Publications by authors named "Darrin Taylor"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer.

Nature 2016 Mar 24;531(7592):47-52. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16965DOI Listing
March 2016

Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human brain metastases identifies alterations of potential clinical significance.

J Pathol 2015 Nov 19;237(3):363-78. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Treatment options for patients with brain metastases (BMs) have limited efficacy and the mortality rate is virtually 100%. Targeted therapy is critically under-utilized, and our understanding of mechanisms underpinning metastatic outgrowth in the brain is limited. To address these deficiencies, we investigated the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of 36 BMs from breast, lung, melanoma and oesophageal cancers, using DNA copy-number analysis and exome- and RNA-sequencing. The key findings were as follows. (a) Identification of novel candidates with possible roles in BM development, including the significantly mutated genes DSC2, ST7, PIK3R1 and SMC5, and the DNA repair, ERBB-HER signalling, axon guidance and protein kinase-A signalling pathways. (b) Mutational signature analysis was applied to successfully identify the primary cancer type for two BMs with unknown origins. (c) Actionable genomic alterations were identified in 31/36 BMs (86%); in one case we retrospectively identified ERBB2 amplification representing apparent HER2 status conversion, then confirmed progressive enrichment for HER2-positivity across four consecutive metastatic deposits by IHC and SISH, resulting in the deployment of HER2-targeted therapy for the patient. (d) In the ERBB/HER pathway, ERBB2 expression correlated with ERBB3 (r(2)  = 0.496; p < 0.0001) and HER3 and HER4 were frequently activated in an independent cohort of 167 archival BM from seven primary cancer types: 57.6% and 52.6% of cases were phospho-HER3(Y1222) or phospho-HER4(Y1162) membrane-positive, respectively. The HER3 ligands NRG1/2 were barely detectable by RNAseq, with NRG1 (8p12) genomic loss in 63.6% breast cancer-BMs, suggesting a microenvironmental source of ligand. In summary, this is the first study to characterize the genomic landscapes of BM. The data revealed novel candidates, potential clinical applications for genomic profiling of resectable BMs, and highlighted the possibility of therapeutically targeting HER3, which is broadly over-expressed and activated in BMs, independent of primary site and systemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4583DOI Listing
November 2015

Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

Nature 2015 May;521(7553):489-94

Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, Southbank, Victoria 3006, Australia.

Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with primary refractory, resistant, sensitive and matched acquired resistant disease. We show that gene breakage commonly inactivates the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN in HGSC, and contributes to acquired chemotherapy resistance. CCNE1 amplification was common in primary resistant and refractory disease. We observed several molecular events associated with acquired resistance, including multiple independent reversions of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in individual patients, loss of BRCA1 promoter methylation, an alteration in molecular subtype, and recurrent promoter fusion associated with overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14410DOI Listing
May 2015

Whole genomes redefine the mutational landscape of pancreatic cancer.

Nature 2015 Feb;518(7540):495-501

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal of malignancies and a major health burden. We performed whole-genome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analysis of 100 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Chromosomal rearrangements leading to gene disruption were prevalent, affecting genes known to be important in pancreatic cancer (TP53, SMAD4, CDKN2A, ARID1A and ROBO2) and new candidate drivers of pancreatic carcinogenesis (KDM6A and PREX2). Patterns of structural variation (variation in chromosomal structure) classified PDACs into 4 subtypes with potential clinical utility: the subtypes were termed stable, locally rearranged, scattered and unstable. A significant proportion harboured focal amplifications, many of which contained druggable oncogenes (ERBB2, MET, FGFR1, CDK6, PIK3R3 and PIK3CA), but at low individual patient prevalence. Genomic instability co-segregated with inactivation of DNA maintenance genes (BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2) and a mutational signature of DNA damage repair deficiency. Of 8 patients who received platinum therapy, 4 of 5 individuals with these measures of defective DNA maintenance responded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523082PMC
February 2015

A workflow to increase verification rate of chromosomal structural rearrangements using high-throughput next-generation sequencing.

