhibition: A key factor in the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extracts and spilanthol isolated from Acmella oleracea.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 24;270:113610. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), CEP, 90610-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Acmella oleracea (L.) R. K. Jansen (Asteraceae), known as jambú in Brazil, is used in traditional medicine as analgesic and for inflammatory conditions, characterized by the presence of N-alkylamides, mainly spilanthol. This bioactive compound is responsible for the above-described pharmacological properties, including sialagogue and anesthetic.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of A. oleracea leaves (AOEE-L) and flowers (AOEE-F) extracts, including an isolated alkylamide (spilanthol), using in vitro and in vivo models. The mechanism underlying this effect was also investigated.

Materials And Methods: Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in order to characterize the N-alkylamides content. AOEE-L, AOEE-F (25-100 μg/mL) and spilanthol (50-200 μM) were tested in vitro on VSMC after stimulation with hyperglycemic medium (25 mM glucose). Their effects over nitric oxide (NO) generation, chymase inhibition and expression, catalase (CAT), superoxide anion (SOD) radical activity were evaluated. After an acute administration of extracts (10-100 mg/mL) and spilanthol (6.2 mg/mL), the anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by applying the formalin test in rats. Blood was collected to measure serum aminotransferases activities, NO activity, creatinine and urea.

Results: A number of distinct N-alkylamides were detected and quantified in AOEE-L and AOEE-F. Spilanthol was identified in both extracts and selected for experimental tests. Hyperglycemic stimulation in VSMC promoted the expression of inflammatory parameters, including chymase, NO, CAT and SOD activity and chymase expression, all of them attenuated by the presence of the extracts and spilanthol. The administration of extracts or spilanthol significantly inhibited edema formation, NO production and cell tissue infiltration in the formalin test, without causing kidney and liver toxicity.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory activity of leaves and flowers extracts of jambú associated distinctly with their chemical profile. The effects appear to be associated with the inhibition of chymase activity, suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine NO and antioxidant activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113610DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationship Between Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis in Appendicular Osteosarcoma in Dogs.

J Comp Pathol 2020 Oct 6;180:91-99. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Brazil.

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone neoplasm in dogs and often involves the appendicular skeleton. We report the clinicopathological and prognostic features of appendicular osteosarcomas diagnosed in 153 dogs from 2008 to 2018. The survival data for 22 dogs that underwent surgery and chemotherapy were statistically compared with the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical data for correlation with prognosis. The affected dogs had a mean age of 9.1 years and a mean body weight of 33.4 kg. No sex predilection was detected, although the incidence was slightly higher in females (52%). Large mixed and purebred dogs were most commonly affected. Long bones were affected in 124 cases (92.5%; 124/134). The extremities affected within long bones were the metaphysis of the proximal humerus (29%), distal radius (17.7%), distal femur (15.3%) and proximal tibia (7.2%). Histologically, osteoblastic osteosarcoma was most commonly detected (56.9%), followed by chondroblastic (13.7%), telangiectatic (11.8%), fibroblastic (7.8%), giant cell-rich (5.2%) and poorly differentiated neoplasms (4.6%). Regional lymph nodes were available for analysis in 28 out of 70 excisional biopsies from amputated entire limbs. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were observed in 14.3% (4/28) of these cases. Distant metastases were found in 75% (39/52) of cases in which diagnostic imaging or necropsy was carried out. The lungs were the most common site of metastasis (87.2%; 34/39 cases). Weight, age, sex, affected limb or bone, histological classification, mitotic count or histological grade did not influence survival (P >0.05). Neoplasms located at proximal extremities (n = 7) of affected limbs had a tendency for a poorer prognosis than those at distal extremities (n = 15) (P = 0.06). For these cases, the 1-year survival rate was 14.3% compared with 40% for neoplasms at distal extremities. There was no significant difference in the survival rate when amputation (n = 16) or limb preservation (n = 6) techniques were employed with chemotherapy (P = 0.20). The survival period of dogs that had undergone limb amputation, or limb preservation surgery, and chemotherapy was 73-1,185 days, with a mean and median of 376 and 256 days, respectively. Mild to marked cytoplasmic immunolabelling of osteopontin was found in all cases but the intensity (P = 0.66) and percentage of neoplastic cells labelled (P = 0.49) did not influence survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.09.003DOI Listing
October 2020

Penile Tuberculosis in a Bull.

