Publications by authors named "David C Lefroy"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Electrocardiographic predictors of successful resynchronization of left bundle branch block by His bundle pacing.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 Feb 4;32(2):428-438. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Background: His bundle pacing (HBP) is an alternative to biventricular pacing (BVP) for delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB). It is not known whether ventricular activation times and patterns achieved by HBP are equivalent to intact conduction systems and not all patients with LBBB are resynchronized by HBP.

Objective: To compare activation times and patterns of His-CRT with BVP-CRT, LBBB and intact conduction systems.

Methods: In patients with LBBB, noninvasive epicardial mapping (ECG imaging) was performed during BVP and temporary HBP. Intrinsic activation was mapped in all subjects. Left ventricular activation times (LVAT) were measured and epicardial propagation mapping (EPM) was performed, to visualize epicardial wavefronts. Normal activation pattern and a normal LVAT range were determined from normal subjects.

Results: Forty-five patients were included, 24 with LBBB and LV impairment, and 21 with normal 12-lead ECG and LV function. In 87.5% of patients with LBBB, His-CRT successfully shortened LVAT by ≥10 ms. In 33.3%, His-CRT resulted in complete ventricular resynchronization, with activation times and patterns indistinguishable from normal subjects. EPM identified propagation discontinuity artifacts in 83% of patients with LBBB. This was the best predictor of whether successful resynchronization was achieved by HBP (logarithmic odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-4.31; p = .04).

Conclusion: Noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping appears to identify patients whose LBBB can be resynchronized by HBP. In contrast to BVP, His-CRT may deliver the maximum potential ventricular resynchronization, returning activation times, and patterns to those seen in normal hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14845DOI Listing
February 2021

Prognostic significance of troponin level in 3121 patients presenting with atrial fibrillation (The NIHR Health Informatics Collaborative TROP-AF study).

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 04 26;9(7):e013684. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre Imperial College London and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust London United Kingdom.

Background Patients presenting with atrial fibrillation (AF) often undergo a blood test to measure troponin, but interpretation of the result is impeded by uncertainty about its clinical importance. We investigated the relationship between troponin level, coronary angiography, and all-cause mortality in real-world patients presenting with AF. Methods and Results We used National Institute of Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative data to identify patients admitted between 2010 and 2017 at 5 tertiary centers in the United Kingdom with a primary diagnosis of AF. Peak troponin results were scaled as multiples of the upper limit of normal. A total of 3121 patients were included in the analysis. Over a median follow-up of 1462 (interquartile range, 929-1975) days, there were 586 deaths (18.8%). The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality associated with a positive troponin (value above upper limit of normal) was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01-1.43; <0.05). Higher troponin levels were associated with higher risk of mortality, reaching a maximum hazard ratio of 2.6 (95% CI, 1.9-3.4) at ≈250 multiples of the upper limit of normal. There was an exponential relationship between higher troponin levels and increased odds of coronary angiography. The mortality risk was 36% lower in patients undergoing coronary angiography than in those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89; =0.01). Conclusions Increased troponin was associated with increased risk of mortality in patients presenting with AF. The lower hazard ratio in patients undergoing invasive management raises the possibility that the clinical importance of troponin release in AF may be mediated by coronary artery disease, which may be responsive to revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.013684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428631PMC
April 2020

Voltage during atrial fibrillation is superior to voltage during sinus rhythm in localizing areas of delayed enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging: An assessment of the posterior left atrium in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

Heart Rhythm 2019 09 3;16(9):1357-1367. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Bipolar electrogram voltage during sinus rhythm (V) has been used as a surrogate for atrial fibrosis in guiding catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), but the fixed rate and wavefront characteristics present during sinus rhythm may not accurately reflect underlying functional vulnerabilities responsible for AF maintenance.

Objective: The purpose of this study was determine whether, given adequate temporal sampling, the spatial distribution of mean AF voltage (V) better correlates with delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-DE)-detected atrial fibrosis than V.

Methods: AF was mapped (8 seconds) during index ablation for persistent AF (20 patients) using a 20-pole catheter (660 ± 28 points/map). After cardioversion, V was mapped (557 ± 326 points/map). Electroanatomic and MRI-DE maps were co-registered in 14 patients.