Biotechniques 2014 Jul 1;57(1):31-8. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Somatic rearrangements, which are commonly found in human cancer genomes, contribute to the progression and maintenance of cancers. Conventionally, the verification of somatic rearrangements comprises many manual steps and Sanger sequencing. This is labor intensive when verifying a large number of rearrangements in a large cohort. To increase the verification throughput, we devised a high-throughput workflow that utilizes benchtop next-generation sequencing and in-house bioinformatics tools to link the laboratory processes. In the proposed workflow, primers are automatically designed. PCR and an optional gel electrophoresis step to confirm the somatic nature of the rearrangements are performed. PCR products of somatic events are pooled for Ion Torrent PGM and/or Illumina MiSeq sequencing, the resulting sequence reads are assembled into consensus contigs by a consensus assembler, and an automated BLAT is used to resolve the breakpoints to base level. We compared sequences and breakpoints of verified somatic rearrangements between the conventional and high-throughput workflow. The results showed that next-generation sequencing methods are comparable to conventional Sanger sequencing. The identified breakpoints obtained from next-generation sequencing methods were highly accurate and reproducible. Furthermore, the proposed workflow allows hundreds of events to be processed in a shorter time frame compared with the conventional workflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/000114189DOI Listing
July 2014

Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma reveal epigenetic deregulation of SLIT-ROBO, ITGA2 and MET signaling.

Int J Cancer 2014 Sep 9;135(5):1110-8. Epub 2014 May 9.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The importance of epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in tumorigenesis is increasingly being appreciated. To define the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), we captured the methylation profiles of 167 untreated resected PDACs and compared them to a panel of 29 adjacent nontransformed pancreata using high-density arrays. A total of 11,634 CpG sites associated with 3,522 genes were significantly differentially methylated (DM) in PDAC and were capable of segregating PDAC from non-malignant pancreas, regardless of tumor cellularity. As expected, PDAC hypermethylation was most prevalent in the 5' region of genes (including the proximal promoter, 5'UTR and CpG islands). Approximately 33% DM genes showed significant inverse correlation with mRNA expression levels. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of aberrantly methylated genes involved in key molecular mechanisms important to PDAC: TGF-β, WNT, integrin signaling, cell adhesion, stellate cell activation and axon guidance. Given the recent discovery that SLIT-ROBO mutations play a clinically important role in PDAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of axon guidance was pursued in more detail. Bisulfite amplicon deep sequencing and qRT-PCR expression analyses confirmed recurrent perturbation of axon guidance pathway genes SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO3, ITGA2 and MET and suggests epigenetic suppression of SLIT-ROBO signaling and up-regulation of MET and ITGA2 expression. Hypomethylation of MET and ITGA2 correlated with high gene expression, which was associated with poor survival. These data suggest that aberrant methylation plays an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis affecting core signaling pathways with potential implications for the disease pathophysiology and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28765DOI Listing
September 2014

Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

PLoS One 2013 8;8(11):e74380. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/) for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074380PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3826759PMC
March 2015

Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

Nature 2012 Nov 24;491(7424):399-405. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, 370 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia.

Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530898PMC
November 2012

qpure: A tool to estimate tumor cellularity from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles.

PLoS One 2012 25;7(9):e45835. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Tumour cellularity, the relative proportion of tumour and normal cells in a sample, affects the sensitivity of mutation detection, copy number analysis, cancer gene expression and methylation profiling. Tumour cellularity is traditionally estimated by pathological review of sectioned specimens; however this method is both subjective and prone to error due to heterogeneity within lesions and cellularity differences between the sample viewed during pathological review and tissue used for research purposes. In this paper we describe a statistical model to estimate tumour cellularity from SNP array profiles of paired tumour and normal samples using shifts in SNP allele frequency at regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the tumour. We also provide qpure, a software implementation of the method. Our experiments showed that there is a medium correlation 0.42 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.0001) between tumor cellularity estimated by qpure and pathology review. Interestingly there is a high correlation 0.87 ([Formula: see text]-value [Formula: see text] 2.2e-16) between cellularity estimates by qpure and deep Ion Torrent sequencing of known somatic KRAS mutations; and a weaker correlation 0.32 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.004) between IonTorrent sequencing and pathology review. This suggests that qpure may be a more accurate predictor of tumour cellularity than pathology review. qpure can be downloaded from https://sourceforge.net/projects/qpure/.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0045835PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457972PMC
May 2013

Deep-transcriptome and ribonome sequencing redefines the molecular networks of pluripotency and the extracellular space in human embryonic stem cells.

