Publications by authors named "Daryl K Gray"

20 Publications

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The Standardization of Outpatient Procedure (STOP) Narcotics: A Prospective Health Systems Intervention to Reduce Opioid Use in Ambulatory Breast Surgery.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Oct 24;26(10):3295-3304. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Background: During the past 15 years, opioid-related overdose death rates for women have increased 471%. Many surgeons provide opioid prescriptions well in excess of what patients actually use. This study assessed a health systems intervention to control pain adequately while reducing opioid prescriptions in ambulatory breast surgery.

Methods: This prospective non-inferiority study included women 18-75 years of age undergoing elective ambulatory general surgical breast procedures. Pre- and postintervention groups were compared, separated by implementation of a multi-pronged, opioid-sparing strategy consisting of patient education, health care provider education and perioperative multimodal analgesic strategies. The primary outcome was average pain during the first 7 postoperative days on a numeric rating scale of 0-10. The secondary outcomes included medication use and prescription renewals.

Results: The average pain during the first 7 postoperative days was non-inferior in the postintervention group despite a significant decrease in median oral morphine equivalents (OMEs) prescribed (2.0/10 [100 OMEs] pre-intervention vs 2.1/10 [50 OMEs] post-intervention; p = 0.40 [p < 0.001]). Only 39 (44%) of the 88 patients in the post-intervention group filled their rescue opioid prescription, and 8 (9%) of the 88 patients reported needing an opioid for additional pain not controlled with acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) postoperatively. Prescription renewals did not change.

Conclusion: A standardized pain care bundle was effective in minimizing and even eliminating opioid use after elective ambulatory breast surgery while adequately controlling postoperative pain. The Standardization of Outpatient Procedure Narcotics (STOP Narcotics) initiative decreases unnecessary and unused opioid medication and may decrease risk of persistent opioid use. This initiative provides a framework for future analgesia guidelines in ambulatory breast surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07539-wDOI Listing
October 2019

Standardization of Outpatient Procedure (STOP) Narcotics: A Prospective Non-Inferiority Study to Reduce Opioid Use in Outpatient General Surgical Procedures.

J Am Coll Surg 2019 01 22;228(1):81-88.e1. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: There has been a dramatic rise in opioid abuse, and diversion of excess, unused prescriptions is a major contributor. We assess the impact of implementing a new standardized pain care bundle to reduce postoperative opioids in outpatient general surgical procedures.

Study Design: This study was designed to demonstrate non-inferiority for the primary end point: patient-reported average pain in the first 7 postoperative days. We prospectively evaluated 224 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy or open hernia repair (inguinal, umbilical) pre-intervention to 192 patients post-intervention. We implemented a multimodal intra- and postoperative analgesic bundle, including promoting co-analgesia, opioid-reduced prescriptions, and patient education designed to clarify patient expectations. Patients completed a brief pain inventory at their first postoperative visit. Groups were compared using chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent samples t-test, where appropriate.

Results: No difference was seen in average postoperative pain scores in the pre- vs post-intervention groups (2.3 vs 2.1 of 10; p = 0.12). The reported quality of pain control improved post-intervention (good/very good pain control in 69% vs 85%; p < 0.001). The median total morphine equivalents for prescriptions filled in the post-intervention group were significantly less (100; interquartile range 75 to 116 pre-intervention vs 50; interquartile range 50 to 50 post-intervention; p < 0.001). Only 78 of 172 (45%) patients filled their opioid prescription in the post-intervention group (p < 0.001), with no significant difference in prescription renewals (3.5% pre-intervention vs 2.6% post-intervention; p = 0.62).

Conclusions: For outpatient open hernia repair and cholecystectomy, a standardized pain care bundle decreased opioid prescribing significantly and frequently eliminated opioid use, and adequately treating postoperative pain and improving patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.09.008DOI Listing
January 2019

Corticosteroid response predicts success of laparoscopic splenectomy in treating immune thrombocytopenia.

Surgery 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Division of General Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Laparoscopic splenectomy is a second-line therapy for immune thrombocytopenia with a sustained success rate of 66%. In a climate of new available medical therapies for immune thrombocytopenia, the comparative safety and efficacy of laparoscopic splenectomy are worthy of attention. The purpose of this study is to identify factors predictive of laparoscopic splenectomy success that will enable preoperative prognostication.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients undergoing laparoscopic splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenia. The data collected evaluated response to medical and surgical therapy, which was defined on a platelet level of 50 × 10/L with no bleeding events. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate factors predictive of laparoscopic splenectomy success, with an additional subanalysis planned to assess for laparoscopic splenectomy safety in individuals ≥65 years.

