Publications by authors named "David A Frederick"

28 Publications

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The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS): Breast size dissatisfaction and its antecedents and outcomes in women from 40 nations.

Authors:
Viren Swami Ulrich S Tran David Barron Reza Afhami Annie Aimé Carlos A Almenara Nursel Alp Dal Ana Carolina Soares Amaral Sonny Andrianto Gulnaz Anjum Marios Argyrides Mohammad Atari Mudassar Aziz Benjamin Banai Joanna Borowiec Alexandra Brewis Yeliz Cakir Kocak Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos Carmen Carmona Trawin Chaleeraktrakoon Hong Chen Phatthanakit Chobthamkit Bovornpot Choompunuch Togas Constantinos Aine Crumlish Julio Eduardo Cruz Simon E Dalley Devi Damayanti Joanna Dare Stacey M Donofrio Anja Draksler Michelle Escasa-Dorne Elaine Frances Fernandez Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira David A Frederick Antonio Alías García Shulamit Geller Alexias George Louai Ghazieh Cosmin Goian Colin Gorman Caterina Grano Jonathan Eliahu Handelzalts Heather Horsburgh Todd Jackson Lady Grey Javela Javela Delgado Marija Jović Marko Jović Adam Kantanista Sevag K Kertechian Loes Kessels Magdalena Król-Zielińska Garry Kuan Yee Cheng Kueh Sanjay Kumar Ingela Lundin Kvalem Caterina Lombardo Ernesto Luis López Almada Christophe Maïano Mandar Manjary Karlijn Massar Camilla Matera Juliana F Figueiras Mereiles Norbert Meskó Hikari Namatame Amanda Nerini Felix Neto Joana Neto Angela Nogueira Neves Siu-Kuen Ng Devi R Nithiya Salma Samir Omar Mika Omori Maria Serena Panasiti Irena Pavela Banai Eva Pila Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian Vita Postuvan Ivanka Prichard Magdalena Razmus Catherine M Sabiston Reza N Sahlan Jacob Owusu Sarfo Yoko Sawamiya Stefan Stieger Cindi SturtzSreetharan Eugene Tee Gill A Ten Hoor Kulvadee Thongpibul Arun Tipandjan Otilia Tudorel Tracy Tylka Zahir Vally Juan Camilo Vargas-Nieto Luis Diego Vega Jose Vidal-Mollón Mona Vintila Deborah Williams Amber Wutich Yuko Yamamiya Danilo Zambrano Marcelo Callegari Zanetti Ivanka Živčić-Bećirević Martin Voracek

Body Image 2020 Mar 4;32:199-217. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS) was established to assess women's breast size dissatisfaction and breasted experiences from a cross-national perspective. A total of 18,541 women were recruited from 61 research sites across 40 nations and completed measures of current-ideal breast size discrepancy, as well as measures of theorised antecedents (personality, Western and local media exposure, and proxies of socioeconomic status) and outcomes (weight and appearance dissatisfaction, breast awareness, and psychological well-being). In the total dataset, 47.5 % of women wanted larger breasts than they currently had, 23.2 % wanted smaller breasts, and 29.3 % were satisfied with their current breast size. There were significant cross-national differences in mean ideal breast size and absolute breast size dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small (η = .02-.03). The results of multilevel modelling showed that greater Neuroticism, lower Conscientiousness, lower Western media exposure, greater local media exposure, lower financial security, and younger age were associated with greater breast size dissatisfaction across nations. In addition, greater absolute breast size dissatisfaction was associated with greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction, poorer breast awareness, and poorer psychological well-being across nations. These results indicate that breast size dissatisfaction is a global public health concern linked to women's psychological and physical well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.01.006DOI Listing
March 2020

The Happy American Body 2.0: Predictors of affective body satisfaction in two U.S. national internet panel surveys.

Body Image 2020 Mar 9;32:70-84. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

American Institutes for Research, United States.