Genome Res 2011 Dec 31;21(12):2014-25. Epub 2011 Oct 31.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Recent RNA-sequencing studies have shown remarkable complexity in the mammalian transcriptome. The ultimate impact of this complexity on the predicted proteomic output is less well defined. We have undertaken strand-specific RNA sequencing of multiple cellular RNA fractions (>20 Gb) to uncover the transcriptional complexity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We have shown that human embryonic stem (ES) cells display a high degree of transcriptional diversity, with more than half of active genes generating RNAs that differ from conventional gene models. We found evidence that more than 1000 genes express long 5' and/or extended 3'UTRs, which was confirmed by "virtual Northern" analysis. Exhaustive sequencing of the membrane-polysome and cytosolic/untranslated fractions of hESCs was used to identify RNAs encoding peptides destined for secretion and the extracellular space and to demonstrate preferential selection of transcription complexity for translation in vitro. The impact of this newly defined complexity on known gene-centric network models such as the Plurinet and the cell surface signaling machinery in human ES cells revealed a significant expansion of known transcript isoforms at play, many predicting possible alternative functions based on sequence alterations within key functional domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.119321.110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227092PMC
December 2011

Identification of anchor genes during kidney development defines ontological relationships, molecular subcompartments and regulatory pathways.

PLoS One 2011 Feb 28;6(2):e17286. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia.

The development of the mammalian kidney is well conserved from mouse to man. Despite considerable temporal and spatial data on gene expression in mammalian kidney development, primarily in rodent species, there is a paucity of genes whose expression is absolutely specific to a given anatomical compartment and/or developmental stage, defined here as 'anchor' genes. We previously generated an atlas of gene expression in the developing mouse kidney using microarray analysis of anatomical compartments collected via laser capture microdissection. Here, this data is further analysed to identify anchor genes via stringent bioinformatic filtering followed by high resolution section in situ hybridisation performed on 200 transcripts selected as specific to one of 11 anatomical compartments within the midgestation mouse kidney. A total of 37 anchor genes were identified across 6 compartments with the early proximal tubule being the compartment richest in anchor genes. Analysis of minimal and evolutionarily conserved promoter regions of this set of 25 anchor genes identified enrichment of transcription factor binding sites for Hnf4a and Hnf1b, RbpJ (Notch signalling), PPARγ:RxRA and COUP-TF family transcription factors. This was reinforced by GO analyses which also identified these anchor genes as targets in processes including epithelial proliferation and proximal tubular function. As well as defining anchor genes, this large scale validation of gene expression identified a further 92 compartment-enriched genes able to subcompartmentalise key processes during murine renal organogenesis spatially or ontologically. This included a cohort of 13 ureteric epithelial genes revealing previously unappreciated compartmentalisation of the collecting duct system and a series of early tubule genes suggesting that segmentation into proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule does not occur until the onset of glomerular vascularisation. Overall, this study serves to illuminate previously ill-defined stages of patterning and will enable further refinement of the lineage relationships within mammalian kidney development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017286PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046260PMC
February 2011

Redirection of renal mesenchyme to stromal and chondrocytic fates in the presence of TGF-beta2.