Results: One hundred forty-one patients were reviewed. Operative outcomes showed a 3.6% conversion rate and 8.5% complication rate. Disease remission was achieved in 78.7% of patients. Response to initial corticosteroid therapy was associated with a laparoscopic splenectomy success rate of 90% and increased odds of surgical success by 5.58 over individuals with no response to corticosteroids. Age did not confer an increased risk of failure or complications.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe and effective intervention for immune thrombocytopenia regardless of age. Initial response to corticosteroids is associated with laparoscopic splenectomy success rate of 90% and improved odds of surgical success. Laparoscopic splenectomy should be the standard second-line therapy for immune thrombocytopenia, especially in patients responding to corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.02.005DOI Listing
April 2018

Successful percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of adrenal gland for ectopic Cushing syndrome.

Clin Imaging 2017 Mar - Apr;42:93-95. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

London Health Sciences Centre - Victoria Hospital, Western University - Department of Medical Imaging, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9, Canada.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone production by pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) is rare and results in hyperstimulation of the adrenal gland to produce ectopic Cushing syndrome. Our case showcases the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of the adrenal gland in a 49-year-old female with PNET and hepatic metastases who presented with ectopic Cushing syndrome despite surgical resection of the primary pancreatic tumor and left adrenal gland. Prior to ablation, the right adrenal gland measured 4.3×1.6×2.0cm and the patient had malignant hypertension with elevated morning serum cortisol level (1976nmol/L). After microwave ablation of the right adrenal gland, the hypertension resolved and the cortisol level decreased dramatically (74nmol/L). As expected after successful treatment, the patient developed adrenal insufficiency and was placed on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2016.11.021DOI Listing
April 2017

Roscoe R. Graham: An enduring legacy in the 21st century.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017 01;82(1):216-220

From the Western University, London, ON, Canada and Division of General Surgery(A.C.I., D.K.G.), London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Modern advancements in surgery have led to a climate in which many classical techniques are becoming obsolete. However, the Graham patch technique for duodenal repair continues to be widely used as originally described in Dr Roscoe Reid Graham's 1937 article: an omental graft held in position over a duodenal perforation by three interrupted sutures.

Methods: Primary documents including original newspaper articles and wartime documents were retrieved from the University of Toronto Archives and Records. Contemporary case reports and journal publications were analyzed. A review of current literature on applications and modifications of the Graham patch was undertaken.

Discussion: Roscoe Graham received his education at the University of Toronto. After his surgical training, he joined the No. 4 General Hospital as a captain in World War I. Upon returning from duty, his surgical contributions were extensive. His achievements include the development of a procedure for rectal prolapse repair, the first insulinoma resection, and the pioneering of an omental patch technique for the treatment of perforated duodenal ulcers. He was an integral member of the Toronto medical community and reputed to be among North America's best surgeons.

Conclusion: Although many surgical techniques described in the 20th century have been discarded in favor of new technological applications, Graham's original omental patch is still used across the world. In addition to providing an effective solution to perforated ulcer repair in both open and laparoscopic procedures, it has been adapted for use in traumatic solid organ injury. This article describes the life and career of Roscoe Reid Graham, highlights his medical contributions, and explores how his omental patch technique continues to be indispensable on the modern surgical stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000001286DOI Listing
January 2017

Very early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after blunt solid organ injury is safe.

Can J Surg 2016 Apr;59(2):118-22

From the Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ont. (Murphy, Sothilingam, Moffat, Gray, Parry, Vogt); the Trauma Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. (Sothilingam, Stewart, Batey, Gray, Parry, Vogt); and the Centre for Critical Illness Research, London, Ont. (Parry).

Background: The optimal timing of initiating low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in patients who have undergone nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt solid organ injuries (SOIs) remains controversial. We describe the safety of early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis among patients undergoing NOM of blunt SOIs.

Methods: We retrospectively studied severely injured adults who sustained blunt SOI without significant intracranial hemorrhage and underwent an initial NOM at a Canadian lead trauma hospital between 2010 and 2014. Safety was assessed based on failure of NOM, defined as the need for operative intervention, in patients who received early (< 48 h) or late LMWH (≥ 48 h, or early discharge [< 72 h] without LMWH).

Results: We included 162 patients in our analysis. Most were men (69%), and the average age was 42 ± 18 years. The median injury severity score was 17, and splenic injuries were most common (97 [60%], median grade 2), followed by liver (57 [35%], median grade 2) and kidney injuries (31 [19%], median grade 1). Combined injuries were present in 14% of patients. A total of 78 (48%) patients received early LMWH, while 84 (52%) received late LMWH. The groups differed only in percent of high-grade splenic injury (14% v. 32%). Overall 2% of patients failed NOM, none after receiving LMWH. Semielective angiography was performed in 23 (14%) patients. The overall rate of confirmed VTE on imaging was 1.9%.