J Comp Pathol 2020 Oct 8;180:5-8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

We describe a case of penile tuberculosis in a bull. The prepuce was thickened, firm and pale with multifocal to coalescent caseous nodules, and the inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes were moderately enlarged. Lesions in the prepuce, penis and lymph nodes were characterized by multifocal to coalescent areas of caseous necrosis and marked granulomatous inflammation. Acid-fast bacilli were seen within necrotic foci and Langhans giant cells. Mycobacteriumtuberculosis var. bovis was identified in inguinal lymph nodes by the polymerase chain reaction technique and by bacterial isolation. Although rare, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of granulomatous lesions in the genital tract of bulls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.08.001DOI Listing
October 2020

Feline giant-cell pleomorphic sarcoma: cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical characterization.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Aug 18;23(8):738-744. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the cytologic, pathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) aspects of feline giant-cell sarcoma.

Methods: Biopsy and necropsy reports from the Department of Veterinary Pathology were retrieved, and 13 cases of pleomorphic sarcoma (PS) were selected according to the established epidemiologic, pathologic and IHC criteria. All samples were fixed in 10% formalin, routinely processed for histology, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Samples also underwent IHC testing for vimentin, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), desmin, actin and S-100.

Results: The mean age of the affected cats was 9.5 years, and females were over-represented. Most neoplasms were observed in the flank, lateral thorax, limbs and interscapular region, and were >2 cm in diameter. Cytology analysis revealed highly cellular preparations with three distinct populations (spindle cells, small round cells and multinucleated giant cells) in a dense eosinophilic stroma. Histologically, PS was composed of a combination of these three populations. IHC labeling for vimentin and Iba-1 was strongly positive for spindle cells and multinucleated giant cells, respectively. Desmin/actin showed variable labeling among the samples. S-100 was negative in all samples.

Conclusions And Relevance: PS is a neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, also known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The predominant subtype in this study that affected the cats was the giant-cell type, characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells among spindle-shaped cells. These findings are similar to those described in human patients; thus, a comparison between the neoplasms seen in these species might be useful, and the knowledge of biologic behavior and overall treatment approach for humans could be extrapolated to cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X20972667DOI Listing
August 2021

Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis due to Sarcocystis neurona infection in Brazilian horses.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Nov 4;52(6):3809-3817. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42.505, Bairro Agronomia, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important neurologic disease of horses in the American continent caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infection. This study describes the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of fatal cases of EPM in southern Brazil. A review was performed on a total of 13 cases compatible with EPM, which were diagnosed by postmortem examination in the period of 2010-2017. Epidemiological information was obtained from necropsy reports. Gross and histological lesions were characterized, and cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry anti-Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora spp. Molecular search was performed using ITS-1 gene PCRs. Microscopic lesions were multifocal in all cases, and more frequently observed in the spinal cord segments and in the rhombencephalon. Intralesional protozoans were histologically detected in five horses, while a positive immunostaining for S. neurona was observed in eleven cases (11/13). Through molecular techniques, six positive cases for the ITS-1 gene were detected, and obtained sequences presented highest similarity with S. neurona. EPM due to S. neurona infection represents an important neurologic disease of horses in Brazil and this disease should be considered as a main differential diagnosis in horses presenting neurologic signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02419-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Sporothrix brasiliensis on cats with skin ulcers in Southern Brazil.

Med Mycol 2021 Mar;59(3):301-304

Setor de Micologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Sporotrichosis is a disease caused by thermally dimorphic fungi belonging to the Sporothrix schenckii complex. We report the occurrence of multiple cases of sporotrichosis in cats in Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil, from 2015 to 2019. A set of 21 fungal isolates were collected and the partial sequence of calmodulin (CAL) gene compared. All isolates were identified at phenotypic and molecular level as S. brasiliensis. Phylogenetic analysis showed the isolates clustered in two distinct groups, suggesting the presence of multiple genetic variants of S. brasiliensis in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa083DOI Listing
March 2021

Fibrinonecrotic Placentitis and Abortion Associated With Pantoea agglomerans Infection in a Mare.