Results: The time course of V was assessed from 1-40 AF cycles (∼8 seconds) at 1113 locations. V stabilized with sampling >4 seconds (mean voltage error 0.05 mV). Paired point analysis of V from segments acquired 30 seconds apart (3667 sites; 15 patients) showed strong correlation (r = 0.95; P <.001). Delayed enhancement (DE) was assessed across the posterior left atrial (LA) wall, occupying 33% ± 13%. V distributions were (median [IQR]) 0.21 [0.14-0.35] mV in DE vs 0.52 [0.34-0.77] mV in non-DE regions. V distributions were 1.34 [0.65-2.48] mV in DE vs 2.37 [1.27-3.97] mV in non-DE. V threshold of 0.35 mV yielded sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 79% in detecting MRI-DE compared with 63% and 67%, respectively, for V (1.8-mV threshold) CONCLUSION: The correlation between low-voltage and posterior LA MRI-DE is significantly improved when acquired during AF vs sinus rhythm. With adequate sampling, mean AF voltage is a reproducible marker reflecting the functional response to the underlying persistent AF substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.05.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722483PMC
September 2019

Ventricular conduction stability test: a method to identify and quantify changes in whole heart activation patterns during physiological stress.

Europace 2019 Sep;21(9):1422-1431

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Aims: Abnormal rate adaptation of the action potential is proarrhythmic but is difficult to measure with current electro-anatomical mapping techniques. We developed a method to rapidly quantify spatial discordance in whole heart activation in response to rate cycle length changes. We test the hypothesis that patients with underlying channelopathies or history of aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise.

Methods And Results: Electrocardiographical imaging (ECGI) reconstructs >1200 electrograms (EGMs) over the ventricles from a single beat, providing epicardial whole heart activation maps. Thirty-one individuals [11 SCD survivors; 10 Brugada syndrome (BrS) without SCD; and 10 controls] with structurally normal hearts underwent ECGI vest recordings following exercise treadmill. For each patient, we calculated the relative change in EGM local activation times (LATs) between a baseline and post-exertion phase using custom written software. A ventricular conduction stability (V-CoS) score calculated to indicate the percentage of ventricle that showed no significant change in relative LAT (<10 ms). A lower score reflected greater conduction heterogeneity. Mean variability (standard deviation) of V-CoS score over 10 consecutive beats was small (0.9 ± 0.5%), with good inter-operator reproducibility of V-CoS scores. Sudden cardiac death survivors, compared to BrS and controls, had the lowest V-CoS scores post-exertion (P = 0.011) but were no different at baseline (P = 0.50).

Conclusion: We present a method to rapidly quantify changes in global activation which provides a measure of conduction heterogeneity and proof of concept by demonstrating SCD survivors have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz015DOI Listing
September 2019

Prevalence of spontaneous type I ECG pattern, syncope, and other risk markers in sudden cardiac arrest survivors with Brugada syndrome.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2019 02 6;42(2):257-264. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: A spontaneous type I electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern and/or unheralded syncope are conventionally used as risk markers for primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest/death (SCA/SCD) in Brugada syndrome (BrS). In this study, we determine the prevalence of conventional and newer markers of risk in those with and without previous aborted SCA events.

Methods: All patients with BrS were identified at our institute. History of symptoms was obtained from medical tests or from interviews. Other markers of risk were also obtained, such as presence of (1) spontaneous type I pattern, (2) fractionated QRS (fQRS), (3) early repolarization (ER) pattern, (4) late potentials on signal-averaged ECG (SAECG), and (5) response to programmed electrical stimulation.

Results: In 133 patients with Bars, 10 (7%) patients (mean age = 39 ± 11 years; nine males) were identified with a previous ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia episode (n = 8) or requiring cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (n = 2). None of these patients had a prior history of syncope before their SCA event. Only two (20%) patients reported a history of palpitations or dizziness. None had apneic breathing and three (30%) patients had a family history of SCA. From their ECGs, a spontaneous pattern was only found in one (10%) of these patients. Further, 10% of patients had fQRS, 17% had late potentials on SAECG, 20% had deep S waves in lead I, and 10% had an ER pattern in the peripheral leads. No significant differences were observed in the non-SCA group.