Conclusion: Early initiation of medical thromboembolic prophylaxis appears safe in select patients with isolated SOI following blunt trauma. A prospective multicentre study is warranted.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814285PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cjs.010815DOI Listing
April 2016

Re: Delayed hemorrhagic complications in the nonoperative management of blunt splenic trauma.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Nov;77(5):800-801

London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000000447DOI Listing
November 2014

Angiography and embolization for blunt splenic injuries.

J Am Coll Surg 2014 Dec 18;219(6):1193-4. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

London, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.08.008DOI Listing
December 2014

Delayed hemorrhagic complications in the nonoperative management of blunt splenic trauma: early screening leads to a decrease in failure rate.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Jun;76(6):1349-53

From the Trauma Program (W.R.L., T.C.-S., N.P., D.G.), London Health Sciences Center; Department of Radiology (S.K.), Division of Emergency Medicine (D.O.), Division of Critical Care (N.P.), and Department of Surgery (W.R.L., B.M., N.P., D.G.), Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry (T.J.L., T.S., B.M.) University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Delayed splenic rupture is the Achilles' heel of nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI). Early computed tomographic (CT) scanning for features suggesting high risk of nonoperative failure, splenic pseudoaneurysms (SPAs), and arterial extravasation (AE), in concert with the appropriate use of splenic arterial embolization (SAE) is a viable method to reduce rates of failure of NOM. We report our 12-ear experience with a protocol for mandatory repeat CT evaluation at 48 hours and selective SAE.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on all consecutive adult trauma patients with BSI between 1995 and 2012. We evaluated an early/control (1995-1999) and a present/intervention (2000-2012) cohort in which SAE became available and 48-hour CT scans were implemented.

Results: The study included 773 patients (157 early vs. 616 present) with BSI. The proportion of patients managed nonoperatively (53% vs. 77%, p < 0.01) and overall splenic salvage rate (46% vs. 77%, p < 0.01) were improved in the present cohort. Among patients selected for NOM, there was a significant improvement in the failure rate of NOM (12% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.01) as well as in the length of hospital stay (8 days vs. 6 days, p < 0.01). Delayed development of SPA and/or AE was detected in 6% of BSI in the present cohort and was distributed among all grades of injury.

Conclusion: The delayed development of SPA and AE is not an entirely rare event following BSI. Reevaluation with CT at 48 hours following admission and the use of SAE significantly decrease the failure rate of NOM.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic study, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000000228DOI Listing
June 2014

Case series: splenectomy: does it still play a role in the management of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura?

Can J Surg 2010 Oct;53(5):349-55

Department of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947115PMC
October 2010

Low-dose inhaled carbon monoxide attenuates the remote intestinal inflammatory response elicited by hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2009 Jan 16;296(1):G9-G14. Epub 2008 Oct 16.

Dept. of Medical Biophysics and Surgery, Univ. of Western Ontario, Centre for Critical Illness Research, London Health Sciences Centre, Victoria Hospital, Rm A6-132, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4G5.

Heme oxygenase (HO) represents the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin. Recent evidence suggests that several of the beneficial properties of HO, may be linked to CO. The objectives of this study were to determine if low-dose inhaled CO reduces remote intestinal leukocyte recruitment, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and oxidative stress elicited by hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Male mice underwent 1 h of hindlimb ischemia, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Throughout reperfusion, mice were exposed to AIR or AIR + CO (250 ppm). Following reperfusion, the distal ileum was exteriorized to assess the intestinal inflammatory response by quantifying leukocyte rolling and adhesion in submucosal postcapillary venules with the use of intravital microscopy. Ileum samples were also analyzed for proinflammatory cytokine expression [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta] and malondialdehyde (MDA) with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays, respectively. I/R + AIR led to a significant decrease in leukocyte rolling velocity and a sevenfold increase in leukocyte adhesion. This was also accompanied by a significant 1.3-fold increase in ileum MDA and 2.3-fold increase in TNF-alpha expression. Treatment with AIR + CO led to a significant reduction in leukocyte recruitment and TNF-alpha expression elicited by I/R; however, MDA levels remained unchanged. Our data suggest that low-dose inhaled CO selectively attenuates the remote intestinal inflammatory response elicited by hindlimb I/R, yet does not provide protection against intestinal lipid peroxidation. CO may represent a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic treatment to target remote organs following acute trauma and/or I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.90243.2008DOI Listing
January 2009

Surgical images: soft tissue. Calcinosis cutis.