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 09 6;92:103156. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Pantoea agglomerans, family Enterobacteriaceae, is a Gram-negative bacterium that may be isolated from soil and from plants. This bacterium has been associated with disease in plants, humans, and rarely in domestic animal species. We describe here a case of fibrinonecrotic placentitis and equine abortion associated with P. agglomerans infection in southern Brazil. A fetus with 10 months of gestation and its placenta were evaluated. Gross lesions were observed in the cervical star extending to the body of the chorioallantois and consisted of a focally extensive, transmural, severely thickened yellow area. Histologically, this area in the chorioallantois was effaced by severe necrosis, associated with marked inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils and abundant deposition of fibrin and cellular debris. Aggregates of bacterial rods were noted intermixed with inflammation areas. No significant lesions were observed in the remaining organs inspected. Tissue samples of the lung, placenta, and stomach contents were cultured, and microbiological tests revealed the growth of P. agglomerans in all evaluated samples. The present study reaffirms the participation of P. agglomerans as a cause of bacterial placentitis and abortion in horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103156DOI Listing
September 2020

Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. tuberculosis infection in two captive black capuchins (Sapajus nigritus) in Southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Dec 22;51(4):2169-2173. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Tuberculosis is a common zooanthroponosis in humans with a high incidence in Brazil, but it may also affect non-human primates (NHPs), of which Old World primates are most commonly involved. Nonetheless, its occurrence in New World primates is unknown, and therefore, this study aimed to describe the infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant tuberculosis in two captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) in Southern Brazil. The primates were housed in the same enclosure, wherein close contact with humans frequently occurred, and presented apathy, anorexia, and death in a clinical course of 15 days to 2 months. At the necropsy, the tracheobronchial lymph nodes were markedly enlarged and firm to hard and on the cut surface had a caseous aspect. The lungs exhibited two injury patterns: multifocal and disseminated. Microscopically, the lungs exhibited multifocal to coalescing necrotic granulomas and non-necrotic granulomas, with multiple acid-fast bacilli within the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Bacilli were also labeled upon immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiological culture of lung samples from both cases yielded colonies compatible with M. tuberculosis. The isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis var. tuberculosis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although tuberculosis is poorly described in New World primates, M. tuberculosis var. tuberculosis may cause a highly contagious and progressive disease with high mortality in black capuchin monkeys (S. nigritus).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00339-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688760PMC
December 2020

Ophthalmopathologic characterization of multicentric or metastatic neoplasms with an extraocular origin in dogs and cats.

Vet Ophthalmol 2020 Sep 20;23(5):814-827. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Objective: To characterize the frequency and distribution of secondary ocular neoplasms in dogs and cats identified during necropsy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of necropsy records of dogs and cats was conducted, and cases with metastatic/multicentric neoplasms with an extraocular origin, involving the eyes, were selected.

Results: From January 2015 to January 2019, we identified a total of 233 dogs and 100 cats with metastatic disease. Of these, 11.6% (27/233) of the dogs and 13% (13/100) of the cats had ocular metastases. Lymphoma was the most common multicentric neoplasm involving the eyes of both species. In dogs, these neoplasms occurred bilaterally, predominantly in the anterior uvea, and were diffuse large B-cell, T-lymphoblastic, peripheral T-cell not otherwise specified, and lymphocytic B-cell lymphomas. In cats, feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated T-cell lymphoma was the most common. Mammary carcinoma was the second most common ocular metastatic neoplasm in bitches, with a predominantly unilateral involvement of the uveal tract. In cats, following lymphoma, pulmonary and squamous cell carcinomas were the most common multicentric/metastatic neoplasms of the eyes. Individual cases of cholangiocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and chemodectoma in dogs, as well as mammary gland cribriform carcinoma, salivary gland carcinoma, and histiocytic sarcoma in cats were detected.