Conclusion: The majority of BrS patients with previous aborted SCA events did not have a spontaneous type I and/or prior history of syncope. Conventional and newer markers of risk appear to only have limited ability to predict SCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13587DOI Listing
February 2019

His Resynchronization Versus Biventricular Pacing in Patients With Heart Failure and Left Bundle Branch Block.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 12;72(24):3112-3122

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: His bundle pacing is a new method for delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Objectives: The authors performed a head-to-head, high-precision, acute crossover comparison between His bundle pacing and conventional biventricular CRT, measuring effects on ventricular activation and acute hemodynamic function.

Methods: Patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block referred for conventional biventricular CRT were recruited. Using noninvasive epicardial electrocardiographic imaging, the authors identified patients in whom His bundle pacing shortened left ventricular activation time. In these patients, the authors compared the hemodynamic effects of His bundle pacing against biventricular pacing using a high-multiple repeated alternation protocol to minimize the effect of noise, as well as comparing effects on ventricular activation.

Results: In 18 of 23 patients, left ventricular activation time was significantly shortened by His bundle pacing. Seventeen patients had a complete electromechanical dataset. In them, His bundle pacing was more effective at delivering ventricular resynchronization than biventricular pacing: greater reduction in QRS duration (-18.6 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -31.6 to -5.7 ms; p = 0.007), left ventricular activation time (-26 ms; 95% CI: -41 to -21 ms; p = 0.002), and left ventricular dyssynchrony index (-11.2 ms; 95% CI: -16.8 to -5.6 ms; p < 0.001). His bundle pacing also produced a greater acute hemodynamic response (4.6 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.2 to 9.1 mm Hg; p = 0.04). The incremental activation time reduction with His bundle pacing over biventricular pacing correlated with the incremental hemodynamic improvement with His bundle pacing over biventricular pacing (R = 0.70; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: His resynchronization delivers better ventricular resynchronization, and greater improvement in hemodynamic parameters, than biventricular pacing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290113PMC
December 2018

Comparison of the Prognostic Usefulness of the European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation Risk Stratification Systems for Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Am J Cardiol 2018 02 7;121(3):349-355. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Implantable cardiodefibrillators (ICDs) have proven benefit in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), making risk stratification essential. Data on the predictive accuracy on the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk scoring system have been conflicting. We independently evaluated the ESC risk scoring system in our cohort of patients with HC from a large tertiary center and compared this with previous guidance by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and Heart Association (ACCF/AHA). Risk factor profiles, 5-year SCD risk estimates, and ICD recommendations, as defined by the ACCF/AHA and ESC guidelines, were retrospectively ascertained for 288 HC patients with and without SCD or equivalent events at our center. In the SCD group (n = 14), a significantly higher proportion of patients would not have met the criteria for an ICD implant using the ESC scoring algorithm compared with ACCF/AHA guidance (43% vs 7%, p = 0.029). In those without SCD events (n = 274), a larger proportion of individuals not requiring an ICD was identified using the ESC risk score model compared with the ACCF/AHA model (82% vs 57%; p < 0.0001). Based on risk stratification criteria alone, 5 more individuals with a previously aborted SCD event would not have received an ICD with the ESC risk model compared with the ACCF/AHA risk model. In conclusion, we found that the current ESC scoring system potentially leaves more high-risk patients unprotected from sudden death in our cohort of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.10.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5812921PMC
February 2018

Repolarization abnormalities unmasked with exercise in sudden cardiac death survivors with structurally normal hearts.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2018 01 7;29(1):115-126. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Models of cardiac arrhythmogenesis predict that nonuniformity in repolarization and/or depolarization promotes ventricular fibrillation and is modulated by autonomic tone, but this is difficult to evaluate in patients. We hypothesize that such spatial heterogeneities would be detected by noninvasive ECG imaging (ECGi) in sudden cardiac death (SCD) survivors with structurally normal hearts under physiological stress.

