Publications by authors named "David C Chalupa"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hourly land-use regression models based on low-cost PM monitor data.

Environ Res 2018 11 4;167:7-14. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Land-use regression (LUR) models provide location and time specific estimates of exposure to air pollution and thereby improve the sensitivity of health effects models. However, they require pollutant concentrations at multiple locations along with land-use variables. Often, monitoring is performed over short durations using mobile monitoring with research-grade instruments. Low-cost PM monitors provide an alternative approach that increases the spatial and temporal resolution of the air quality data. LUR models were developed to predict hourly PM concentrations across a metropolitan area using PM concentrations measured simultaneously at multiple locations with low-cost monitors. Monitors were placed at 23 sites during the 2015/16 heating season. Monitors were externally calibrated using co-located measurements including a reference instrument (GRIMM particle spectrometer). LUR models for each hour of the day and weekdays/weekend days were developed using the deletion/substitution/addition algorithm. Coefficients of determination for hourly PM predictions ranged from 0.66 and 0.76 (average 0.7). The hourly-resolved LUR model results will be used in epidemiological studies to examine if and how quickly, increases in ambient PM concentrations trigger adverse health events by reducing the exposure misclassification that arises from using less time resolved exposure estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.052DOI Listing
November 2018

Long-term trends in submicron particle concentrations in a metropolitan area of the northeastern United States.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Aug 21;633:59-70. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, United States; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, United States. Electronic address:

Significant changes in emission sources have occurred in the northeastern United States over the past decade, due in part to the implementation of emissions standards, the introduction and addition of abatement technologies for road transport, changes in fuel sulfur content for road and non-road transport, as well as economic impacts of a major recession and differential fuel prices. These changes in emission scenarios likely affected the concentrations of airborne submicron particles. This study investigated the characteristics of 11-500nm particle number concentrations and their size spectra in Rochester, NY during the past 15years (2002 to 2016). The modal structure, diurnal, weekly and monthly patterns of particle number concentrations are analyzed. Long-term trends are quantified using seasonal-trend decomposition procedures based on "Loess", Mann-Kendall regression with Theil-Sen slope and piecewise regression. Particle concentrations underwent significant (p<0.05) downward trends. An annual decrease of -323particles/cm/y (-4.6%/y) was estimated for the total particle number concentration using Theil-Sen analysis. The trends were driven mainly by the decrease in particles in the 11-50nm range (-181particles/cm/y; -4.7%/y). Slope changes were investigated annually and seasonally. Piecewise regression found different slopes for different portions of the overall period with the strongest declines between 2005 and 2011/2013, followed by small upward trends between 2013 and 2016 for most size bins, possibly representing increased vehicular traffic after the recovery from the 2008 recession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.151DOI Listing
August 2018

Estimating Hourly Concentrations of PM across a Metropolitan Area Using Low-Cost Particle Monitors.

Sensors (Basel) 2017 Aug 21;17(8). Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA.

There is concern regarding the heterogeneity of exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) across urban areas leading to negatively biased health effects models. New, low-cost sensors now permit continuous and simultaneous measurements to be made in multiple locations. Measurements of ambient PM were made from October to April 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 to assess the spatial and temporal variability in PM and the relative importance of traffic and wood smoke to outdoor PM concentrations in Rochester, NY, USA. In general, there was moderate spatial inhomogeneity, as indicated by multiple pairwise measures including coefficient of divergence and signed rank tests of the value distributions. Pearson correlation coefficients were often moderate (~50% of units showed correlations >0.5 during the first season), indicating that there was some coherent variation across the area, likely driven by a combination of meteorological conditions (wind speed, direction, and mixed layer heights) and the concentration of PM being transported into the region. Although the accuracy of these PM sensors is limited, they are sufficiently precise relative to one another and to research grade instruments that they can be useful is assessing the spatial and temporal variations across an area and provide concentration estimates based on higher-quality central site monitoring data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17081922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579734PMC
August 2017

Triggering of myocardial infarction by increased ambient fine particle concentration: Effect modification by source direction.

Environ Res 2015 Oct 25;142:374-9. Epub 2015 Jul 25.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Previously, we reported a 18% increased odds of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) associated with each 7.1 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration in the hour prior to MI onset. We found no association with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We examined if this association was modified by PM2.5 source direction.

Methods: We used the NOAA HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to calculate each hourly air mass location for the 24 hours before each case or control time period in our previous PM2.5/STEMI case-crossover analysis. Using these data on patients with STEMI (n=338), hourly PM2.5 concentrations, and case-crossover methods, we evaluated whether our PM2.5/STEMI association was modified by whether the air mass passed through each of the 8 cardinal wind direction sectors in the previous 24h.