Can J Surg 2007 Jun;50(3):217-8

Division of General Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont, Canada.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2384288PMC
June 2007

Surgical images: soft tissue. Transverse colonic intussusception.

Can J Surg 2007 Feb;50(1):60-1

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2384243PMC
February 2007

The fastest route between two points is not always a straight line: An analysis of air and land transfer of nonpenetrating trauma patients.

J Trauma 2006 Aug;61(2):396-403

Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The distance beyond which helicopter transport is faster than ground for interfacility transfer of trauma patients has not been established. Our objective was to determine whether such a threshold exists.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 243 patients transported by land and 139 patients by air from 13 sites during a 3-year period. Time intervals between critical events were compared for the two modes of transport at each site.

Results: The time interval between the decision to transfer and the actual departure time was shorter for patients transferred by land from all sites studied (mean 41.3 versus 89.7 minutes, p < 0.001). The travel time was shorter by helicopter from all sites (mean 58.4 versus 78.9 minutes, p < 0.001). The time between the decision to transfer and the arrival at the trauma center was similar at most sites but faster by land overall (mean 120.3 versus 150.0 minutes, p = 0.014). No threshold was detected beyond which helicopter transport was superior.

Conclusions: Several factors other than the distance to be traveled determine the time required for interfacility transfer of trauma patients. A fixed distance threshold beyond which helicopter transport should be used does not exist. The decision as to which mode of transport to use for emergent trauma patient transfers should be based upon multiple factors including the distance traveled and ambulance availability, and must be individualized for each site that transfers patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ta.0000222974.31728.2aDOI Listing
August 2006

Heme oxygenase modulates small intestine leukocyte adhesion following hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion by regulating the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

Crit Care Med 2005 Nov;33(11):2563-70

Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, USA.

Objective: Heme oxygenase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide, iron, and bilirubin. Recent evidence suggests that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 is associated with potent anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal, regional, and cellular distribution of heme oxygenase-1 within the small intestine and its role in modulating remote intestinal leukocyte recruitment following trauma induced by hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion.

Design: Randomized, controlled, prospective animal study.

Setting: Hospital surgical research laboratory.

Subjects: Male C57BL/6 mice.

Interventions: Mice underwent 1 hr of bilateral hindlimb ischemia, followed by 3, 6, 12, or 24 hrs of reperfusion.

Measurements And Main Results: Heme oxygenase-1 messenger RNA, heme oxygenase-1 protein, and heme oxygenase activity were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The jejunum was also exteriorized to quantify the flux of rolling and adherent leukocytes and R-Phycoerythrin conjugated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody fluorescence intensity in submucosal postcapillary venules with the use of intravital microscopy. Ischemia/reperfusion led to a significant increase in heme oxygenase-1 messenger RNA in the jejunum and ileum 3 hrs following limb reperfusion, with a subsequent increase in heme oxygenase-1 protein and heme oxygenase activity at 6 hrs. Ischemia/reperfusion also led to a significant 1.4-fold increase in leukocyte rolling, whereas inhibition of heme oxygenase via injection of tin protoporphyrin IX (20 micromol/kg intraperitoneally) resulted in a three-fold increase in leukocyte adhesion, compared with ischemia/reperfusion alone. This increase in adhesion was significantly reduced to baseline in mice treated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody before heme oxygenase inhibition (40 microg/mouse), whereas inhibition of heme oxygenase activity following ischemia/reperfusion also led to a significant increase in R-Phycoerythrin intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody fluorescence intensity.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that remote trauma induced by hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion leads to an increase in heme oxygenase activity within the small intestine, which modulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 dependent intestinal leukocyte adhesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ccm.0000186765.61268.fcDOI Listing
November 2005

Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytomas: in search of a syndrome.

World J Surg 2005 Jul;29(7):909-13

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, Health Sciences Building, London, Ontario, Canada.

Pheochromocytomas rarely produce dopamine as the only catecholamine. Two cases are reported here, and a review of the literature was conducted. Unlike norepinephrine-and epinephrine-secreting tumors, dopamine-secreting pheochromocytomas lack a classic clinical presentation and are often asymptomatic. Urinary and serum metabolites cannot be relied on to make the diagnosis, and serum or urine dopamine levels (or both) must be measured when dealing with a potential pheochromocytoma. Dopamine-secreting tumors are less likely to enhance with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning and may benefit from the use of positron emission tomography. Treatment is en bloc surgical excision; but unlike other pheochromocytomas, alpha-blockade is not indicated as it may lead to hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Metyrosine is a medication that can be useful for preoperative control of symptoms from these tumors. The function of metyrosine is to block dopamine synthesis; it has no alpha-blocking effect. This medication is an option for controlling symptoms but should not be used routinely in these patients. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is worse than for those with an epinephrine- and norepinephrine-secreting tumor. Because of their asymptomatic nature, dopamine-secreting pheochromocytomas tend to be detected later and are more likely to be malignant at the time of diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-005-7860-7DOI Listing
July 2005

Inhalation of carbon monoxide prevents liver injury and inflammation following hind limb ischemia/reperfusion.

