Publications by authors named "David Adlam"

83 Publications

Prevalence and Disease Spectrum of Extracoronary Arterial Abnormalities in Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Importance: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been associated with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities. However, the prevalence, severity, and clinical relevance of these abnormalities remain unclear.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and spectrum of FMD and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities in patients with SCAD vs controls.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case series included 173 patients with angiographically confirmed SCAD enrolled between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019. Imaging of extracoronary arterial beds was performed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Forty-one healthy individuals were recruited to serve as controls for blinded interpretation of MRA findings. Patients were recruited from the UK national SCAD registry, which enrolls throughout the UK by referral from the primary care physician or patient self-referral through an online portal. Participants attended the national SCAD referral center for assessment and MRA.

Exposures: Both patients with SCAD and healthy controls underwent head-to-pelvis MRA (median time between SCAD event and MRA, 1 [IQR, 1-3] year).

Main Outcome And Measures: The diagnosis of FMD, arterial dissections, and aneurysms was established according to the International FMD Consensus. Arterial tortuosity was assessed both qualitatively (presence or absence of an S curve) and quantitatively (number of curves ≥45%; tortuosity index).

Results: Of the 173 patients with SCAD, 167 were women (96.5%); mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 44.5 (7.9) years. The prevalence of FMD was 31.8% (55 patients); 16 patients (29.1% of patients with FMD) had involvement of multiple vascular beds. Thirteen patients (7.5%) had extracoronary aneurysms and 3 patients (1.7%) had dissections. The prevalence and degree of arterial tortuosity were similar in patients and controls. In 43 patients imaged with both computed tomographic angiography and MRA, the identification of clinically significant remote arteriopathies was similar. Over a median 5-year follow-up, there were 2 noncardiovascular-associated deaths and 35 recurrent myocardial infarctions, but there were no primary extracoronary vascular events.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this case series with blinded analysis of patients with SCAD, severe multivessel FMD, aneurysms, and dissections were infrequent. The findings of this study suggest that, although brain-to-pelvis imaging allows detection of remote arteriopathies that may require follow-up, extracoronary vascular events appear to be rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4690DOI Listing
November 2021

A Randomized, double-blind, dose ranging clinical trial of intravenous FDY-5301 in acute stemi patients undergoing primary PCI.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, National Institute for Health (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major clinical problem in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), leading to myocardial damage despite early reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). There are no effective therapies to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is caused by multiple pathways activated by rapid tissue reoxygenation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FDY-5301 contains sodium iodide, a ubiquitous inorganic halide and elemental reducing agent that can act as a catalytic anti-peroxidant. We tested the feasibility, safety and potential utility of FDY-5301 as a treatment to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury, in patients with first-time STEMI undergoing emergency PPCI.

Methods: STEMI patients (n = 120, median 62 years) presenting within 12 h of chest pain onset were randomized at 20 PPCI centers, in a double blind Phase 2 clinical trial, to receive FDY-5301 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg) or placebo prior to reperfusion, to evaluate the feasibility endpoints. Participants underwent continuous ECG monitoring for 14 days after PPCI to address pre-specified cardiac arrhythmia safety end points and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 72 h and at 3 months to assess exploratory efficacy end points.

Results: Intravenous FDY-5301 was delivered before re-opening of the infarct-related artery in 97% participants and increased plasma iodide levels ~1000-fold within 2 min. There was no significant increase in the primary safety end point of incidence of cardiac arrhythmias of concern. MRI at 3 months revealed median final infarct sizes in placebo vs. 2.0 mg/kg FDY-5301-treated patients of 14.9% vs. 8.5%, and LV ejection fractions of 53.9% vs. 63.2%, respectively, although the study was not powered to detect statistical significance. In patients receiving FDY-5301, there was a significant reduction in the levels of MPO, MMP2 and NTproBNP after PPCI, but no reduction with placebo.

Conclusions: Intravenous FDY-5301, delivered immediately prior to PPCI in acute STEMI, is feasible, safe, and shows potential efficacy. A larger trial is justified to test the effects of FDY-5301 on acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and clinical outcomes.

Clinical Trial Registration: CT.govNCT03470441; EudraCT 2017-000047-41.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.11.016DOI Listing
November 2021

Recent Advances on the Genetics of Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Oct 28:CIRCGEN121003393. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

PARCC, INSERM, Universite de Paris, France (N.B.-N.).