Conclusions: The eyes of dogs were mostly affected by lymphoma or mammary gland carcinoma, while those of cats mostly had lymphoma, pulmonary carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma as the main metastatic/multicentric neoplasm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify intraocular metastatic cholangiocarcinoma and chemodectoma in dogs, aside from identifying salivary gland carcinoma in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12803DOI Listing
September 2020

Atypical parasitic lesions in slaughtered cattle in Southern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 10;29(3):e001720. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

In this study, we described the morphological features and unusual presentations of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and eosinophilic myositis caused by Sarcocystis species diagnosed at the slaughterhouse lines. Twenty-seven samples of atypical parasitic lesions from distinct cattle were evaluated, of which 12 corresponded to hydatidosis, 11 to fasciolosis, and 4 to eosinophilic sarcocystosis. Hydatid cysts were observed mainly in the heart, with all cases involving the left ventricle. Fasciolosis lesions involved mainly the lungs, and were characterized by a focal nodular elevated area involving the edges of the lobes. Intralesional trematodes were observed in three cases. Sarcocystosis lesions were observed in four cases, and lesions were primarily located in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Grossly, they presented as focal or focally extensive streaks, patches, or numerous nodules that were greenish to mildly yellowish. Histologically, all the cases had intralesional ruptured cysts of Sarcocystis that were associated with severe eosinophilic myositis and myocarditis. Parasitic lesions in atypical locations and/or with aberrant responses should be promptly identified because it may mistakenly diagnosed as other potentially zoonotic diseases, such as cysticercosis and tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612020043DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of iron produced by powder metallurgy.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Oct 27;115:111129. Epub 2020 May 27.

Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Rua Sarmento Leite 245, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Biodegradable metallic materials (BMMs) are expected to corrode gradually in vivo after providing the structural support to the tissue during its regeneration and healing processes. These characteristics make them promising candidates for use in stents. These endoprostheses are produced from metal alloys by casting and thermomechanical treatment. Since porous alloys and metals have less corrosion resistance than dense ones, the use of powder metallurgy becomes an option to produce them. Among the metals, iron has been proposed as a material in the manufacturing of stents because of its mechanical properties. However, even then it is unclear what toxicity threshold is safe to the body. Thus, the objective of this research was to verify the biocompatibility of sintered 99.95% and 99.5% pure iron by powder metallurgy in vitro with Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs) and in vivo with a Wistar rat model. Herein, characterizations of iron powder samples produced by the powder metallurgy and the process parameters as compression pressure, atmosphere, sintering time and temperature were determined to evaluate the potential of production of biodegradable implants. The samples obtained from pure iron were submitted to tests of green and sintered density, porosity, microhardness, hardness and metallography. The biocompatibility study was performed by indirect and direct cell culture with iron. The effects of corrosion products of iron on morphology, viability, and proliferation of ADSCs were evaluated in vitro. Hemolysis assay was performed to verify the hemocompatibility of the samples. In vivo biocompatibility was evaluated after pure iron discs were implanted subcutaneously into the dorsal area of Wistar rats that were followed up to 6 months. The results presented in this paper validated the potential to produce biodegradable medical implants by powder metallurgy. Both iron samples were hemocompatible and biocompatible in vitro and in vivo, although the 99.95% iron had better performance in vitro than 99.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111129DOI Listing
October 2020

Canine papillomavirus type 16 associated to squamous cell carcinoma in a dog: virological and pathological findings.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Dec 4;51(4):2087-2094. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, av. Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Papillomaviruses (PVs) are circular double-stranded DNA virus belonging to Papillomaviridae family. During the infection cycle, PVs translate proteins that can influence cell growth and differentiation, leading to epidermal hyperplasia and papillomas (warts) or malignant neoplasms. Canis familiaris papillomaviruses (CPVs) have been associated with different lesions, such as oral and cutaneous papillomatosis, pigmented plaques, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here, we report a clinical case of a mixed bred female dog with pigmented plaques induced by CPV16 (Chipapillomavirus 2) that progressed to in situ and invasive SCCs. Gross and histological findings were characterized, and the lesions were mainly observed in ventral abdominal region and medial face of the limbs. In situ hybridization (ISH) revealed strong nuclear hybridization signals in the neoplastic epithelial cells, as well as in the keratinocytes and koilocytes of the pigmented viral plaques. The full genome of the CPV16 recovered directly from the lesions was characterized, and the phylogenetic relationships were determined. The identification of oncoprotein genes (E5, E6, and E7) by high throughput sequencing (HTS) and their expected domains are suggestive of the malignant transformation by CPV16.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00310-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688879PMC
December 2020