Methods: ECGi was applied to 11 SCD survivors, 10 low-risk Brugada syndrome patients (BrS), and 10 controls undergoing exercise treadmill testing. ECGi provides whole heart activation maps and >1,200 unipolar electrograms over the ventricular surface from which global dispersion of activation recovery interval (ARI) and regional delay in conduction were determined. These were used as surrogates for spatial heterogeneities in repolarization and depolarization. Surface ECG markers of dispersion (QT and Tpeak-end intervals) were also calculated for all patients for comparison.

Results: Following exertion, the SCD group demonstrated the largest increase in ARI dispersion compared to BrS and control groups (13 ± 8 ms vs. 4 ± 7 ms vs. 4 ± 5 ms; P = 0.009), with baseline dispersion being similar in all groups. In comparison, surface ECG markers of dispersion of repolarization were unable to discriminate between the groups at baseline or following exertion. Spatial heterogeneities in conduction were also present following exercise but were not significantly different between SCD survivors and the other groups.

Conclusion: Increased dispersion of repolarization is apparent during physiological stress in SCD survivors and is detectable with ECGi but not with standard ECG parameters. The electrophysiological substrate revealed by ECGi could be the basis of alternative risk-stratification techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.13375DOI Listing
January 2018

ST-Elevation Magnitude Correlates With Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduction Delay in Type I Brugada ECG.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2017 Oct;10(10)

From the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom (K.M.W.L., F.S.N., C.R., N.W.F.L., Z.I.W., P.B.L., S.E.H., N.S.P., P.K.); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom (K.M.W.L., F.S.N., P.T., N.W.F.L., Z.I.W., D.C.L., D.W.D., P.B.L., N.S.P., P.K., A.M.V.); and Medtronic Ltd, Watford, United Kingdom (C.Y.).

Background: The substrate location and underlying electrophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the characteristic ECG pattern of Brugada syndrome (BrS) are still debated. Using noninvasive electrocardiographical imaging, we studied whole heart conduction and repolarization patterns during ajmaline challenge in BrS individuals.

Methods And Results: A total of 13 participants (mean age, 44±12 years; 8 men), 11 concealed patients with type I BrS and 2 healthy controls, underwent an ajmaline infusion with electrocardiographical imaging and ECG recordings. Electrocardiographical imaging activation recovery intervals and activation timings across the right ventricle (RV) body, outflow tract (RVOT), and left ventricle were calculated and analyzed at baseline and when type I BrS pattern manifested after ajmaline infusion. Peak J-ST point elevation was calculated from the surface ECG and compared with the electrocardiographical imaging-derived parameters at the same time point. After ajmaline infusion, the RVOT had the greatest increase in conduction delay (5.4±2.8 versus 2.0±2.8 versus 1.1±1.6 ms; =0.007) and activation recovery intervals prolongation (69±32 versus 39±29 versus 21±12 ms; =0.0005) compared with RV or left ventricle. In controls, there was minimal change in J-ST point elevation, conduction delay, or activation recovery intervals at all sites with ajmaline. In patients with BrS, conduction delay in RVOT, but not RV or left ventricle, correlated to the degree of J-ST point elevation (Pearson , 0.81; <0.001). No correlation was found between J-ST point elevation and activation recovery intervals prolongation in the RVOT, RV, or left ventricle.

Conclusions: Magnitude of ST (J point) elevation in the type I BrS pattern is attributed to degree of conduction delay in the RVOT and not prolongation in repolarization time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005107DOI Listing
October 2017

Visualizing Localized Reentry With Ultra-High Density Mapping in Iatrogenic Atrial Tachycardia: Beware Pseudo-Reentry.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2017 Apr;10(4)

From the Department of Cardiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom (V.L., M.S., K.L., N.Q., F.S.N., S.A.H., S.M.A.S., L.M.-L., E.L., I.W., M.K.-W., D.C.L., N.W.F.L., Z.W., P.K., D.W.D., N.S.P., P.B.L.); and Boston Scientific Ltd, Marlborough, MA (N.B., F.G.).

Background: The activation pattern of localized reentry (LR) in atrial tachycardia remains incompletely understood. We used the ultra-high density Rhythmia mapping system to study activation patterns in LR.

