Publications by authors named "Daryl T Bowman"

5 Publications

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Screening Germplasm and Quantification of Components Contributing to Thrips Resistance in Cotton.

J Econ Entomol 2018 09;111(5):2426-2434

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Three hundred and ninety-one Gossypium hirsutum and 34 Gossypium barbadense accessions were screened for thrips resistance under field conditions at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station in Rocky Mount, North Carolina in years 2014 and 2015. Visual damage ratings, thrips counts, and seedling dry weights were recorded at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 wk after planting, respectively. Population density and thrips arrival times varied between years. Data from the three separate damage scoring dates provided a better estimate of resistance or susceptibility to thrips than ratings from the individual dates over the season. Tobacco thrips [Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)], followed by western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)], were the dominant thrips species observed in the study. Five resistant G. barbadense accessions and five moderately resistant upland cotton accessions were identified from field evaluations. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in Fall 2015 and Spring 2016 to determine if plant height, growth rate, leaf pubescence, and leaf area were significantly different in resistant and susceptible groups of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense accessions identified from the field screenings. Leaf pubescence and relative growth rate were significantly higher in resistant accessions compared with susceptible accessions in absence of thrips. There was no difference for plant height and leaf area between resistant and susceptible groups. Results suggest thrips-resistant plants have a possible competitive advantage through faster growth and higher trichome density, which limits thrips movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201DOI Listing
September 2018

Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 01 20;114(1):E57-E66. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620;

Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1613593114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5224360PMC
January 2017

Genetic diversity and population structure in the US Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2014 Feb 30;127(2):283-95. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Key Message: Genetic diversity and population structure in the US Upland cotton was established and core sets of allelic richness were identified for developing association mapping populations in cotton. Elite plant breeding programs could likely benefit from the unexploited standing genetic variation of obsolete cultivars without the yield drag typically associated with wild accessions. A set of 381 accessions comprising 378 Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and 3 G. barbadense L. accessions of the United States cotton belt were genotyped using 120 genome-wide SSR markers to establish the genetic diversity and population structure in tetraploid cotton. These accessions represent more than 100 years of Upland cotton breeding in the United States. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 546 alleles across 141 marker loci. Twenty-two percent of the alleles in Upland accessions were unique, specific to a single accession. Population structure analysis revealed extensive admixture and identified five subgroups corresponding to Southeastern, Midsouth, Southwest, and Western zones of cotton growing areas in the United States, with the three accessions of G. barbadense forming a separate cluster. Phylogenetic analysis supported the subgroups identified by STRUCTURE. Average genetic distance between G. hirsutum accessions was 0.195 indicating low levels of genetic diversity in Upland cotton germplasm pool. The results from both population structure and phylogenetic analysis were in agreement with pedigree information, although there were a few exceptions. Further, core sets of different sizes representing different levels of allelic richness in Upland cotton were identified. Establishment of genetic diversity, population structure, and identification of core sets from this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and systematic utilization of the standing genetic variation in Upland cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2217-3DOI Listing
February 2014

Mapping and genomic targeting of the major leaf shape gene (L) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2014 Jan 25;127(1):167-77. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Key Message: A major leaf shape locus (L) was mapped with molecular markers and genomically targeted to a small region in the D-genome of cotton. By using expression analysis and candidate gene mapping, two LMI1 -like genes are identified as possible candidates for leaf shape trait in cotton. Leaf shape in cotton is an important trait that influences yield, flowering rates, disease resistance, lint trash, and the efficacy of foliar chemical application. The leaves of okra leaf cotton display a significantly enhanced lobing pattern, as well as ectopic outgrowths along the lobe margins when compared with normal leaf cotton. These phenotypes are the hallmark characteristics of mutations in various known modifiers of leaf shape that culminate in the mis/over-expression of Class I KNOX genes. To better understand the molecular and genetic processes underlying leaf shape in cotton, a normal leaf accession (PI607650) was crossed to an okra leaf breeding line (NC05AZ21). An F2 population of 236 individuals confirmed the incompletely dominant single gene nature of the okra leaf shape trait in Gossypium hirsutum L. Molecular mapping with simple sequence repeat markers localized the leaf shape gene to 5.4 cM interval in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 15. Orthologous mapping of the closely linked markers with the sequenced diploid D-genome (Gossypium raimondii) tentatively resolved the leaf shape locus to a small genomic region. RT-PCR-based expression analysis and candidate gene mapping indicated that the okra leaf shape gene (L (o) ) in cotton might be an upstream regulator of Class I KNOX genes. The linked molecular markers and delineated genomic region in the sequenced diploid D-genome will assist in the future high-resolution mapping and map-based cloning of the leaf shape gene in cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2208-4DOI Listing
January 2014

Predicting aflatoxin and fumonisin in shelled corn lots using poor-quality grade components.

J AOAC Int 2006 Mar-Apr;89(2):433-40

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27529-7625, USA.

A study was conducted to determine if aflatoxin and fumonisin are concentrated in the poor-quality grade components of shelled corn. Four 1.0 kg test samples were each taken from 23 lots of shelled corn marketed in North Carolina. Inspectors from the Federal Grain Inspection Service divided each test sample into 3 grade components: (1) damaged kernels (DM), (2) broken corn and foreign material (BCFM), and )3) whole kernels (WH). The aflatoxin and fumonisin concentration was measured in each component and a mass balance equation was used to calculate the total concentration of each mycotoxin in each test sample. Averaged across all test samples, the aflatoxin concentrations in the DM, BCFM, and WH components were 1300.3, 455.2, and 37.3 ppb, respectively. Averaged across all test samples, the fumonisin concentrations in the DM, BCFM, and WH components were 148.3, 51.3, and 1.8 ppm, respectively. The DM and BCFM components combined accounted for only 5.0% of the test sample mass, but accounted for 59.8 and 77.5% of the total aflatoxin and fumonisin mass in the test sample, respectively. Both aflatoxin mass (ng) and aflatoxin concentration (ng/g) in the combined DM and BCFM components had high correlations with aflatoxin concentration in the lot. The highest correlation occurred when aflatoxin mass (ng) in the combined DM and BCFM components was related to aflatoxin concentration in the lot (0.964). Similar results were obtained for fumonisin. This study indicated that measuring either aflatoxin or fumonisin in the combined DM and BCFM grade components could be used as a screening method to predict either aflatoxin or fumonisin in a bulk lot of shelled corn.
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May 2006
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