The first national study of body image was reported four decades ago in the article The Happy American Body (Berscheid et al., 1973). To provide a modern follow-up to this study, we used two Internet panel surveys of U.S. adults to examine feelings about appearance (Survey 1: Married N = 1095; Single N = 5481) and weight, appearance, body, and muscle size/tone (Survey 2: N = 1601). Mean ages across samples for men and women ranged from 42-53. On the positive side, many men and women were somewhat-to-very satisfied with their appearance (67 %; 57 %), overall body (61 %; 46 %), weight (54 %; 42 %), and muscle tone/size (56 %; 41 %). Mean gender differences were small (Cohen's ds = 0.18-0.32), as were sexual orientation differences within each gender (ds = |0.00-0.25|). Looking at negative body image, fewer men than women were somewhat-to-very unhappy with their appearance among married (19 %; 29 %) and single participants (29 %; 35 %), and fewer men were somewhat-to-extremely dissatisfied with their appearance (18 %; 24 %), body (27 %; 39 %), weight (36 %; 49 %), muscle tone/size (27 %; 41 %). Nearly one-fifth of men (18 %) and one-fourth of women (27 %) were very-to-extremely dissatisfied with at least one of these traits, highlighting the importance of body image interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2019.11.003DOI Listing
March 2020

Testing the Tripartite Influence Model among heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women.

Body Image 2019 Sep 16;30:145-149. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, United States.

This cross-sectional study explored similarities and differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in levels of, and relationships between, the following constructs using a Tripartite Influence Model framework: family, peer, and media appearance pressures, thin- and muscular-ideal internalization, and eating disorder (ED) pathology. Self-identified heterosexual (n = 1,528), bisexual (n = 89), and lesbian (n = 278) undergraduate women completed the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Sexual orientation differences in appearance pressures, appearance-ideal internalization, and ED pathology were examined via analysis of variance tests. Relationships between these variables were examined with multi-group path analyses, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Compared with lesbian women, heterosexual and bisexual women reported higher levels of peer appearance pressures. Paths from peer appearance pressures and thin-ideal internalization to shape/weight overvaluation and body dissatisfaction were strongest for bisexual women. Overall, results indicate notable similarities between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women. However, preliminary evidence for potential differences highlights the importance of examining variation in ED risk between sexual minority subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2019.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703947PMC
September 2019

Identifying a male clinical cutoff on the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q).

Int J Eat Disord 2018 12 27;51(12):1357-1360. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Objective: Evidence suggests that eating disorders (EDs) may be under-detected in males. Commonly used measures of EDs such as the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) were initially developed within female samples, raising concern regarding the extent to which these instruments may be appropriate for detecting EDs in males. The current study used receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to (a) examine the accuracy of the EDE-Q global score in correctly classifying males with and without clinically significant ED pathology, and (b) establish the optimal EDE-Q global clinical cutoff for males.

Method: Participants were a clinical sample of 245 male ED patients and a control sample of 205 male undergraduates.

Results: Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire global scores demonstrated moderate-high accuracy in predicting ED status (area under the curve = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82-0.89). The optimal cutoff of 1.68 yielded a sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.77.

Discussion: Overall, results provide preliminary support for the discriminant validity of EDE-Q scores among males. However, concerns remain regarding the measure's ability to comprehensively assess domains of disordered eating most relevant to males. Therefore, careful attention to the possibility for measurement bias and continued evaluation of the scale in males is encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.22972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310481PMC
December 2018

Comparing internalization of appearance ideals and appearance-related pressures among women from the United States, Italy, England, and Australia.

Eat Weight Disord 2019 Oct 17;24(5):947-951. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Researchers have observed variation in levels of body image disturbance and eating pathology among women from different Western countries. Examination of cross-cultural differences in the established risk factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, muscular-ideal internalization, and appearance pressures from family, peers, and media) for negative outcomes may help to elucidate the prominence of specific risk factors within a given Western society and guide associated interventions. Women from the United States (US), Italy, England, and Australia completed the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4). Analysis of covariance controlling for age and BMI indicated significant cross-country differences for all SATAQ-4 subscales. Results typically indicated higher levels of appearance-ideal internalization and appearance pressures in the US and lower levels in Italy; however, associated effect sizes were generally small. A medium effect of country was observed for peer-appearance pressures, which were highest in the US compared with all other countries. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired samples t tests conducted within each country identified thin-ideal internalization and media appearance pressures as the predominant risk factors for all four countries. Overall, findings suggest more cross-country similarities than differences, and highlight the importance of delivering interventions to address thin-ideal internalization and media appearance pressures among women from Western backgrounds.Level of evidence Descriptive study, Level V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-018-0544-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815512PMC
October 2019

Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

Body Image 2017 Dec 10;23:188-205. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.10.006DOI Listing
December 2017

Precarious manhood and muscularity: Effects of threatening men's masculinity on reported strength and muscle dissatisfaction.