Methods And Results: LR was suggested by small rotatory activations (carousels) containing the full spectrum of the color-coded map. Twenty-three left-sided atrial tachycardias were mapped in 15 patients (age: 64±11 years). 16 253±9192 points were displayed per map, collected over 26±14 minutes. A total of 50 carousels were identified (median 2; quartiles 1-3 per map), although this represented LR in only n=7 out of 50 (14%): here, rotation occurred around a small area of scar (<0.03 mV; 12±6 mm diameter). In LR, electrograms along the carousel encompassed the full tachycardia cycle length, and surrounding activation moved away from the carousel in all directions. Ablating fractionated electrograms (117±18 ms; 44±13% of tachycardia cycle length) within the carousel interrupted the tachycardia in every LR case. All remaining carousels were pseudo-reentrant (n=43/50 [86%]) occurring in areas of wavefront collision (n=21; median 0.5; quartiles 0-2 per map) or as artifact because of annotation of noise or interpolation in areas of incomplete mapping (n=22; median 1, quartiles 0-2 per map). Pseudo-reentrant carousels were incorrectly ablated in 5 cases having been misinterpreted as LR.

Conclusions: The activation pattern of LR is of small stable rotational activations (carousels), and this drove 30% (7/23) of our postablation atrial tachycardias. However, this appearance is most often pseudo-reentrant and must be differentiated by interpretation of electrograms in the candidate circuit and activation in the wider surrounding region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004724DOI Listing
April 2017

Diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2017 Jan;78(1):C2-C5

Consultant in Cardiology and Cardiac Electrophysiology, Augustus Waller Department of Electrophysiology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2017.78.1.C2DOI Listing
January 2017

Management of ventricular tachycardia.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2017 Jan;78(1):C6-C9

Consultant in Cardiology and Cardiac Electrophysiology, Augustus Waller Department of Electrophysiology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2017.78.1.C6DOI Listing
January 2017

A Collapsed Sportsman With a Shock Advised in Sinus Rhythm: The Importance of Automated External Defibrillator Rhythm Strip Retrieval Prior to Defibrillator Implantation.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2016 Apr;9(4):e003914

From the Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust (V.L., M.B.S., I.W., N.Q., D.C.L.) and London Ambulance Service (M.F.), London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.116.003914DOI Listing
April 2016

Atrioventricular Optimized Direct His Bundle Pacing Improves Acute Hemodynamic Function in Patients With Heart Failure and PR Interval Prolongation Without Left Bundle Branch Block.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2015 Dec 23;1(6):582-591. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether heart failure patients with narrow QRS duration (or right bundle branch block) but with long PR interval gain acute hemodynamic benefit from atrioventricular (AV) optimization. We tested this with biventricular pacing and (to deliver pure AV shortening) direct His bundle pacing.

Background: Benefits of pacing for heart failure have previously been indicated by acute hemodynamic studies and verified in outcome studies. A new target for pacing in heart failure may be PR interval prolongation, which is associated with 58% higher mortality regardless of QRS duration.

Methods: We enrolled 16 consecutive patients with systolic heart failure, PR interval prolongation (mean, 254 ± 62 ms) and narrow QRS duration (n = 13; mean QRS duration: 119 ± 17 ms) or right bundle branch block (n = 3; mean, QRS duration: 156 ± 18 ms). We successfully delivered temporary direct His bundle pacing in 14 patients and temporary biventricular pacing in 14 participants. We performed AV optimization using invasive systolic blood pressure obtaining parabolic responses (mean R: 0.90 for His, and 0.85 for biventricular pacing).

Results: The mean increment in systolic BP compared with intrinsic ventricular conduction was 4.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI]: +1.9 to +6.2 mm Hg for His and 4.3 mm Hg [95% CI: +2.0 to +6.5 mm Hg] for biventricular pacing. QRS duration lengthened with biventricular pacing (change = +22 ms [95% CI: +18 to +25 ms]) but not with His pacing (change = +0.5 ms [95% CI: -2.6 to +3.6 ms).