Bovine abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death associated with Babesia bovis and Anaplasma sp. infections in southern Brazil.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2020 07 15;11(4):101443. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Veterinary Pathology Department, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases widely disseminated in cattle herds in many parts of the world. These diseases represent important causes of death and economic losses in several countries, including Brazil, and are characterized by hemolytic disease and anemia. Animals of all ages may be affected. Although transplacental infections are known to occur, abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death directly associated with Anaplasma marginale and especially Babesia spp. infections have rarely been documented in cattle. The objective of the present study is to describe the pathological and molecular findings of two cases of bovine abortion, two cases of stillbirth and two cases of neonatal death associated with intrauterine anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis in southern Brazil. All cases occurred in beef farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, between 2017 and 2019. Angus and crossbred calves were affected. At the necropsy, the main gross lesions observed included different degrees of splenomegaly, enlarged and yellow liver, thick and grumous bile, pallor or jaundice of mucous membranes and carcass, and dark kidneys. Four calves also presented cherry-pink discoloration of the central nervous system. Cytological slides enabled the observation of intraerythrocytic organisms consistent with Babesia bovis (3/6) and A. marginale (2/6). Through PCR assays, it was possible to detect three cases of Babesia sp. infection alone, and one case of Anaplasma sp. infection alone. Co-infections with Anaplasma sp. and Babesia sp. were detected in two cases. These findings reaffirm that anaplasmosis and babesiosis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of fetal loss, stillbirth and neonatal death in cattle in areas where these diseases occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101443DOI Listing
July 2020

In vivo effect of minocycline alone and in combination with immunotherapy against pythium insidiosum.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Apr 20;243:108616. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Programa De Pós-Graduação Em Farmacologia, Centro De Ciências Da Saúde, Departamento De Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal De Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Departamento De Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Centro De Ciências Rurais, UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study examined the effect of minocycline alone and in combination with immunotherapy against pythiosis. Twenty rabbits, aged three months old and subcutaneously inoculated with Pythium insidiosum zoospores were divided into four groups (n = 5): treated with minocycline (10 mg/kg/day twice daily), treated with immunotherapy (34 mg subcutaneously every 14 days), treated with minocycline plus immunotherapy, and untreated (control group). The treatments were started 30 days after inoculation and continued for 70 days. The subcutaneous nodular injury areas in infected groups were measured every seven days after the beginning of treatment. Only the rabbits that developed lesions were selected for this study. When compared with the control group over 70 days, the minocycline and minocycline plus immunotherapy groups of rabbits with pythiosis showed significantly reduced injuries. The histopathology showed the presence of inflammation, macrophages and eosinophils. Grocott's staining revealed irregular hyphae-like structures that were ramified and occasionally septate. Our results suggest that minocycline has fungistatic activity and that the combination of minocycline and immunotherapy is more effective than the individual therapies tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108616DOI Listing
April 2020

Identification of Reptarenaviruses, Hartmaniviruses, and a Novel Chuvirus in Captive Native Brazilian Boa Constrictors with Boid Inclusion Body Disease.