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been acknowledged as a significant cause of acute myocardial infarction, predominantly in young to middle-aged women. SCAD often occurs in patients with fewer cardiovascular risk factors than atherosclerotic acute myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, SCAD remains underdiagnosed due to a lack of awareness among health care providers leading to misdiagnosis. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of SCAD are not well understood. SCAD occurring in members of the same family has been described, suggesting a potentially identifiable genetically triggered cause in at least some cases. However, thus far, the search for highly penetrant mutations in candidate pathways has had a low yield, often pointing to genes involved in other clinically undiagnosed hereditary syndromes manifesting as SCAD. Recent exploratory efforts using exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have provided several interesting leads toward understanding the pathogenesis of SCAD. Here, we review recent publications where rare and common genetic factors were reported to associate with a predisposition to SCAD and indicate suggestions for the future strategies and approaches needed to fully address the genetic basis of this intriguing and atypical cause of acute myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.121.003393DOI Listing
October 2021

Rationale and design of the BA-SCAD (Beta-blockers and Antiplatelet agents in patients with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection) randomized clinical trial.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain; Departamento de Inmunología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction Y Objectives: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Most patients are empirically treated with beta-blockers and antiplatelet drugs. The Beta-blockers and Antiplatelet agents in patients with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (BA-SCAD) is an academic, pragmatic, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint clinical trial, performed under the auspices of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, to assess the efficacy of pharmacological therapy in patients with SCAD.

Methods: Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, 600 patients will be randomized (1:1/1:1) to: a) beta-blockers (yes/no) and b) "short" (1 month) vs "prolonged" (12 months) antiplatelet therapy. Only patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction will be randomized to beta-blockers (yes/no) because patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction will receive beta-blockers according to current guidelines. Similarly, only conservatively managed patients (ie, no coronary intervention) will be randomized to the antiplatelet stratum, as patients requiring coronary interventions will receive 1-year dual antiplatelet therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint includes a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, recurrent SCAD, and unplanned hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or heart failure at 1 year. The primary safety endpoint will be bleeding. All patients will be clinically followed up yearly. A comprehensive set of additional substudies (clinical, imaging, revascularization, biomarkers, inflammatory, immunologic, pharmacogenetics, and genetic) will be conducted to ensure a holistic view of this unique and challenging clinical entity.

Conclusions: The results of the BA-SCAD randomized clinical trial will advance our knowledge in the treatment of patients with SCAD. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04850417).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2021.08.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Pitfalls of Angiographic Diagnosis and an Approach to Ambiguous Cases.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 08;14(16):1743-1756

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a pathophysiologically distinct cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). It is increasingly recognized that optimal management is different from that for atherosclerotic ACS and that a SCAD diagnosis has specific long-term prognostic and therapeutic implications. Accurate diagnosis is therefore essential to ensure the best treatment of patients. At present this relies on the recognition of typical features of SCAD identified on invasive coronary angiography. Although most SCAD can be readily distinguished angiographically from alternative causes of ACS, false positive and false negative diagnoses remain common. In particular, sometimes non-SCAD presentations, including atherothrombosis, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, coronary embolism, coronary vasospasm, contrast streaming, and myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries, can mimic angiographic features usually associated with SCAD. The authors present the combined experience from European and US SCAD referral centers reviewing the classical angiographic appearances of SCAD, presenting potential diagnostic pitfalls and exemplars of SCAD mimickers. The authors further review the benefits and limitations of intracoronary imaging in the context of SCAD. Finally, the authors discuss the investigation of ambiguous cases and an approach to minimize misdiagnosis in difficult cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.06.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383825PMC
August 2021

BSE and BCOS Guideline for Transthoracic Echocardiographic Assessment of Adult Cancer Patients Receiving Anthracyclines and/or Trastuzumab.

JACC CardioOncol 2021 Mar 16;3(1):1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiology, Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath, United Kingdom.

The subspecialty of cardio-oncology aims to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer or following cancer treatment. Cancer therapy can lead to a variety of cardiovascular complications, including left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial disease, and valvular heart disease. Echocardiography is a key diagnostic imaging tool in the diagnosis and surveillance for many of these complications. The baseline assessment and subsequent surveillance of patients undergoing treatment with anthracyclines and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-positive targeted treatment (e.g., trastuzumab and pertuzumab) form a significant proportion of cardio-oncology patients undergoing echocardiography. This guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography and British Cardio-Oncology Society outlines a protocol for baseline and surveillance echocardiography of patients undergoing treatment with anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab. The methodology for acquisition of images and the advantages and disadvantages of techniques are discussed. Echocardiographic definitions for considering cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccao.2021.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352267PMC
March 2021

Case-ascertainment of acute myocardial infarction hospitalisations in cancer patients: a cohort study using English linked electronic health data.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Biostatistics Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Aims: To assess the recording and accuracy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospital admissions between two electronic health record databases within an English cancer population over time and understand the factors that affect case-ascertainment.

Methods And Results: We identified 112,502 hospital admissions for AMI in England 2010-2017 from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) disease registry and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for 95,509 patients with a previous cancer diagnosis up to 15 years prior to admission. Cancer diagnoses were identified from the National Cancer Registration Dataset (NCRD). We calculated the percentage of AMI admissions captured by each source and examined patient characteristics associated with source of ascertainment. Survival analysis assessed whether differences in survival between case-ascertainment sources could be explained by patient characteristics.57,265 (50.9%) AMI admissions in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer were captured in both MINAP and HES. Patients captured in both sources were younger, more likely to have ST-segment elevation MI and had better prognosis, with lower mortality rates up to 9 years after AMI admission compared with patients captured in only one source. The percentage of admissions captured in both data sources improved over time. Cancer characteristics (site, stage and grade) had little effect on how AMI was captured.