Body Image 2017 Sep 9;22:156-165. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA, United States.

The precarious manhood perspective proposes that men respond with aggression when they experience threats to their masculinity. Consistent with this view, we hypothesized that men would represent themselves as stronger and more formidable after their masculinity was threatened. A recent study, however, found that men reported less physical strength when threatened (Hunt, Gonsalkorale, & Murray, 2013). In the current two studies (Ns=193; 450), men were given false feedback about whether they were substantially less masculine (masculinity threatened) or more masculine than average (masculinity reassured). Men reported how much weight they could curl, how many push-ups they could complete, and/or measures of satisfaction with muscularity. In most analyses, threatened men reported greater strength than reassured men. Effects of masculinity threat on muscle dissatisfaction varied by outcome measure. The studies highlight the importance of replication studies, and of using experimental approaches to understand connections between precarious manhood and male body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.07.002DOI Listing
September 2017

Precarious manhood and muscularity: Effects of threatening men's masculinity on reported strength and muscle dissatisfaction.

Body Image 2017 Sep 9;22:156-165. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA, United States.

The precarious manhood perspective proposes that men respond with aggression when they experience threats to their masculinity. Consistent with this view, we hypothesized that men would represent themselves as stronger and more formidable after their masculinity was threatened. A recent study, however, found that men reported less physical strength when threatened (Hunt, Gonsalkorale, & Murray, 2013). In the current two studies (Ns=193; 450), men were given false feedback about whether they were substantially less masculine (masculinity threatened) or more masculine than average (masculinity reassured). Men reported how much weight they could curl, how many push-ups they could complete, and/or measures of satisfaction with muscularity. In most analyses, threatened men reported greater strength than reassured men. Effects of masculinity threat on muscle dissatisfaction varied by outcome measure. The studies highlight the importance of replication studies, and of using experimental approaches to understand connections between precarious manhood and male body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.07.002DOI Listing
September 2017

Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

Body Image 2016 Jun 9;17:191-203. Epub 2016 May 9.

Department of Psychology, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Department of Psychology, HELP University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.04.001DOI Listing
June 2016

Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

Body Image 2016 Jun 14;17:171-4. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA, United States.

Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.03.009DOI Listing
June 2016

Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

Body Image 2016 Jun 14;17:171-4. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA, United States.

Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.03.009DOI Listing
June 2016

Body image and face image in Asian American and white women: Examining associations with surveillance, construal of self, perfectionism, and sociocultural pressures.

Body Image 2016 Mar 23;16:113-25. Epub 2016 Jan 23.

California State University, Fullerton, CA, United States.

Asian American women experience sociocultural pressures that could place them at increased risk for experiencing body and face dissatisfaction. Asian American and White women completed measures of appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, face satisfaction, face dissatisfaction frequency, perfectionism, surveillance, interdependent and independent self-construal, and perceived sociocultural pressures. In Study 1 (N=182), Asian American women were more likely than White women to report low appearance evaluation (24% vs. 12%; d=-0.50) and to be sometimes-always dissatisfied with the appearance of their eyes (38% vs. 6%; d=0.90) and face overall (59% vs. 34%; d=0.41). In Study 2 (N=488), they were more likely to report low appearance evaluation (36% vs. 23%; d=-0.31) and were less likely to report high eye appearance satisfaction (59% vs. 88%; d=-0.84). The findings highlight the importance of considering ethnic differences when assessing body and face image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.12.002DOI Listing
March 2016

Culture, health, and bigotry: How exposure to cultural accounts of fatness shape attitudes about health risk, health policies, and weight-based prejudice.

Soc Sci Med 2016 09 23;165:271-279. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Michelle R. Clayman Institute for Gender Research, Stanford University, USA.

Rationale: We conducted three experiments to examine how cultural frames shape attitudes about health, focusing on obesity, which is considered a public health crisis and is imbued with symbolic meaning.

Methods: College students (Ns = 99, 114, and 293) read news articles that presented high body weight according to one or more of the following frames: 1) public health crisis; 2) personal responsibility; 3) health at every size (HAES); or 4) fat rights.