Results: When the air mass passed through the West-Southwest direction (WSW) any time in the past 24h, the odds of STEMI associated with each 7.1µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration in the previous hour (OR=1.27; 95% CI=1.08, 1.22) was statistically significantly (p=0.01) greater than the relative odds of STEMI associated with increased PM2.5 concentration when the wind arrived from any other direction (OR=0.99; 95% CI=0.80, 1.22). We found no other effect modification by any other source direction. Further, relative odds estimates were largest when the time spent in the WSW was 8-16 h, compared to ≤7 h or 17-24 h, suggesting that particles arising from sources in this direction were more potent in triggering STEMIs.

Conclusions: Since relative odds estimates were higher when the air mass passed through the WSW octant in the past 24h, there may be specific components of the ambient aerosol that are more potent in triggering STEMIs. This direction is associated with substantial emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources of the Ohio River Valley, many of which are undergoing modifications to reduce their emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.06.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609260PMC
October 2015

Effect of the shutdown of a large coal-fired power plant on ambient mercury species.

Chemosphere 2013 Jul 16;92(4):360-7. Epub 2013 Feb 16.

Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

In the spring of 2008, a 260MWe coal-fired power plant (CFPP) located in Rochester, New York was closed over a 4month period. Using a 2-years data record, the impacts of the shutdown of the CFPP on nearby ambient concentrations of three Hg species were quantified. The arithmetic average ambient concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate mercury (PBM) during December 2007-November 2009 were 1.6ngm(-3), 5.1pgm(-3), and 8.9pgm(-3), respectively. The median concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM significantly decreased by 12%, 73%, and 50% after the CFPP closed (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v4.1) identified six factors including O3-rich, traffic, gas phase oxidation, wood combustion, nucleation, and CFPP. When the CFPP was closed, median concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM apportioned to the CFPP factor significantly decreased by 25%, 74%, and 67%, respectively, compared to those measured when the CFPP was still in operation (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis showed the greatest reduction in all three Hg species was associated with northwesterly winds pointing toward the CFPP. These changes were clearly attributable to the closure of the CFPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.024DOI Listing
July 2013

Multiple-year black carbon measurements and source apportionment using delta-C in Rochester, New York.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2012 Aug;62(8):880-7

Environmental Energy and Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.

Black carbon (BC), an important component ofthe atmospheric aerosol, has climatic, environmental, and human health significance. In this study, BC was continuously measured using a two-wavelength aethalometer (370 nm and 880 nm) in Rochester; New York, from January 2007 to December 2010. The monitoring site is adjacent to two major urban highways (I-490 and I-590), where 14% to 21% of the total traffic was heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The annual average BC concentrations were 0.76 microg/m3, 0.67 microg/m3, 0.60 microg/m3, and 0.52 microg/m3 in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) modeling was performed using PM2.5 elements, sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) data from the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speciation network and Delta-C (UVBC370nm-BC880nm) data. Delta-C has been previously shown to be a tracer of wood combustion factor It was used as an input variable in source apportionment models for the first time in this study and was found to play an important role in separating traffic (especially diesel) emissions from wood combustion emissions. The result showed the annual average PM2.5 concentrations apportioned to diesel emissions in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 1.34 microg/m3, 1.25 microg/m3, 1.13 microg/m3, and 0.97 microg/m3, respectively. The BC conditional probability function (CPF) plots show a large contribution from the highway diesel traffic to elevated BC concentrations. The measurements and modeling results suggest an impact of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2007 Heavy-Duty Highway Rule on the decrease ofBC and PM2.5 concentrations during the study period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2012.671792DOI Listing
August 2012

Characterization of residential wood combustion particles using the two-wavelength aethalometer.

Environ Sci Technol 2011 Sep 1;45(17):7387-93. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

Center for Air Resource Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5708, United States.