Conclusion: MINAP and HES define different populations of patients with AMI. However, cancer characteristics do not substantially impact on case-ascertainment. These findings support a strategy of using multiple linked data sources for observational cardio-oncological research into AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcab045DOI Listing
June 2021

British Society for Echocardiography and British Cardio-Oncology Society guideline for transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of adult cancer patients receiving anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab.

Echo Res Pract 2021 03 31;8(1):G1-G18. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Cardiology, Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath, UK.

The subspecialty of cardio-oncology aims to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer or following cancer treatment. Cancer therapy can lead to a variety of cardiovascular complications, including left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial disease, and valvular heart disease. Echocardiography is a key diagnostic imaging tool in the diagnosis and surveillance for many of these complications. The baseline assessment and subsequent surveillance of patients undergoing treatment with anthracyclines and/or human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (HER) 2-positive targeted treatment (e.g. trastuzumab and pertuzumab) form a significant proportion of cardio-oncology patients undergoing echocardiography. This guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography and British Cardio-Oncology Society outlines a protocol for baseline and surveillance echocardiography of patients undergoing treatment with anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab. The methodology for acquisition of images and the advantages and disadvantages of techniques are discussed. Echocardiographic definitions for considering cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERP-21-0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052569PMC
March 2021

Vascular histopathology and connective tissue ultrastructure in spontaneous coronary artery dissection: pathophysiological and clinical implications.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and National Institute for Health Research Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Aims: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a cause of acute coronary syndromes and in rare cases sudden cardiac death (SCD). Connective tissue abnormalities, coronary inflammation, increased coronary vasa vasorum density and coronary fibromuscular dysplasia have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of SCAD but have not previously been systematically assessed. We designed a study to investigate the coronary histological and dermal collagen ultrastructural findings in SCAD.

Methods And Results: 36 autopsy SCAD cases were compared with 359 SCAD survivors. Coronary and myocardial histology and immunohistochemistry were undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of dermal extracellular matrix components (ECM) of n = 31 SCAD survivors and n = 16 healthy volunteers were compared. Autopsy cases were more likely male (19% versus 5%; p = 0.0004) with greater proximal left coronary involvement (56% versus 18%; p < 0.0001) compared to SCAD survivors. N = 24 (66%) of cases showed no myocardial infarction on macro- or microscopic examination consistent with arrhythmogenic death. There was significantly (p < 0.001) higher inflammation in cases with delayed-onset death vs sudden death and significantly more inflammation surrounding the dissected vs. non-dissected vessel segments. N = 17 (47%) cases showed limited intimal fibro-elastic thickening but no features of fibromuscular dysplasia and no endothelial or internal elastic lamina abnormalities. There were no differences in vasa vasorum density between SCAD and control cases. TEM revealed no general ultrastructural differences in ECM components or markers of fibroblast metabolic activity.

Conclusions: Assessment of SCD requires careful exclusion of SCAD, particularly in cases without myocardial necrosis. Peri-coronary inflammation in SCAD is distinct from vasculitides and likely a reaction to, rather than a cause for SCAD. Coronary fibromuscular dysplasia or increased vasa vasorum density do not appear pathophysiologically important. Dermal connective tissue changes are not common in SCAD survivors.

Translational Perspective: SCAD, especially of distal coronary territories should be carefully assessed at post mortem in SCD cases, even where there are no signs of myocardial infarction. The immediate cause of SCAD is likely to be the development of a spontaneous intramural haematoma rather than an intimal disruption or 'tear'. This does not seem to be directly related to increased vasa vasorum density, coronary fibromuscular dysplasia or local inflammation (except as a response to injury). Although SCAD is rarely associated with hereditary connective tissue disorders, there does not seem to be a more generalizable global connective tissue ultrastructural abnormality in most cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab183DOI Listing
May 2021

Risks and benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention in spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

Heart 2021 Sep 18;107(17):1398-1406. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, Leicestershire, UK

Objective: To investigate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice in an international cohort of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). To explore factors associated with complications and study angiographic and longer term outcomes.

Methods: SCAD patients (n=215, 94% female) who underwent PCI from three national cohort studies were investigated and compared with a matched cohort of conservatively managed SCAD patients (n=221).