Conclusions: AV-optimized pacing improves acute hemodynamic function in patients with heart failure and long PR interval without left bundle branch block. That it can be achieved by single-site His pacing shows that its mechanism is AV shortening. The improvement is ∼60% of the effect size previously reported for biventricular pacing in left bundle branch block. Randomized, blinded trials are warranted to test for long-term beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2015.08.008DOI Listing
December 2015

Management of supraventricular tachycardias.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2014 Feb;75(2):C26-8

Consultant in Cardiology and Cardiac Electrophysiology in the Cardiology Department, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2014.75.Sup2.C26DOI Listing
February 2014

Diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardias.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2014 Feb;75(2):C22-5

Consultant in Cardiology and Cardiac Electrophysiology in the Cardiology Department, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2014.75.Sup2.C22DOI Listing
February 2014

Chest pain and palpitations: taking a closer look.

Circulation 2013 Jul;128(3):271-7

Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

This case highlights the importance of considering a wide differential diagnosis in a young patient with chest pain and an abnormal ECG. Rarer causes of myocarditis such as GCM should be sought in patients who develop ventricular arrhythmias or high-grade heart block because the treatment is different and dramatically influences outcome. Our patient is the first reported case of GCM and a concurrent diagnosis of tuberculosis. It is most likely that the histological appearance of GCM was due to the presence of mycobacterial infection within the myocardium, and we believe that effective antituberculous therapy has led to resolution of the GCM without the need for continued long-term immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001318DOI Listing
July 2013

Atrial fibrillation.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2012 May;73(5):C69-73

International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

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May 2012

The fluttering patient: an approach to the patient with palpitations.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2011 Dec;72(12):M182-5

Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2011.72.sup12.m182DOI Listing
December 2011

Right ventricular lead implantation facilitated by a guiding sheath in a patient with severe chamber dilatation with tricuspid regurgitation.

Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2011 Sep 2;11(5):156-8. Epub 2011 Oct 2.

Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Cardiology Department, St Mary's Hospital, Pread Street, London W2 1NY.

Implantation of pacemakers can be challenging in the context of dilated cardiac chambers and valvular regurgitation. We report a difficult case of single chamber pacemaker implantation in a patient with restrictrive cardiomyopathy resulting in grossly enlarged atria and severe tricuspid regurgitation. In this situation, use of a slittable guiding sheath, more typically used for coronary sinus lead implantation, greatly facilitated rapid and stable deployment of the right ventricular lead.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184453PMC
September 2011

Narrow complex tachycardia with alternating cycle length: what is the mechanism?

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2011 Dec 4;22(12):1399-401. Epub 2011 May 4.

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02073.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Greater three-dimensional ventricular lead tip separation is associated with improved outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2010 Dec 8;33(12):1490-6. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Department of Cardiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Effective cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is more likely with widely separated left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) pacing leads tips. We hypothesized that lead separation is an important factor in determining the clinical response to CRT.

Methods: A retrospective study of 86 consecutive patients age 71 ± 10 years, male (74%), coronary disease (71%), atrial fibrillation (23%), LV ejection fraction (22 ± 9%), QRS duration (160 ± 27 ms), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III (81%), NYHA class IV (19%) undergoing CRT from January 2006 to September 2008. The median follow-up was 12 months and clinical response to CRT was defined as reduction of NYHA class by one or more. The three-dimensional separation between RV and LV pacing lead tips was calculated using measurements obtained from orthogonal posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs performed the day after implantation.

Results: Fifty-nine patients (69%) responded to CRT. There was a statistically significant association between increased three-dimensional lead separation and clinical response to CRT (P= 0.005). Stronger association was obtained when lead separation was corrected for cardiac size (P= 0.001). A significantly higher response rate of 88% was achieved in patients with QRS duration of 160 ms or more, and lead separation of 100 mm or more compared with 60% when lead separation was less than 100 mm and QRS duration remained the same (P = 0.027).

Conclusions: Greater three-dimensional separation of LV-to-RV leads is associated with improved response to CRT. A prospective multicenter trial is needed to assess lead separation as a predictor for response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02895.xDOI Listing
December 2010

Myocardial infarction in sickle-cell disease.

Lancet 2007 Jan;369(9557):246

Department of Haematology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60114-7DOI Listing
January 2007