J Virol 2020 05 18;94(11). Epub 2020 May 18.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a transmissible viral disease of captive snakes that causes severe losses in snake collections worldwide. It is caused by reptarenavirus infection, which can persist over several years without overt signs but is generally associated with the eventual death of the affected snakes. Thus far, reports have confirmed the existence of reptarenaviruses in captive snakes in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia, but there is no evidence that it also occurs in wild snakes. BIBD affects boa species within the subfamily and pythons in the family , the habitats of which do not naturally overlap. Here, we studied Brazilian captive snakes with BIBD using a metatranscriptomic approach, and we report the identification of novel reptarenaviruses, hartmaniviruses, and a new species in the family The reptarenavirus L segments identified are divergent enough to represent six novel species, while we found only a single novel reptarenavirus S segment. Until now, hartmaniviruses had been identified only in European captive boas with BIBD, and the present results increase the number of known hartmaniviruses from four to six. The newly identified chuvirus showed 38.4%, 40.9%, and 48.1% amino acid identity to the nucleoprotein, glycoprotein, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively, of its closest relative, Guangdong red-banded snake chuvirus-like virus. Although we cannot rule out the possibility that the found viruses originated from imported snakes, the results suggest that the viruses could circulate in indigenous snake populations. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), caused by reptarenavirus infection, affects captive snake populations worldwide, but the reservoir hosts of reptarenaviruses remain unknown. Here, we report the identification of novel reptarenaviruses, hartmaniviruses, and a chuvirus in captive Brazilian boas with BIBD. Three of the four snakes studied showed coinfection with all three viruses, and one of the snakes harbored three novel reptarenavirus L segments and one novel S segment. The samples originated from collections with Brazilian indigenous snakes only, which could indicate that these viruses circulate in wild snakes. The findings could further indicate that boid snakes are the natural reservoir of reptarena- and hartmaniviruses commonly found in captive snakes. The snakes infected with the novel chuvirus all suffered from BIBD; it is therefore not possible to comment on its potential pathogenicity and contribution to the observed changes in the present case material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00001-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269426PMC
May 2020

New Pathological Lesions Developed in Pigs by a "Non-virulent" Strain of .

Front Vet Sci 2020 25;7:98. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Microbiology and Advanced Immunology, Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, University of Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, Brazil.

is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Glässer's disease, a common pathology found in young pigs characterized by polyarthritis, polyserositis, and meningitis. The bacterium has 15 known serovars that have been classified by virulence. Serovars 1, 4, 5, and 12 are considered highly virulent and used in most studies. Serovars 3, 6, 7, 9, and 11 are considered avirulent. Recent reports that serovar 7 is an emerging problem in the pig industry indicate that the association of virulence and serovar may not always be reliable. This led us to infect colostrum-deprived piglets with the reference serovar 7 strain (SV7 strain 174) that had been passaged through pigs and characterize the clinical and pathological signs. We observed that SV7 strain 174 caused clinical signs consistent with Glässer's disease in all infected piglets that succumbed to infection for up to day 5 post-infection. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were consistent with those found in piglets infected with conventional virulent serovars. In addition, we describe novel microscopic lesions associated with Glässer's disease such as endophthalmitis and thymic depletion. Thus, our findings indicate that SV7 strain 174 causes classical signs of Glässer's disease in colostrum-deprived piglets and some caution should be used in employing vaccine strategies based on association between capsular serovar and virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052124PMC
February 2020

Molecular and pathological characterization of teat papillomatosis in dairy cows in southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Mar 23;51(1):369-375. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Faculdade de Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, |Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

Teat papillomatosis is caused by different bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types and is especially important for dairy cows, because it results in severe damage to the health and structure of the mammary gland. This work describes the molecular and pathological aspects of teat papillomatosis in dairy cows in southern Brazil. Samples of teat papillomas were collect from 73 slaughtered dairy cows. Fragments of the lesions were collected in individual pools per animal and subjected to PCR using the FAP primer pair and sequencing of the amplification products. Teats with the remaining lesions were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, routinely processed for histopathology, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Papillomatous lesions were characterized by three macroscopic patterns, namely exophytic (5 [6.9%]), flat (29 [39.7%]), and mixed (39 [53.4%]). Histologically, all samples were identified as squamous papillomas. Partial sequencing of the L1 gene resulted in the detection of 8 classical BPV types (BPVs 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12) in 27 samples, 6 previously reported putative BPV types in 17 samples, and 10 putative new BPV types in 15 samples. Four sequences could not be classified, and 10 were negative in the PCR. There was no correlation between the gross pattern and the BPV type identified, and all the samples were characterized by squamous papillomas under histological examination. However, 24 different BPV types were identified, demonstrating high genetic diversity among BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis in dairy cows in southern Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00175-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058819PMC
March 2020
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