Differentiation 2010 Apr-Jun;79(4-5):272-84. Epub 2010 Feb 18.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Many members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily have been shown to be important regulators of metanephric development. In this study, we characterized the effect of TGF-beta2 on metanephric development. Rat and mouse metanephroi cultured in the presence of exogenous TGF-beta2 for up to 15 days were small, and contained rudimentary ureteric branches and few glomeruli. These metanephroi were mostly comprised of mesenchymal cells, with two cell populations (designated Type 1 and Type 2 cells) evident. Type 1 cells were only observed when TGF-beta2 was added from the commencement of culture, they resembled chondroblasts and were Alcian Blue and Col IIB positive. Type 2 cells were observed whenever TGF-beta2 was added to the media, formed a band at the periphery of the explants consisting of 5-10 layers of spindle-shaped cells, and were alpha-smooth muscle actin positive. Molecular and RNA in situ hybridization analysis of metanephroi cultured in the presence of TGF-beta2 for 6 days demonstrated that Type 1 and 2 cells were negative for Pax2, WT1, GDNF and FoxD1. Gene expression profiling demonstrated an upregulation of chondrocyte, myogenic and stromal genes, some of which were identified as markers of Type 1 and Type 2 cells. In addition, TGF-beta2 was capable of maintaining the survival of mouse isolated metanephric mesenchyme (iMM) in the absence of serum or inductive signals from the ureteric epithelium. TGF-beta2 also induced the differentiation of iMM into Type 1 and 2 cells. The presence of chondrocytes and muscle in these cultures is reminiscent of the cell types found in some Wilms' tumors. These studies demonstrate that TGF-beta2 is capable of differentiating metanephric mesenchyme away from a renal cell fate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diff.2010.01.004DOI Listing
August 2010

RNA-MATE: a recursive mapping strategy for high-throughput RNA-sequencing data.

Bioinformatics 2009 Oct 30;25(19):2615-6. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072, Australia.

Unlabelled: Mapping of next-generation sequencing data derived from RNA samples (RNAseq) presents different genome mapping challenges than data derived from DNA. For example, tags that cross exon-junction boundaries will often not map to a reference genome, and the strand specificity of the data needs to be retained. Here we present RNA-MATE, a computational pipeline based on a recursive mapping strategy for placing strand specific RNAseq data onto a reference genome. Maximizing the mappable tags can provide significant savings in the cost of sequencing experiments. This pipeline provides an automatic and integrated way to align color-space sequencing data, collate this information and generate files for examining gene-expression data in a genomic context.

Availability: Executables, source code, and exon-junction libraries are available from http://grimmond.imb.uq.edu.au/RNA-MATE/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752615PMC
October 2009

Analysis of early nephron patterning reveals a role for distal RV proliferation in fusion to the ureteric tip via a cap mesenchyme-derived connecting segment.

Dev Biol 2009 Aug 6;332(2):273-86. Epub 2009 Jun 6.

NHMRC Principal Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

While nephron formation is known to be initiated by a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition of the cap mesenchyme to form a renal vesicle (RV), the subsequent patterning of the nephron and fusion with the ureteric component of the kidney to form a patent contiguous uriniferous tubule has not been fully characterized. Using dual section in situ hybridization (SISH)/immunohistochemistry (IHC) we have revealed distinct distal/proximal patterning of Notch, BMP and Wnt pathway components within the RV stage nephron. Quantitation of mitoses and Cyclin D1 expression indicated that cell proliferation was higher in the distal RV, reflecting the differential developmental programs of the proximal and distal populations. A small number of RV genes were also expressed in the early connecting segment of the nephron. Dual ISH/IHC combined with serial section immunofluorescence and 3D reconstruction revealed that fusion occurs between the late RV and adjacent ureteric tip via a process that involves loss of the intervening ureteric epithelial basement membrane and insertion of cells expressing RV markers into the ureteric tip. Using Six2-eGFPCre x R26R-lacZ mice, we demonstrate that these cells are derived from the cap mesenchyme and not the ureteric epithelium. Hence, both nephron patterning and patency are evident at the late renal vesicle stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.05.578DOI Listing
August 2009

Stem cell transcriptome profiling via massive-scale mRNA sequencing.

Nat Methods 2008 Jul 30;5(7):613-9. Epub 2008 May 30.

Expression Genomics Laboratory, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Road, St. Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

We developed a massive-scale RNA sequencing protocol, short quantitative random RNA libraries or SQRL, to survey the complexity, dynamics and sequence content of transcriptomes in a near-complete fashion. This method generates directional, random-primed, linear cDNA libraries that are optimized for next-generation short-tag sequencing. We surveyed the poly(A)(+) transcriptomes of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and embryoid bodies (EBs) at an unprecedented depth (10 Gb), using the Applied Biosystems SOLiD technology. These libraries capture the genomic landscape of expression, state-specific expression, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the transcriptional activity of repeat elements, and both known and new alternative splicing events. We investigated the impact of transcriptional complexity on current models of key signaling pathways controlling ESC pluripotency and differentiation, highlighting how SQRL can be used to characterize transcriptome content and dynamics in a quantitative and reproducible manner, and suggesting that our understanding of transcriptional complexity is far from complete.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1223DOI Listing
July 2008

Characterisation and trophic functions of murine embryonic macrophages based upon the use of a Csf1r-EGFP transgene reporter.