In the United States, residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 7.0% of the national primary PM(2.5) emissions. Exposure to RWC smoke represents a potential human health hazard. Organic components of wood smoke particles absorb light at 370 nm more effectively than 880 nm in two-wavelength aethalometer measurements. This enhanced absorption (Delta-C = BC(370 nm) - BC(880 nm)) can serve as an indicator of RWC particles. In this study, aethalometer Delta-C data along with measurements of molecular markers and potassium in PM(2.5) were used to identify the presence of airborne RWC particles in Rochester, NY. The aethalometer data were corrected for the loading effect. Delta-C was found to strongly correlate with wood smoke markers (levoglucosan and potassium) during the heating season. No statistically significant correlation was found between Delta-C and vehicle exhaust markers. The Delta-C values were substantially higher during winter compared to summer. The winter diurnal pattern showed an evening peak around 21:00 that was particularly enhanced on weekends. A relationship between Delta-C and PM(2.5) was found that permits the estimation of the contribution of RWC particles to the PM mass. RWC contributed 17.3% to the PM(2.5) concentration during the winter. Exponential decay was a good estimator for predicting Delta-C concentrations at different winter precipitation rates and different wind speeds. Delta-C was also sensitive to remote forest fire smoke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es2013984DOI Listing
September 2011

Laboratory and field testing of an automated atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species sampling-analysis system.

J Toxicol 2011 24;2011:419476. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Center for Air Resource Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708, USA.

In this study, various laboratory and field tests were performed to develop an effective automated particle-bound ROS sampling-analysis system. The system uses 2' 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) fluorescence method as a nonspecific, general indicator of the particle-bound ROS. A sharp-cut cyclone and a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) were used to collect PM(2.5) atmospheric particles into slurry produced by a DCFH-HRP solution. The laboratory results show that the DCFH and H(2)O(2) standard solutions could be kept at room temperature for at least three and eight days, respectively. The field test in Rochester, NY, shows that the average ROS concentration was 8.3 ± 2.2 nmol of equivalent H(2)O(2) m(-3) of air. The ROS concentrations were observed to be greater after foggy conditions. This study demonstrates the first practical automated sampling-analysis system to measure this ambient particle component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/419476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090747PMC
July 2011

Heterogeneity of coarse particles in an urban area.

Environ Sci Technol 2011 Apr 24;45(8):3288-96. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Center for Air Resource Engineering and Science, Clarkson University , Potsdam, New York 13699, United States.

The variation in composition and concentration of coarse particles in Rochester, a medium-sized city in western New York, was studied using UNC passive samplers and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM). The samplers were deployed in a 5 × 5 grid (2 km × 2 km per grid cell) for 2-3 week periods in two seasons (September 2008 and May 2009) at 25 different sites across Rochester. CCSEM analysis yielded size and elemental composition for individual particles and analyzed more than 800 coarse particles per sample. Based on the composition as reflected in the fluoresced X-ray spectrum, the particles were grouped into classes with similar chemical compositions using an adaptive resonance theory (ART) network. The mass fractions of particles in the identified classes were then used to assess the homogeneity of composition and concentration across the measurement domain. These results illustrate how particle sampling using the UNC passive sampler coupled with CCSEM/ART can be used to determine the concentration and source of the coarse particulate matter at multiple sites. The particle compositions were dominated by elements suggesting that the major particle sources are road dust and biological particles. Considerable heterogeneity in both composition and concentration were observed between adjacent sites as indicated by cofficient of divergence analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es103831wDOI Listing
April 2011

Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes.

Environ Health Perspect 2010 Dec 7;118(12):1692-8. Epub 2010 Sep 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

Background: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles.

Objective: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 subjects with type 2 diabetes inhaled filtered air or 50 µg/m³ elemental carbon UFP (count median diameter, 32 nm) by mouthpiece for 2 hr at rest. We repeatedly measured markers of vascular activation, coagulation, and systemic inflammation before and after exposure.

Results: Compared with air, particle exposure increased platelet expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the number of platelet-leukocyte conjugates 3.5 hr after exposure. Soluble CD40L decreased with UFP exposure. Plasma von Willebrand factor increased immediately after exposure. There were no effects of particles on plasma tissue factor, coagulation factors VII or IX, or D-dimer.

Conclusions: Inhalation of elemental carbon UFP for 2-hr transiently activated platelets, and possibly the vascular endothelium, in people with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002188PMC
December 2010

Long-term characterization of indoor and outdoor ultrafine particles at a commercial building.

Environ Sci Technol 2010 Aug;44(15):5775-80

Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York, USA.

The particle number concentrations in the size range of 10-500 nm were measured inside and outside of a commercial building in Rochester, New York from 2005 to 2009. The indoor ventilation conditions were controlled by a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The overall average indoor and outdoor particle number concentrations were 2166 cm(-3) and 5214 cm(-3), respectively. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor ultrafine particles (UFP) distributions revealed that indoor sources contributed to the indoor UFP concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio generally increased with particle size. The I/O ratios in the summer months were higher than those in the winter months. Indoor and outdoor correlations of particle concentrations were slightly weaker in warmer months. These results indicated that changes in the air exchange rates (AER) may have affected the correlation between indoor and outdoor UFP number concentrations. Moreover, indoor activities such as food preparation and cleaning may have contributed to the indoor UFP number concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es1001677DOI Listing
August 2010

Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY.