FASEB J 2005 Jan 28;19(1):106-8. Epub 2004 Oct 28.

Victoria Research Lab, 6th Floor, Rm. A6-105, 800 Commissioners Rd., London, ON, Canada N6A 4G4.

The induction of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of heme into carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, limits liver injury following remote trauma such as hind limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Using intravital video microscopy, we tested the hypothesis that inhaled CO (250 ppm) would mimic HO-derived liver protection. Hind limb I/R significantly decreased sinusoidal diameter and volumetric flow, increased leukocyte accumulation within sinusoids, increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion within postsinusoidal venules, and significantly increased hepatocyte injury compared with naive animals. Inhalation of CO alone did not alter any microcirculatory or inflammatory parameters. Inhalation of CO following I/R restored volumetric flow, decreased stationary leukocytes within sinusoids, decreased leukocyte rolling and adhesion within postsinusoidal venules, and significantly reduced hepatocellular injury following hind limb I/R. HO inhibition did not alter microcirculatory parameters in naive mice, but did increase inflammation, as well as increase hepatocyte injury following hind limb I/R. Inhalation of CO during HO inhibition significantly reduced such microcirculatory deficits, hepatic inflammation, and injury in response to hind limb I/R. In conclusion, these results suggest that HO-derived hepatic protection is mediated by CO, and inhalation of low concentrations of CO may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent remote organ injury during systemic inflammatory response syndrome, or SIRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.04-2514fjeDOI Listing
January 2005

Hemolysis with rapid transfusion systems in the trauma setting.

Can J Surg 2004 Aug;47(4):295-7

Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont.

Objective: Rapid infusion system allows rapid infusion of resuscitation fluids at body temperature in trauma patients. Packed red blood cells are subjected to high external pneumatic pressure (up to 300 mm Hg) and rapid infusion rates through a 170-microm filter. This study was conducted to outline hemolysis that may occur in the setting of massive transfusion (> 10 units).

Methods And Materials: Measurements of various parameters were made before and after infusion of 17 units of outdated (38-82 d) packed red blood cells through a Level 1 Rapid Infuser, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), potassium, plasma hemoglobin, hematocrit and total hemoglobin. Hemolysis, expressed as a percentage, was calculated from these parameters.

Results: Hemolysis observed in this experiment ranged from near 0 to 0.05%. All the units had plasma potassium concentrations of 15 mmol/L or more.

Conclusion: Transfusion of 17 units with the Level 1 Rapid Infuser did not cause a clinically significant amount of hemolysis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3211793PMC
August 2004

Management of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: endovascular stents versus open repair.

J Trauma 2004 Mar;56(3):565-70

Trauma Program, Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Endovascular stent graft (EV) technology has been successfully adapted to the repair of blunt traumatic aortic injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients treated with EV repair and open repair after blunt thoracic aortic trauma.

Methods: A review of a tertiary trauma center's prospective trauma registry identified all patients who suffered a blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injury over an 11-year period (1991-2002). Operative interventions and outcomes were then compared.

Results: Over an 11-year period, 18 patients underwent repair of a blunt thoracic aortic injury (EV, 6; open, 12). There were no significant differences in demographics, injury, or crash statistics between groups. The open group had a 17% early mortality rate (n = 2), a paraplegia rate of 16% (n = 2), and an 8.3% incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (n = 1). This is in contrast to a 0% rate of mortality, paraplegia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in the EV group. A definite trend toward decreased morbidity, mortality, intensive care unit length of stay, and number of ventilator-dependent days was seen with EV repair.

Conclusion: We observed a clear trend toward improved outcomes after EV repair of thoracic aortic injuries compared with standard open repair. EV repair is emerging as the preferred method of repairing blunt thoracic aortic injuries in trauma patients with multiple injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ta.0000114061.69699.a3DOI Listing
March 2004

Soft-tissue images. Pseudomyxoma peritonei and villous adenoma of the appendix.

Can J Surg 2002 Apr;45(2):90-1

University of Western Ontorio, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, London.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3686925PMC
April 2002
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