Dev Biol 2007 Aug 25;308(1):232-46. Epub 2007 May 25.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience and ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

All solid organs contain resident monocyte-derived cells that appear early in organogenesis and persist throughout life. These cells are critical for normal development in some organs. Here we report the use of a previously described transgenic line, with EGFP driven by the macrophage-restricted Csf1r (c-fms) promoter, to image macrophage production and infiltration accompanying organogenesis in many tissues. Using microarray analysis of FACS-isolated EGFP-positive cells, we show that fetal kidney, lung and brain macrophages show similar gene expression profiles irrespective of their tissue of origin. EGFP-positive cells appeared in the renal interstitium from 12 days post coitum, prior to nephrogenesis, and maintain a close apposition to renal tubules postnatally. CSF-1 added to embryonic kidney explants increased overall renal growth and ureteric bud branching. Expression profiling of tissue macrophages and of CSF-1-treated explants showed evidence of the alternate, pro-proliferative (M2) activation profile, including expression of macrophage mannose receptor (CD206), macrophage scavenger receptor 2 (Msr2), C1q, CD163, selenoprotein P, CCL24 and TREM2. This response has been associated with the trophic role of tumour-associated macrophages. These findings suggest a trophic role of macrophages in embryonic kidney development, which may continue to play a similar role in postnatal repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.05.027DOI Listing
August 2007

Characterization of the breast cancer associated ATM 7271T>G (V2424G) mutation by gene expression profiling.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2006 Dec;45(12):1169-81

Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Mutations in ATM are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygous mutations in ATM have been associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. We previously reported one breast cancer family in which ATM 7271T>G (V2424G) segregated with disease, and apparently acted in a dominant negative manner. We now report the screening of 782 multiple-case breast cancer families that identified two additional index cases with ATM 7271T>G. Phylogenetic sequence analysis showed that V2424 is a highly conserved residue, and that the 2424G variant is likely to interfere with function. To elucidate the consequences of this mutation, we expression profiled wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from Scottish and Australian families using an oligonucleotide microarray. Cluster analysis revealed 77 genes that were differentially expressed in homozygous and heterozygous V2424G cells (compared to wild-type) and 11 genes differentially expressed in the homozygous cells. We also evaluated the profiles of LCLs after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and identified 77 genes that were differentially expressed in wild-type cells, but not in homozygous or heterozygous V2424G cells. We validated the expression differences by RT-PCR in additional heterozygous V2424G LCLs from another breast cancer family. We found no consistent cytotoxicity or abrogation of ATM kinase activity after IR in seven heterozygous V2424G LCLs, compared to wild-type LCLs, but did find an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations. These data suggest that the V2424G missense mutation acts largely as a dominant negative in terms of the associated expression profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.20381DOI Listing
December 2006

Spatial gene expression in the T-stage mouse metanephros.

Gene Expr Patterns 2006 Oct 20;6(8):807-25. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., Australia.

The E11.5 mouse metanephros is comprised of a T-stage ureteric epithelial tubule sub-divided into tip and trunk cells surrounded by metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Tip cells are induced to undergo branching morphogenesis by the MM. In contrast, signals within the mesenchyme surrounding the trunk prevent ectopic branching of this region. In order to identify novel genes involved in the molecular regulation of branching morphogenesis we compared the gene expression profiles of isolated tip, trunk and MM cells using Compugen mouse long oligo microarrays. We identified genes enriched in the tip epithelium, sim-1, Arg2, Tacstd1, Crlf-1 and BMP7; genes enriched in the trunk epithelium, Innp1, Itm2b, Mkrn1, SPARC, Emu2 and Gsta3 and genes spatially restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the trunk, CSPG2 and CV-2, with overlapping and complimentary expression to BMP4, respectively. This study has identified genes spatially expressed in regions of the developing kidney involved in branching morphogenesis, nephrogenesis and the development of the collecting duct system, calyces, renal pelvis and ureter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.modgep.2006.02.001DOI Listing
October 2006

Definition and spatial annotation of the dynamic secretome during early kidney development.