Sci Total Environ 2009 Sep 21;407(18):5071-84. Epub 2009 Jun 21.

Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708, United States.

Sources contributing to the submicron particles (100-470 nm) measured between January 2002 and December 2007 at two different New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) sites in Rochester, NY were identified and apportioned using a bilinear receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Measurements of aerosol size distributions and number concentrations for particles in the size range of 10-500 nm have been made since December 2001 to date in Rochester. The measurements are being made using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a DMA and a CPC (TSI models 3071 and 3010, respectively). From December 2001 to March 2004, particle measurements were made at the NYS DEC site in downtown Rochester, but it was moved to the eastside of Rochester in May 2004. Each measurement period was divided into three seasons i.e., winter (December, January, and February), summer (June, July, and August), and the transitional periods (March, April, May, September, October, and November) so as to avoid experimental uncertainty resulting from too large season-to-season variability in ambient temperature and solar photon intensity that would lead to unstable/non-stationary size distributions. Therefore, the seasons were analyzed independently for possible sources. Ten sources were identified at both sites and these include traffic, nucleation, residential/commercial heating, industrial emissions, secondary nitrate, ozone- rich secondary aerosol, secondary sulfate, regionally transported aerosol, and a mixed source of nucleation and traffic. These results show that the measured total outdoor particle number concentrations in Rochester generally vary with similar temporal patterns, suggesting that the central monitoring site data can be used to estimate outdoor exposure in other parts of the city.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.040DOI Listing
September 2009

Effect of inhaled carbon ultrafine particles on reactive hyperemia in healthy human subjects.

Environ Health Perspect 2008 Mar;116(3):375-80

Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Background: Ultrafine particles (UFP) may contribute to the cardiovascular effects of exposure to particulate air pollution, partly because of their relatively efficient alveolar deposition and potential to enter the pulmonary vascular space.

Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that inhalation of elemental carbon UFP alters systemic vascular function.

Methods: Sixteen healthy subjects (mean age, 26.9 +/- 6.5 years) inhaled air or 50 microg/m3 elemental carbon UFP by mouthpiece for 2 hr, while exercising intermittently. Measurements at preexposure baseline, 0 hr (immediately after exposure), 3.5 hr, 21 hr, and 45 hr included vital signs, venous occlusion plethysmography and reactive hyperemia of the forearm, and venous plasma nitrate and nitrite levels.

Results: Peak forearm blood flow after ischemia increased 3.5 hr after exposure to air but not UFP (change from preexposure baseline, air: 9.31 +/- 3.41; UFP: 1.09 +/- 2.55 mL/min/100 mL; t-test, p = 0.03). Blood pressure did not change, so minimal resistance after ischemia (mean blood pressure divided by forearm blood flow) decreased with air, but not UFP [change from preexposure baseline, air: -0.48 +/- 0.21; UFP: 0.07 +/- 0.19 mmHg/mL/min; analysis of variance (ANOVA), p = 0.024]. There was no UFP effect on pre-ischemia forearm blood flow or resistance, or on total forearm blood flow after ischemia. Venous nitrate levels were significantly lower after exposure to carbon UFP compared with air (ANOVA, p = 0.038). There were no differences in venous nitrite levels.

Conclusions: Inhalation of 50 microg/m3 carbon UFP during intermittent exercise impairs peak forearm blood flow during reactive hyperemia in healthy human subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2265060PMC
March 2008

Pulmonary function, diffusing capacity, and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed to ultrafine particles.

Inhal Toxicol 2004 ;16 Suppl 1:59-72

Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York 14642, USA.