Results: SCAD-PCI patients were high risk at presentation with only 8.8% undergoing PCI outside the context of ST-elevation myocardial infarction/cardiac arrest, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0/1 flow or proximal dissections. PCI complications occurred in 38.6% (83/215), with 13.0% (28/215) serious complications. PCI-related complications were associated with more extensive dissections (multiple vs single American Heart Association coronary segments, OR 1.9 (95% CI: 1.06-3.39),p=0.030), more proximal dissections (proximal diameter per mm, OR 2.25 (1.38-3.67), p=0.001) and dissections with no contrast penetration of the false lumen (Yip-Saw 2 versus 1, OR 2.89 (1.12-7.43), p=0.028). SCAD-PCI involved long lengths of stent (median 46mm, IQR: 29-61mm). Despite these risks, SCAD-PCI led to angiographic improvements in those with reduced TIMI flow in 84.3% (118/140). Worsening TIMI flow was only seen in 7.0% (15/215) of SCAD-PCI patients. Post-PCI major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and left ventricular function outcomes were favourable.

Conclusion: While a conservative approach to revascularisation is favoured, SCAD cases with higher risk presentations may require PCI. SCAD-PCI is associated with longer stent lengths and a higher risk of complications but leads to overall improvements in coronary flow and good medium-term outcomes in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372386PMC
September 2021

Differential miRNAs in acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection: Pathophysiological insights from a potential biomarker.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 15;66:103338. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; CIBER de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) is an important cause of acute coronary syndromes, particularly in young to middle-aged women. Differentiating acute SCAD from coronary atherothrombosis remains a major clinical challenge.

Methods: A case-control study was used to explore the usefulness of circulating miRNAs to discriminate both clinical entities. The profile of miRNAs was evaluated using an unbiased human RT-PCR platform and confirmed using individual primers. miRNAs were evaluated in plasma samples from acute SCAD and atherothrombotic acute myocardial infarction (AT-AMI) from two independent cohorts; discovery cohort (SCAD n = 15, AT-AMI n = 15), and validation cohort (SCAD n = 11, AT-AMI n = 41) with 9 healthy control subjects. Plasma levels of IL-8, TGFB1, TGBR1, Endothelin-1 and MMP2 were analysed by ELISA assays.

Findings: From 15 differentially expressed miRNAs detected in cohort 1, we confirmed in cohort 2 the differential expression of 4 miRNAs: miR-let-7f-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-223-5p, whose expression was higher in SCAD compared to AT-AMI. The combined expression of these 4 miRNAs showed the best predictive value to distinguish between both entities (AUC: 0.879, 95% CI 0.72-1.0) compared to individual miRNAs. Functional profiling of target genes identified an association with blood vessel biology, TGF-beta pathway and cytoskeletal traction force. ELISA assays showed high plasma levels of IL-8, TGFB1, TGFBR1, Endothelin-1 and MMP2 in SCAD patients compared to AT-AMI.

Interpretation: We present a novel signature of plasma miRNAs in patients with SCAD. miR-let-7f-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-223-5p discriminate SCAD from AT-AMI patients and also shed light on the pathological mechanisms underlying this condition.

Funding: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO): Plan Nacional de Salud SAF2017-82886-R, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV). Fundación BBVA a equipos de Investigación Científica 2018 and from Caixa Banking Foundation under the project code HR17-00016 to F.S.M. Instituto de Salud Carlos III (AES 2019): PI19/00565 to F.R, PI19/00545 to P.M. CAM (S2017/BMD-3671-INFLAMUNE-CM) from Comunidad de Madrid to FSM and PM. The UK SCAD study was supported by BeatSCAD, the British Heart Foundation (BHF) PG/13/96/30608 the NIHR rare disease translational collaboration and the Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079473PMC
April 2021

Current progress in clinical, molecular, and genetic aspects of adult fibromuscular dysplasia.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Hypertension, National Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland.

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic vascular disease that may involve medium-sized muscular arteries throughout the body. The majority of FMD patients are women. Although a variety of genetic, mechanical, and hormonal factors play a role in the pathogenesis of FMD, overall, its cause remains poorly understood. It is probable that the pathogenesis of FMD is linked to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Extensive studies have correlated the arterial lesions of FMD to histopathological findings of arterial fibrosis, cellular hyperplasia, and distortion of the abnormal architecture of the arterial wall. More recently, the vascular phenotype of lesions associated with FMD has been expanded to include arterial aneurysms, dissections, and tortuosity. However, in the absence of a string of beads or focal stenosis, these lesions do not suffice to establish the diagnosis. While FMD most commonly involves renal and cerebrovascular arteries, involvement of most arteries throughout the body has been reported. Increasing evidence highlights that FMD is a systemic arterial disease and that subclinical alterations can be found in non-affected arterial segments. Recent significant progress in FMD-related research which has led to improved understandings of the disease's clinical manifestations, natural history, epidemiology, and genetics. Ongoing work continues to focus on FMD genetics and proteomics, physiological effects of FMD on cardiovascular structure and function, and novel imaging modalities and blood-based biomarkers that can be used to identify subclinical FMD. It is also hoped that the next decade will bring the development of multi-centred and potentially international clinical trials to provide comparative effectiveness data to inform the optimal management of patients with FMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab086DOI Listing
March 2021