Results: Compared to people who read the HAES and Fat Rights articles, those who read the Public Health Crisis and Personal Responsibility articles expressed more belief in the health risks of being fat (ds = 1.28 to 1.79), belief that fat people should pay more for insurance (ds = 0.53 to 0.71), anti-fat prejudice (ds = 0.61 to 0.69), willingness to discriminate against fat people (ds = 0.41 to 0.59), and less willingness to celebrate body-size diversity (ds = 0.77 to 1.07). They were less willing to say women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy. Exposure to these articles increased support for price-raising policies to curb obesity but not support for redistributive or compensatory policies. In Experiment 3, in comparison to a control condition, exposure to HAES or Fat Rights frames significantly reduced beliefs in the risks of obesity and support for charging fat people more for insurance. However, only people exposed to the Fat Rights frame expressed fewer anti-fat attitudes and more willingness to celebrate body-size diversity.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that simply disseminating information that people can be both fat and healthy will not suffice to reduce prejudice. Given that anti-fat stigma is a health risk and barrier to collective solidarity, fat rights viewpoints can buffer against the negative consequences of anti-fat stigma and promote a culture of health by fostering empathy and social justice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.12.031DOI Listing
September 2016

Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

Arch Sex Behav 2016 Jan 18;45(1):175-91. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Psychology Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0409-9DOI Listing
January 2016

Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4).

Psychol Assess 2015 Mar 6;27(1):54-67. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Westminster.

The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0037917DOI Listing
March 2015

Sexual regret: evidence for evolved sex differences.

Arch Sex Behav 2013 Oct 21;42(7):1145-61. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Department of Psychology, University of California at Los Angeles, 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1563, USA,

Regret and anticipated regret enhance decision quality by helping people avoid making and repeating mistakes. Some of people's most intense regrets concern sexual decisions. We hypothesized evolved sex differences in women's and men's experiences of sexual regret. Because of women's higher obligatory costs of reproduction throughout evolutionary history, we hypothesized that sexual actions, particularly those involving casual sex, would be regretted more intensely by women than by men. In contrast, because missed sexual opportunities historically carried higher reproductive fitness costs for men than for women, we hypothesized that poorly chosen sexual inactions would be regretted more by men than by women. Across three studies (Ns = 200, 395, and 24,230), we tested these hypotheses using free responses, written scenarios, detailed checklists, and Internet sampling to achieve participant diversity, including diversity in sexual orientation. Across all data sources, results supported predicted psychological sex differences and these differences were localized in casual sex contexts. These findings are consistent with the notion that the psychology of sexual regret was shaped by recurrent sex differences in selection pressures operating over deep time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-0019-3DOI Listing
October 2013

Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

Evol Psychol 2012 Sep 6;10(3):631-55. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA.

We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.
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September 2012

The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the international body project I.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2010 Mar;36(3):309-25

University of Westminster, UK.

This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167209359702DOI Listing
March 2010

Evidence for menstrual cycle shifts in women's preferences for masculinity: a response to Harris (in press) “Menstrual cycle and facial preferences reconsidered”.

Evol Psychol 2010 Dec 10;8(4):768-75. Epub 2010 Dec 10.

School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Over the last decade, a growing literature has shown that women in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle demonstrate stronger preferences for men with masculine traits than they do when in the non-fertile phases of the cycle (see Gangestad and Thornhill, 2008 and Jones et al., 2008 for recent reviews). In a recent article, Harris (in press; Sex Roles) failed to replicate this increase in women's preferences for masculine faces when women are near ovulation. Harris represented her study as one of only three studies on the topic, and as the largest of the existing studies. There are, however, many more studies on menstrual cycle shifts in preferences for facial masculinity in the published literature, including one that is 2.5 times larger in size than the Harris study. In this article, we review the evidence for cyclic shifts in mate preferences and related behaviors and discuss weaknesses of Harris's methods. Considered as a whole, the evidence for menstrual cycle shifts in women's preferences and behaviors is compelling, despite the failure of replication reported by Harris.
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December 2010

The influence of leg-to-body ratio (LBR) on judgments of female physical attractiveness: assessments of computer-generated images varying in LBR.