Dev Dyn 2006 Jun;235(6):1709-19

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

The term "secretome" has been defined as a set of secreted proteins (Grimmond et al. [2003] Genome Res 13:1350-1359). The term "secreted protein" encompasses all proteins exported from the cell including growth factors, extracellular proteinases, morphogens, and extracellular matrix molecules. Defining the genes encoding secreted proteins that change in expression during organogenesis, the dynamic secretome, is likely to point to key drivers of morphogenesis. Such secreted proteins are involved in the reciprocal interactions between the ureteric bud (UB) and the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) that occur during organogenesis of the metanephros. Some key metanephric secreted proteins have been identified, but many remain to be determined. In this study, microarray expression profiling of E10.5, E11.5, and E13.5 kidney and consensus bioinformatic analysis were used to define a dynamic secretome of early metanephric development. In situ hybridisation was used to confirm microarray results and clarify spatial expression patterns for these genes. Forty-one secreted factors were dynamically expressed between the E10.5 and E13.5 timeframe profiled, and 25 of these factors had not previously been implicated in kidney development. A text-based anatomical ontology was used to spatially annotate the expression pattern of these genes in cultured metanephric explants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20740DOI Listing
June 2006

Alternate transcription of the Toll-like receptor signaling cascade.

Genome Biol 2006 17;7(2):R10. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111, Australia.

Background: Alternate splicing of key signaling molecules in the Toll-like receptor (Tlr) cascade has been shown to dramatically alter the signaling capacity of inflammatory cells, but it is not known how common this mechanism is. We provide transcriptional evidence of widespread alternate splicing in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, derived from a systematic analysis of the FANTOM3 mouse data set. Functional annotation of variant proteins was assessed in light of inflammatory signaling in mouse primary macrophages, and the expression of each variant transcript was assessed by splicing arrays.

Results: A total of 256 variant transcripts were identified, including novel variants of Tlr4, Ticam1, Tollip, Rac1, Irak1, 2 and 4, Mapk14/p38, Atf2 and Stat1. The expression of variant transcripts was assessed using custom-designed splicing arrays. We functionally tested the expression of Tlr4 transcripts under a range of cytokine conditions via northern and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of variant Mapk14/p38 protein expression on macrophage survival were demonstrated.

Conclusion: Members of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway are highly alternatively spliced, producing a large number of novel proteins with the potential to functionally alter inflammatory outcomes. These variants are expressed in primary mouse macrophages in response to inflammatory mediators such as interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Our data suggest a surprisingly common role for variant proteins in diversification/repression of inflammatory signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2006-7-2-r10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1431733PMC
July 2006

Genome-wide review of transcriptional complexity in mouse protein kinases and phosphatases.

Genome Biol 2006 26;7(1):R5. Epub 2006 Jan 26.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience and ARC Centre in Bioinformatics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Background: Alternative transcripts of protein kinases and protein phosphatases are known to encode peptides with altered substrate affinities, subcellular localizations, and activities. We undertook a systematic study to catalog the variant transcripts of every protein kinase-like and phosphatase-like locus of mouse http://variant.imb.uq.edu.au.

Results: By reviewing all available transcript evidence, we found that at least 75% of kinase and phosphatase loci in mouse generate alternative splice forms, and that 44% of these loci have well supported alternative 5' exons. In a further analysis of full-length cDNAs, we identified 69% of loci as generating more than one peptide isoform. The 1,469 peptide isoforms generated from these loci correspond to 1,080 unique Interpro domain combinations, many of which lack catalytic or interaction domains. We also report on the existence of likely dominant negative forms for many of the receptor kinases and phosphatases, including some 26 secreted decoys (seven known and 19 novel: Alk, Csf1r, Egfr, Epha1, 3, 5,7 and 10, Ephb1, Flt1, Flt3, Insr, Insrr, Kdr, Met, Ptk7, Ptprc, Ptprd, Ptprg, Ptprl, Ptprn, Ptprn2, Ptpro, Ptprr, Ptprs, and Ptprz1) and 13 transmembrane forms (four known and nine novel: Axl, Bmpr1a, Csf1r, Epha4, 5, 6 and 7, Ntrk2, Ntrk3, Pdgfra, Ptprk, Ptprm, Ptpru). Finally, by mining public gene expression data (MPSS and microarrays), we confirmed tissue-specific expression of ten of the novel isoforms.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that alternative transcripts of protein kinases and phosphatases are produced that encode different domain structures, and that these variants are likely to play important roles in phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2006-7-1-r5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1431701PMC
August 2006