Aortic stenosis in the time of COVID-19: Development and outcomes of a rapid turnaround TAVI service.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 09 10;98(3):E478-E482. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals, Leicester, Leicester, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the cancellation of many elective surgical procedures. This has led to reports of an increase in mortality for patients with non-Covid health conditions due to delayed definitive management. Patients with severe aortic stenosis have a high annual mortality if left untreated. These patients are at risk due to the reduced number of surgical aortic valve replacements and competition for intensive care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. This case series suggests that the minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation is safe to continue during the COVID-19 pandemic with adjustments to the patient pathway to minimize hospital stay and to reduce patient and staff exposure. This helps to reduce the delay of definitive treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014719PMC
September 2021

Quantitative evaluation and comparison of coronary artery characteristics by 3D coronary volume reconstruction.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1170. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Bristol Heart Institute, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8HW, UK.

Non-atherosclerotic abnormalities of vessel calibre, aneurysm and ectasia, are challenging to quantify and are often overlooked in qualitative reporting. Utilising a novel 3-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) application, we have evaluated the characteristics of normal, diabetic and aneurysmal or ectatic coronary arteries. We selected 131 individuals under 50 years-of-age, who had undergone coronary angiography for suspected myocardial ischaemia between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2015, at the Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol, UK. This included 42 patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries, 36 diabetic patients with unobstructed coronaries, and 53 patients with abnormal coronary dilatation (aneurysm and ectasia). A total of 1105 coronary segments were analysed using QAngio XA 3D (Research Edition, Medis medical imaging systems, Leiden, The Netherlands). The combined volume of the major coronary arteries was significantly different between each group (1240 ± 476 mm diabetic group, 1646 ± 391 mm normal group, and 2072 ± 687 mm abnormal group). Moreover, the combined coronary artery volumes correlated with patient body surface area (r = 0.483, p < 0.01). Inter-observer variability was assessed and intraclass correlation coefficient of the total coronary artery volume demonstrated a low variability of 3D QCA (r = 0.996, p < 0.001). Dedicated 3D QCA facilitates reproducible coronary artery volume estimation and allows discrimination of normal and diseased vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80928-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806746PMC
January 2021

Autoimmune Disease and Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Causation Versus Coexistence.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 11;76(19):2235-2237

Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, National Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.09.552DOI Listing
November 2020

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Insights on Rare Genetic Variation From Genome Sequencing.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 12 30;13(6):e003030. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, United Kingdom (A.A.B., T.R.W., S.E.H., D.P., A.A.-H., A.W., D.K., N.J.S., D.A.).

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) occurs when an epicardial coronary artery is narrowed or occluded by an intramural hematoma. SCAD mainly affects women and is associated with pregnancy and systemic arteriopathies, particularly fibromuscular dysplasia. Variants in several genes, such as those causing connective tissue disorders, have been implicated; however, the genetic architecture is poorly understood. Here, we aim to better understand the diagnostic yield of rare variant genetic testing among a cohort of SCAD survivors and to identify genes or gene sets that have a significant enrichment of rare variants.

Methods: We sequenced a cohort of 384 SCAD survivors from the United Kingdom, alongside 13 722 UK Biobank controls and a validation cohort of 92 SCAD survivors. We performed a research diagnostic screen for pathogenic variants and exome-wide and gene-set rare variant collapsing analyses.

Results: The majority of patients within both cohorts are female, 29% of the study cohort and 14% validation cohort have a remote arteriopathy. Four cases across the 2 cohorts had a diagnosed connective tissue disorder. We identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 7 genes (, , , , , , and ) in 14/384 cases in the study cohort and in 1/92 cases in the validation cohort. In our rare variant collapsing analysis, was the highest-ranked gene, and several functionally plausible genes were enriched for rare variants, although no gene achieved study-wide statistical significance. Gene-set enrichment analysis suggested a role for additional genes involved in renal function.

Conclusions: By studying the largest sequenced cohort of SCAD survivors, we demonstrate that, based on current knowledge, only a small proportion have a pathogenic variant that could explain their disease. Our findings strengthen the overlap between SCAD and renal and connective tissue disorders, and we highlight several new genes for future validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748045PMC
December 2020

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 08;76(8):961-984

Division of Maternal and Fetal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Over the past decade, spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has emerged as an important cause of myocardial infarction, particularly among younger women. The pace of knowledge acquisition has been rapid, but ongoing challenges include accurately diagnosing SCAD and improving outcomes. Many SCAD patients experience substantial post-SCAD symptoms, recurrent SCAD, and psychosocial distress. Considerable uncertainty remains about optimal management of associated conditions, risk stratification and prevention of complications, recommendations for physical activity, reproductive planning, and the role of genetic evaluations. This review provides a clinical update on the diagnosis and management of patients with SCAD, including pregnancy-associated SCAD and pregnancy after SCAD, and highlight high-priority knowledge gaps that must be addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.05.084DOI Listing
August 2020

The TICONC (Ticagrelor-Oncology) Study: Implications of P2Y Inhibition for Metastasis and Cancer-Associated Thrombosis.