Particulate air pollution is associated with asthma exacerbations and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory causes. Ultrafine particles (particles less than 0.1 microm in diameter) may contribute to these adverse effects because they have a higher predicted pulmonary deposition, greater potential to induce pulmonary inflammation, larger surface area, and enhanced oxidant capacity when compared with larger particles on a mass basis. We hypothesized that ultrafine particle exposure would induce airway inflammation in susceptible humans. This hypothesis was tested in a series of randomized, double-blind studies by exposing healthy subjects and mild asthmatic subjects to carbon ultrafine particles versus filtered air. Both exposures were delivered via a mouthpiece system during rest and moderate exercise. Healthy subjects were exposed to particle concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 microg/m(3), while asthmatics were exposed to 10 microg/m(3). Lung function and airway inflammation were assessed by symptom scores, pulmonary function tests, and airway nitric oxide parameters. Airway inflammatory cells were measured via induced sputum analysis in several of the protocols. There were no differences in any of these measurements in normal or asthmatic subjects when exposed to ultrafine particles at concentrations of 10 or 25 microg/m(3). However, exposing 16 normal subjects to the higher concentration of 50 microg/m(3) caused a reduction in maximal midexpiratory flow rate (-4.34 +/- 1.78% [ultrafine particles] vs. +1.08 +/- 1.86% [air], p =.042) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (-1.76 +/- 0.66 ml/min/mm Hg [ultrafine particles] vs. -0.18 +/- 0.41 ml/min/mm Hg [air], p =.040) at 21 h after exposure. There were no consistent differences in symptoms, induced sputum, or exhaled nitric oxide parameters in any of these studies. These results suggest that exposure to carbon ultrafine particles results in mild small-airways dysfunction together with impaired alveolar gas exchange in normal subjects. These effects do not appear related to airway inflammation. Additional studies are required to confirm these findings in normal subjects, compare them with additional susceptible patient populations, and determine their pathophysiologic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370490443079DOI Listing
October 2004

Ultrafine particle deposition in subjects with asthma.

Environ Health Perspect 2004 Jun;112(8):879-82

Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Ambient air particles in the ultrafine size range (diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter. However, there are few data on ultrafine particle deposition during spontaneous breathing, and none in people with asthma. Sixteen subjects with mild to moderate asthma were exposed for 2 hr, by mouthpiece, to ultrafine carbon particles with a count median diameter (CMD) of 23 nm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Deposition was measured during spontaneous breathing at rest (minute ventilation, 13.3 +/- 2.0 L/min) and exercise (minute ventilation, 41.9 +/- 9.0 L/min). The mean +/- SD fractional deposition was 0.76 +/- 0.05 by particle number and 0.69 +/- 0.07 by particle mass concentration. The number deposition fraction increased as particle size decreased, reaching 0.84 +/- 0.03 for the smallest particles (midpoint CMD = 8.7 nm). No differences between sexes were observed. The deposition fraction increased during exercise to 0.86 +/- 0.04 and 0.79 +/- 0.05 by particle number and mass concentration, respectively, and reached 0.93 +/- 0.02 for the smallest particles. Experimental deposition data exceeded model predictions during exercise. The deposition at rest was greater in these subjects with asthma than in previously studied healthy subjects (0.76 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.10, p < 0.001). The efficient respiratory deposition of ultrafine particles increases further in subjects with asthma. Key words: air pollution, asthma, deposition, dosimetry, inhalation, ultrafine particles.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1242016PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6851DOI Listing
June 2004

Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise.

Inhal Toxicol 2003 May;15(6):539-52

Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York 14642, USA.

Ultrafine particles (diameter < 100 nm) may be important in the health effects of air pollution, in part because of their predicted high respiratory deposition. However, there are few measurements of ultrafine particle deposition during spontaneous breathing. The fractional deposition for the total respiratory tract of ultrafine carbon particles (count median diameter = 26 nm, geometric standard deviation = 1.6) was measured in 12 healthy subjects (6 female, 6 male) at rest (minute ventilation 9.0 +/- 1.3 L/min) using a mouthpiece exposure system. The mean +/- SD fractional deposition was 0.66 +/- 0.11 by particle number and 0.58 +/- 0.13 by particle mass concentration, similar to model predictions. The number deposition fraction increased as particle size decreased, reaching 0.80 +/- 0.09 for the smallest particles (midpoint count median diameter = 8.7 nm). No gender differences were observed. In an additional 7 subjects (2 female, 5 male) alternating rest with moderate exercise (minute ventilation 38.1 +/- 9.5 L/min), the deposition fraction during exercise increased to 0.83 +/- 0.04 and 0.76 +/- 0.06 by particle number and mass concentration, respectively, and reached 0.94 +/- 0.02 for the smallest particles. Experimental deposition data exceeded model predictions during exercise. The total number of deposited particles was more than 4.5-fold higher during exercise than at rest because of the combined increase in deposition fraction and minute ventilation. Fractional deposition of ultrafine particles during mouth breathing is high in healthy subjects, and increases further with exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370304468DOI Listing
May 2003