PhosphoregDB: the tissue and sub-cellular distribution of mammalian protein kinases and phosphatases.

BMC Bioinformatics 2006 Feb 20;7:82. Epub 2006 Feb 20.

The Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.

Background: Protein kinases and protein phosphatases are the fundamental components of phosphorylation dependent protein regulatory systems. We have created a database for the protein kinase-like and phosphatase-like loci of mouse http://phosphoreg.imb.uq.edu.au that integrates protein sequence, interaction, classification and pathway information with the results of a systematic screen of their sub-cellular localization and tissue specific expression data mined from the GNF tissue atlas of mouse.

Results: The database lets users query where a specific kinase or phosphatase is expressed at both the tissue and sub-cellular levels. Similarly the interface allows the user to query by tissue, pathway or sub-cellular localization, to reveal which components are co-expressed or co-localized. A review of their expression reveals 30% of these components are detected in all tissues tested while 70% show some level of tissue restriction. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data reveals that expression of these genes can be used to separate the samples into tissues of related lineage, including 3 larger clusters of nervous tissue, developing embryo and cells of the immune system. By overlaying the expression, sub-cellular localization and classification data we examine correlations between class, specificity and tissue restriction and show that tyrosine kinases are more generally expressed in fewer tissues than serine/threonine kinases.

Conclusion: Together these data demonstrate that cell type specific systems exist to regulate protein phosphorylation and that for accurate modelling and for determination of enzyme substrate relationships the co-location of components needs to be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-7-82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1395337PMC
February 2006

Differential gene expression in the developing mouse ureter.

Gene Expr Patterns 2006 Jun 3;6(5):519-38. Epub 2006 Feb 3.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

In many instances, kidney dysgenesis results as a secondary consequence to defects in the development of the ureter. Through the use of mouse genetics a number of genes associated with such malformations have been identified, however, the cause of many other abnormalities remain unknown. In order to identify novel genes involved in ureter development we compared gene expression in embryonic day (E) 12.5, E15.5 and postnatal day (P) 75 ureters using the Compugen mouse long oligo microarrays. A total of 248 genes were dynamically upregulated and 208 downregulated between E12.5 and P75. At E12.5, when the mouse ureter is comprised of a simple cuboidal epithelium surrounded by ureteric mesenchyme, genes previously reported to be expressed in the ureteric mesenchyme, foxC1 and foxC2 were upregulated. By E15.5 the epithelial layer develops into urothelium, impermeable to urine, and smooth muscle develops for the peristaltic movement of urine towards the bladder. The development of these two cell types coincided with the upregulation of UPIIIa, RAB27b and PPARgamma reported to be expressed in the urothelium, and several muscle genes, Acta1, Tnnt2, Myocd, and Tpm2. In situ hybridization identified several novel genes with spatial expression within the smooth muscle, Acta1; ureteric mesenchyme and smooth muscle, Thbs2 and Col5a2; and urothelium, Kcnj8 and Adh1. This study marks the first known report defining global gene expression of the developing mouse ureter and will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying kidney and lower urinary tract malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.modgep.2005.10.008DOI Listing
June 2006

A human phase 1 vaccine clinical trial of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine candidate apical membrane antigen 1 in Montanide ISA720 adjuvant.

Vaccine 2005 Apr;23(23):3076-83

The Cooperative Research Centre for Vaccine Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.