Body Image 2010 Jan 12;7(1):51-5. Epub 2009 Oct 12.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The leg-to-body ratio (LBR), which is reliably associated with developmental stability and health outcomes, is an understudied component of human physical attractiveness. Several studies examining the effects of LBR on aesthetic judgments have been limited by the reliance on stimuli composed of hand-drawn silhouettes. In the present study, we developed a new set of female computer-generated images portraying eight levels of LBR that fell within the typical range of human variation. A community sample of 207 Britons in London and students from two samples drawn from a US university (Ns=940, 114) rated the physical attractiveness of the images. We found that mid-ranging female LBRs were perceived as maximally attractive. The present research overcomes some of the problems associated with past work on LBR and aesthetic preferences through use of computer-generated images rather than hand-drawn images and provides an instrument that may be useful in future investigations of LBR preferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.09.001DOI Listing
January 2010

Body image satisfaction in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian adults.

Arch Sex Behav 2009 Oct 19;38(5):713-25. Epub 2008 Aug 19.

Department of Psychology, University of California, 4441 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA.

Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further, these studies have sometimes produced conflicting results, particularly for comparisons of lesbian and heterosexual women. In the present research, we compared body satisfaction and comfort with one's body during sexual activity among lesbian women, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men through two large online studies (Ns = 2,512 and 54,865). Compared to all other groups, heterosexual men reported more positive evaluations of their appearance, less preoccupation with their weight, more positive effects of their body image on their quality of life and the quality of their sex life, more comfort wearing a swimsuit in public, and greater willingness to reveal aspects of their body to their partner during sexual activity. Few significant differences were found among gay men, lesbian women, and heterosexual women. Many gay men (42%) reported that their feelings about their body had negative effects on the quality of their sex life, as did some lesbian women (27%), heterosexual women (30%), and heterosexual men (22%). Overall, the findings supported the hypothesis that gay men are at greater risk than heterosexual men for experiencing body dissatisfaction. There was little evidence that lesbian women experience greater body satisfaction than heterosexual women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9378-1DOI Listing
October 2009

The swimsuit issue: Correlates of body image in a sample of 52,677 heterosexual adults.

Body Image 2006 Dec 11;3(4):413-9. Epub 2006 Sep 11.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, United States.

Past research on adults' body image has typically used small convenience samples, limiting the ability to examine associations of personal characteristics to body satisfaction. This study of 52,677 heterosexual adults ages 18-65 examined associations of body satisfaction to age, height, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Age and height were mostly unrelated to body satisfaction. Consistent with an Objectification Theory perspective, fewer men than women reported being too heavy (41% versus 61%), rated their body as unattractive (11% versus 21%), or avoided wearing a swimsuit in public (16% versus 31%). Men felt better about their bodies than women across most of the weight span, although among underweight individuals, women felt better than men. Slender women (BMIs 14.5-22.49) were more satisfied than most other women (BMIs 22.5-40.5). Among men, underweight and obese men were least satisfied. These findings highlight gender differences in the association of weight to body satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2006.08.002DOI Listing
December 2006

Do representations of male muscularity differ in men's and women's magazines?

Body Image 2005 Mar;2(1):81-6

1285 Franz Hall, Department of Psychology, 3rd Floor Mailroom, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Men overestimate the degree of muscularity that is attractive to women, and women overestimate the degree of thinness that is most attractive to men. Consistent with the thesis that sociocultural input influences such body type preferences and beliefs, we postulated that magazines aimed at a male audience would portray a more muscular male body ideal than would magazines aimed at a female audience. Systematic comparison of popular magazines (Cosmopolitan, Men's Health, Men's Fitness, and Muscle & Fitness) revealed that the ideal male body marketed to men is more muscular than the ideal male body marketed to women. We introduce the Physical Trait Overvaluation Hypothesis, which proposes that gender-specific media fuel emphasis on certain body parts in within-gender prestige competitions. The resulting competitive escalation creates a disconnect between the preferences of one gender and the personal aspirations of the other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.12.002DOI Listing
March 2005

Interest in cosmetic surgery and body image: views of men and women across the lifespan.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2007 Oct;120(5):1407-1415

Los Angeles, Calif. From the University of California, Los Angeles, and California State University.

Background: Little is known about interest in cosmetic surgery among the general public or how this interest is related to gender, age, relationship status, body mass index, or body image satisfaction.

Methods: The present study tested these associations among a sample of 52,677 heterosexual men and women aged 18 to 65 years who completed the online "ELLE/MSBNC.com Sex and Body Image Survey" in 2003.