JACC CardioOncol 2020 Jun 16;2(2):236-250. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, and the National Institutes of Health Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Background: In cancer, platelets may facilitate metastatic spread by a number of mechanisms as well as contribute to thrombotic complications. Ticagrelor, a platelet antagonist- that blocks adenosine diphosphate activation of platelet P2Y receptors, is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, but its efficacy in cancer remains unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the effect of aspirin and ticagrelor monotherapy, as well as dual antiplatelet therapy, on platelet activation in cancer.

Methods: This study consisted of 2 phases: first, an in vitro study of human platelet-tumor cell interaction; and second, a randomized crossover clinical trial of 22 healthy donors and 16 patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer. Platelet activation and inhibition were measured by aggregometry and flow cytometry.

Results: In vitro, tumor cells induced cellular clusters that were predominantly platelet-platelet aggregates. Ticagrelor significantly inhibited formation of large tumor cell-induced platelet-platelet aggregates: 65.4 ± 4.8% to 50.9 ± 5.9% (p = 0.002) and 62.3 ± 3.1% to 48.3 ± 7.3% (p = 0.014) for MCF-7 and HT-29-induced aggregation, respectively. Supporting this finding, cancer patients on ticagrelor had significantly reduced levels of spontaneous platelet aggregation and activation compared with baseline; 14.8 ± 2.7% at baseline to 7.8 ± 2.3% with ticagrelor (p = 0.012).

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that P2Y inhibition with ticagrelor might reduce spontaneous platelet aggregation and activation in patients with metastatic cancer and merits further investigation in patients at high risk of cancer-associated thrombosis. (Ticagrelor-Oncology [TICONC] Study; EudraCT: 2014-004049-29).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccao.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352224PMC
June 2020

Rare loss-of-function mutations of PTGIR are enriched in fibromuscular dysplasia.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 03;117(4):1154-1165

Department of Radiology, Assistance-publique-hôpitaux de Paris, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, F-75015 Paris, France.

Aims: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) are related, non-atherosclerotic arterial diseases mainly affecting middle-aged women. Little is known about their physiopathological mechanisms. We aimed to identify rare genetic causes to elucidate molecular mechanisms implicated in FMD and SCAD.

Methods And Results: We analysed 29 exomes that included familial and sporadic FMD. We identified one rare loss-of-function variant (LoF) (frequencygnomAD = 0.000075) shared by two FMD sisters in the prostaglandin I2 receptor gene (PTGIR), a key player in vascular remodelling. Follow-up was conducted by targeted or Sanger sequencing (1071 FMD and 363 SCAD patients) or lookups in exome (264 FMD) or genome sequences (480 SCAD), all independent and unrelated. It revealed four additional LoF allele carriers, in addition to several rare missense variants, among FMD patients, and two LoF allele carriers among SCAD patients, including one carrying a rare splicing mutation (c.768 + 1C>G). We used burden test to test for enrichment in patients compared to gnomAD controls, which detected a putative enrichment in FMD (PTRAPD = 8 × 10-4), but not a significant enrichment (PTRAPD = 0.12) in SCAD. The biological effects of variants on human prostaclycin receptor (hIP) signalling and protein expression were characterized using transient overexpression in human cells. We confirmed the LoFs (Q163X and P17RfsX6) and one missense (L67P), identified in one FMD and one SCAD patient, to severely impair hIP function in vitro.

Conclusions: Our study shows that rare genetic mutations in PTGIR are enriched among FMD patients and found in SCAD patients, suggesting a role for prostacyclin signalling in non-atherosclerotic stenosis and dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983006PMC
March 2021

Impact on survival of modelling increased surgical resection rates in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and cardiovascular comorbidities: a VICORI study.

Br J Cancer 2020 08 11;123(3):471-479. Epub 2020 May 11.

National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service, Public Health England, London, SE1 8UG, UK.

Background: The impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity on resection rates and survival for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. We explored if CVD comorbidity explained surgical resection rate variation and the impact on survival if resection rates increased.

Methods: Cancer registry data consisted of English patients diagnosed with NSCLC from 2012 to 2016. Linked hospital records identified CVD comorbidities. We investigated resection rate variation by geographical region using funnel plots; resection and death rates using time-to-event analysis. We modelled an increased propensity for resection in regions with the lowest resection rates and estimated survival change.

Results: Among 57,373 patients with Stage 1-3A NSCLC, resection rates varied considerably between regions. Patients with CVD comorbidity had lower resection rates and higher mortality rates. CVD comorbidity explained only 1.9% of the variation in resection rates. For every 100 CVD comorbid patients, increasing resection in regions with the lowest rates from 24 to 44% would result in 16 more patients resected and alive after 1 year and two fewer deaths overall.