A dose escalating, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial was conducted to test the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine containing recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated in Montanide ISA720. Three groups of volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly with 5 microg, 20 microg or 80 microg of AMA1, respectively, in 0.5 mL of formulation at 0, 3 and 6 months. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels and T cell stimulation indices were measured before and after each vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. Most subjects generated a mild to moderate, transient local reaction after the first vaccination. Three subjects developed a local reaction approximately 10 days following vaccination. Six of the 29 subjects seroconverted. Only one of these developed a high antibody titre. However, the interpretation of this trial was compromised by a loss of potency of the formulated vaccine during the course of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.09.040DOI Listing
April 2005

Identifying the molecular phenotype of renal progenitor cells.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2004 Sep;15(9):2344-57

Institute For Molecular Bioscience, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Although many of the molecular interactions in kidney development are now well understood, the molecules involved in the specification of the metanephric mesenchyme from surrounding intermediate mesoderm and, hence, the formation of the renal progenitor population are poorly characterized. In this study, cDNA microarrays were used to identify genes enriched in the murine embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) uninduced metanephric mesenchyme, the renal progenitor population, in comparison with more rostral derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm. Microarray data were analyzed using R statistical software to determine accurately genes differentially expressed between these populations. Microarray outliers were biologically verified, and the spatial expression pattern of these genes at E10.5 and subsequent stages of early kidney development was determined by RNA in situ hybridization. This approach identified 21 genes preferentially expressed by the E10.5 metanephric mesenchyme, including Ewing sarcoma homolog, 14-3-3 theta, retinoic acid receptor-alpha, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2, CD24, and cadherin-11, that may be important in formation of renal progenitor cells. Cell surface proteins such as CD24 and cadherin-11 that were strongly and specifically expressed in the uninduced metanephric mesenchyme and mark the renal progenitor population may prove useful in the purification of renal progenitor cells by FACS. These findings may assist in the isolation and characterization of potential renal stem cells for use in cellular therapies for kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000136779.17837.8FDOI Listing
September 2004

Phosphoregulators: protein kinases and protein phosphatases of mouse.

Genome Res 2003 Jun;13(6B):1443-54

The Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Australia.

With the completion of the human and mouse genome sequences, the task now turns to identifying their encoded transcripts and assigning gene function. In this study, we have undertaken a computational approach to identify and classify all of the protein kinases and phosphatases present in the mouse gene complement. A nonredundant set of these sequences was produced by mining Ensembl gene predictions and publicly available cDNA sequences with a panel of InterPro domains. This approach identified 561 candidate protein kinases and 162 candidate protein phosphatases. This cohort was then analyzed using TribeMCL protein sequence similarity clustering followed by CLUSTALV alignment and hierarchical tree generation. This approach allowed us to (1) distinguish between true members of the protein kinase and phosphatase families and enzymes of related biochemistry, (2) determine the structure of the families, and (3) suggest functions for previously uncharacterized members. The classifications obtained by this approach were in good agreement with previous schemes and allowed us to demonstrate domain associations with a number of clusters. Finally, we comment on the complementary nature of cDNA and genome-based gene detection and the impact of the FANTOM2 transcriptome project.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.954803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC403684PMC
June 2003

Exploration of the cell-cycle genes found within the RIKEN FANTOM2 data set.

Genome Res 2003 Jun;13(6B):1366-75

The Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Queensland Q4072, Australia.

The cell cycle is one of the most fundamental processes within a cell. Phase-dependent expression and cell-cycle checkpoints require a high level of control. A large number of genes with varying functions and modes of action are responsible for this biology. In a targeted exploration of the FANTOM2-Variable Protein Set, a number of mouse homologs to known cell-cycle regulators as well as novel members of cell-cycle families were identified. Focusing on two prototype cell-cycle families, the cyclins and the NIMA-related kinases (NEKs), we believe we have identified all of the mouse members of these families, 24 cyclins and 10 NEKs, and mapped them to ENSEMBL transcripts. To attempt to globally identify all potential cell cycle-related genes within mouse, the MGI (Mouse Genome Database) assignments for the RIKEN Representative Set (RPS) and the results from two homology-based queries were merged. We identified 1415 genes with possible cell-cycle roles, and 1758 potential paralogs. We comment on the genes identified in this screen and evaluate the merits of each approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.1012403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC403664PMC
June 2003
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