Results: Many women were interested (48 percent) or possibly interested (23 percent) in cosmetic surgery. A substantial minority of men were also interested (23 percent) or possibly interested (17 percent) in cosmetic surgery. Individuals interested in cosmetic surgery did not report poorer global body image than individuals not interested in cosmetic surgery. Individuals specifically interested in liposuction, however, tended to have poorer body image, and interest in liposuction was greater among heavier individuals.

Conclusions: The finding that many women and men are interested in cosmetic surgery has implications for research comparing cosmetic surgery patients to individuals drawn from the general population. Specifically, researchers conducting comparative studies should recognize that many individuals in their control group may be strongly interested in cosmetic surgery, even if they have not yet had any. Furthermore, individuals interested in different types of cosmetic surgery may differ from each other on such attributes as body mass index and body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000279375.26157.64DOI Listing
October 2007

Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2007 Aug 19;33(8):1167-83. Epub 2007 Jun 19.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA.

Evolutionary scientists propose that exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success. In six studies the hypothesis that muscularity is one such cue is tested. As predicted, women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men. Consistent with the inverted-U hypothesis of masculine traits, men with moderate muscularity are rated most attractive. Consistent with past research on fitness cues, across two measures, women indicate that their most recent short-term sex partners were more muscular than their other sex partners (ds = .36, .47). Across three studies, when controlling for other characteristics (e.g., body fat), muscular men rate their bodies as sexier to women (partial rs = .49-.62) and report more lifetime sex partners (partial rs = .20-.27), short-term partners (partial rs = .25-.28), and more affairs with mated women (partial r = .28).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167207303022DOI Listing
August 2007

Tall women's satisfaction with their height: general population data challenge assumptions behind medical interventions to stunt girls' growth.

J Adolesc Health 2007 Feb 27;40(2):192-4. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Department of Sociology, California State University, Los Angeles, California, USA.

One-third of American pediatric endocrinologists offer growth-suppression treatments for tall girls despite serious medical risks and little or no evidence of benefit to psychosocial functioning. A survey of 59,632 adults shows that most tall women are satisfied with their height, which raises questions about the continued use of growth-suppression treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.09.004DOI Listing
February 2007

Ovulatory shifts in human female ornamentation: near ovulation, women dress to impress.

Horm Behav 2007 Jan 12;51(1):40-5. Epub 2006 Oct 12.

Center for Behavior Evolution and Culture, Communication Studies and Department of Psychology, University of California, 2302 Rolfe Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Humans differ from many other primates in the apparent absence of obvious advertisements of fertility within the ovulatory cycle. However, recent studies demonstrate increases in women's sexual motivation near ovulation, raising the question of whether human ovulation could be marked by observable changes in overt behavior. Using a sample of 30 partnered women photographed at high and low fertility cycle phases, we show that readily-observable behaviors - self-grooming and ornamentation through attractive choice of dress - increase during the fertile phase of the ovulatory cycle. At above-chance levels, 42 judges selected photographs of women in their fertile (59.5%) rather than luteal phase (40.5%) as "trying to look more attractive." Moreover, the closer women were to ovulation when photographed in the fertile window, the more frequently their fertile photograph was chosen. Although an emerging literature indicates a variety of changes in women across the cycle, the ornamentation effect is striking in both its magnitude and its status as an overt behavioral difference that can be easily observed by others. It may help explain the previously documented finding that men's mate retention efforts increase as their partners approach ovulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.07.007DOI Listing
January 2007

Can manipulations of cognitive load be used to test evolutionary hypotheses?

J Pers Soc Psychol 2006 Sep;91(3):513-8

Department of Anthropology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

D. DeSteno, M. Y. Bartlett, J. Braverman, and P. Salovey proposed that if sex-differentiated responses to infidelity are evolved, then they should be automatic, and therefore cognitive load should not attenuate them. DeSteno et al. found smaller sex differences in response to sexual versus emotional infidelity among participants under cognitive load, an effect interpreted as evidence against the evolutionary hypothesis. This logic is faulty. Cognitive load probably affects mechanisms involved in simulating infidelity experiences, thus seriously challenging the usefulness of cognitive load manipulations in testing hypotheses involving simulation. The method also entails the assumption that evolved jealousy mechanisms are necessarily automatic, an assumption not supported by theory or evidence. Regardless of how the jealousy debate is eventually settled, cognitive load manipulations cannot rule out the operation of evolved mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.3.513DOI Listing
September 2006