Conclusions: Variation in regional resection rate is not explained by CVD comorbidities. Increasing resection in patients with CVD comorbidity to the levels of the highest resecting region would increase 1-year survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0869-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403296PMC
August 2020

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Management.

Eur Cardiol 2020 Feb 26;15:1-8. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Princesa, Centro de Investigación en Red en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Madrid, Spain.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome that usually affects young to middle-aged women. Mainly because of its low prevalence, until recently, most of the evidence on this condition was derived from case reports and small series. Over the last 5 years, more robust evidence has become available from larger retrospective and prospective cohorts of patients with SCAD. The increase in knowledge and recognition of this entity has led to the publication of expert consensus on both sides of the Atlantic. However, new data are continuously accumulating from larger cohorts of patients with SCAD, bringing new light to this little-understood condition. The aim of this article is to update the knowledge on SCAD, including new information from recent studies published since the consensus documents from the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2019.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113739PMC
February 2020

Dissecting visceral fibromuscular dysplasia reveals a new vascular phenotype of the disease: a report from the ARCADIA-POL study.

J Hypertens 2020 04;38(4):737-744

Department of Hypertension, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw.

Objective: Visceral artery fibromuscular dysplasia (VA FMD) manifestations range from asymptomatic to life-threatening. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of VA FMD.

Methods: A total of 232 FMD patients enrolled into ongoing ARCADIA-POL study were included in this analysis. All patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, biobanking, duplex Doppler of carotid and abdominal arteries and whole body angio-computed tomography. Three control groups (patients with renal FMD without visceral involvement, healthy normotensive patients and resistant hypertensive patients) matched for age and sex were included.

Results: VA FMD was present in 32 patients (13.8%). Among these patients (women: 84.4%), FMD lesions were more frequent in celiac trunk (83.1%), 62.5% of patients showed at least one visceral aneurysm, and five patients presented with severe complications related to VA FMD. No demographic differences were found between patients with VA FMD and individuals from the three control groups, with the exception of lower weight (P < 0.001) and BMI (P < 0.001) in VA FMD patients. Patients with FMD (with or without visceral artery involvement) showed significantly smaller visceral arterial diameters compared with controls without FMD.

Conclusion: Patients with FMD showed smaller visceral arterial diameters when compared with patients without FMD. This may reflect a new phenotype of FMD, as a generalized arteriopathy, what needs further investigation. Lower BMI in patients with VA FMD might be explained by chronic mesenteric ischemia resulting from FMD lesions. FMD visceral involvement and visceral arterial aneurysms in patients with renal FMD are far to be rare. This strengthens the need for a systematic evaluation of all vascular beds, including visceral arteries, regardless of initial FMD involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002327DOI Listing
April 2020

Chronic infarct size after spontaneous coronary artery dissection: implications for pathophysiology and clinical management.

Eur Heart J 2020 06;41(23):2197-2205

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.

Aims: To report the extent and distribution of myocardial injury and its impact on left ventricular systolic function with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) following spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) and to investigate predictors of myocardial injury.

Methods And Results: One hundred and fifty-eight angiographically confirmed SCAD-survivors (98% female) were phenotyped by CMR and compared in a case-control study with 59 (97% female) healthy controls (44.5 ± 8.4 vs. 45.0 ± 9.1 years). Spontaneous coronary artery dissection presentation was with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 95 (60.3%), ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 52 (32.7%), and cardiac arrest in 11 (6.9%). Left ventricular function in SCAD-survivors was generally well preserved with small reductions in ejection fraction (57 ± 7.2% vs. 60 ± 4.9%, P < 0.01) and increases in left ventricular dimensions (end-diastolic volume: 85 ± 14 mL/m2 vs. 80 ± 11 mL/m2, P < 0.05; end-systolic volume: 37 ± 11 mL/m2 vs. 32 ± 7 mL/m2, P <0.01) compared to healthy controls. Infarcts were small with few large infarcts (median 4.06%; range 0-30.9%) and 39% having no detectable late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Female SCAD patients presenting with STEMI had similar sized infarcts to female Type-1 STEMI patients age <75 years. Multivariate modelling demonstrated STEMI at presentation, initial TIMI 0/1 flow, multivessel SCAD, and a Beighton score >4 were associated with larger infarcts [>10% left ventricular (LV) mass].

Conclusion: The majority of patients presenting with SCAD have no or small infarctions and preserved ejection fraction. Patients presenting with STEMI, TIMI 0/1 flow, multivessel SCAD and those with features of connective tissue disorders are more likely to have larger infarcts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299635PMC
June 2020

The role of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Loading on periprocedural myocardial infarction During elective PCI (GOLD-PCI study): A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Am Heart J 2019 09 9;215:41-51. Epub 2019 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiology, Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect against lethal ischemia-reperfusion injury in animal models and against nonlethal ischemia reperfusion injury in humans. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor agonists have been shown to reduce major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in large-scale studies. We sought to investigate whether GLP-1 reduced percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-associated myocardial infarction (PMI) during elective PCI.

Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial in which patients undergoing elective PCI received an intravenous infusion of either GLP-1 at 1.2 pmol/kg/min or matched 0.9% saline placebo before and during the procedure. Randomization was performed in 1:1 fashion, with stratification for diabetes mellitus. Six-hour cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was measured with a primary end point of PMI defined as rise ≫×5 upper limit of normal (280 ng/L). Secondary end points included cTnI rise and MACCE at 12 months.

Results: A total of 192 patients were randomized with 152 (79%) male and a mean age of 68.1 ± 8.9 years. No significant differences in patient demographics were noted between the groups. There was no difference in the rate of PMI between GLP-1 and placebo (9 [9.8%] vs 8 [8.3%], P = 1.0) or in the secondary end points of difference in median cTnI between groups (9.5 [0-88.5] vs 20 [0-58.5] ng/L, P = .25) and MACCE at 12 months (7 [7.3%] vs 9 [9.4%], P = .61).

Conclusions: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, GLP-1 did not reduce the low incidence of PMI or abrogate biomarker rise during elective PCI, nor did it influence the 12-month MACCE rate which also remained low.

Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Number: NCT02127996https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02127996.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.05.013DOI Listing
September 2019

Screening of extra-coronary arteriopathy with magnetic resonance angiography in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a single-centre experience.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2019 Jun;9(3):229-238

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, IdISSC, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Current consensus recommends extended vascular investigation in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). We here report our experience with the use of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for screening extra-coronary arteriopathy in patients presenting with SCAD.

Methods: Patients presenting with SCAD in a Spanish centre underwent prospective contrast-enhanced MRA to assess the cephalic and abdominopelvic arterial territories. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was diagnosed following European consensus criteria. Other vascular abnormalities were recorded separately. Two vascular radiologists supervised the acquisitions and independently analysed the results for all cases.

Results: Forty patients with SCAD [mean age 50.9±8.6 years, 90% (n=36) women] were included in the study, 12 patients declined to participate and 5 were excluded (metallic implanted devices). All enrolled patients underwent the screening protocol without complications. MRA demonstrated at least one extra-coronary vascular abnormality in 16 patients (40%): 5 (12.5%) were diagnosed with FMD, 6 (15%) showed arterial tortuosity, 3 (7.5%) had non-FMD focal stenoses, and 2 (5%) were found to have small aneurysms at the celiac trunk and splenic artery. No intracranial aneurysms were detected. At a mean follow-up of 4±3 years from the index episode, two cases experienced SCAD recurrences, one in a patient with FMD and the other one in a patient with arterial tortuosity. No deaths or strokes occurred.

Conclusions: Systematic extended vascular study with MRA was feasible and demonstrated associated extra-coronary arteriopathy in a substantial proportion of patients presenting with SCAD; however, none required additional intervention or led to vascular events. MRA, being a radiation-free modality, may be the preferred method for screening extracoronary arteriopathy in SCAD, a condition primarily affecting young and middle-age women sensitive to the risks of radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2019.04.09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603500PMC
June 2019

Patient-oriented composite endpoints and net adverse clinical events with ticagrelor monotherapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the randomised GLOBAL LEADERS trial.

EuroIntervention 2019 Dec 20;15(12):e1090-e1098. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

NHLI, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, United Kingdom.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy following one-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the rates of patient-oriented composite endpoints (POCE) and net adverse clinical events (NACE).

Methods And Results: The rates of site-reported Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 defined POCE (all-cause death, any stroke, any myocardial infarction or any revascularisation) and NACE (POCE or bleeding type 3 or 5 according to the Bleeding ARC [BARC]) were reported up to two years by intention-to-treat principle in the randomised, multicentre, open-label GLOBAL LEADERS study comparing two antiplatelet strategies in 15,991 patients undergoing PCI. The experimental strategy consisted of aspirin with ticagrelor for one month followed by ticagrelor monotherapy for 23 months, whereas the reference treatment consisted of 12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin monotherapy. At two years, POCE occurred in 1,050 (13.2%) patients in the experimental group and in 1,131 (14.2%) in the reference group (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.01, p=0.085). NACE occurred in 1,145 (14.4%) patients in the experimental group and in 1,237 (15.5%) patients in the reference group (HR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-1.00, p=0.057). In pre-specified subgroup analyses, no significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions were found for either POCE or NACE at two years.

Conclusions: The experimental treatment strategy of one-month DAPT followed by 23 months of ticagrelor alone did not result in a significant reduction in the rates of site-reported POCE or NACE, when compared to the reference treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813435.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00202DOI Listing
December 2019
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