Publications by authors named "Daphne E DeMello"

20 Publications

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Pediatric Metastatic Odontogenic Ghost Cell Carcinoma: A Multimodal Treatment Approach.

Rare Tumors 2015 May 18;7(2):5855. Epub 2015 May 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic , Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC) is a rare and aggressive tumor wherein optimal treatment remains uncertain. We report the first pediatric metastatic OGCC case treated with multimodal therapy: surgery, adjuvant chemoradiation, and adjuvant immunotherapy. Adjuvant therapy was utilized due to locally advanced disease with pathologic features indicative of high recurrence risk. This multimodal approach was modeled after management of primary head and neck cancer, where adjuvant chemoradiation and immunotherapy are associated with improved outcomes. Our patient is alive and disease free at 14 months indicating a potentially positive role for multimodal therapy in the management of OGCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/rt.2015.5855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4508645PMC
May 2015

Novel pathogenic variants and genes for myopathies identified by whole exome sequencing.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2015 Jul 8;3(4):283-301. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Integrated Cancer Genomics, Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) Phoenix, Arizona.

Neuromuscular diseases (NMD) account for a significant proportion of infant and childhood mortality and devastating chronic disease. Determining the specific diagnosis of NMD is challenging due to thousands of unique or rare genetic variants that result in overlapping phenotypes. We present four unique childhood myopathy cases characterized by relatively mild muscle weakness, slowly progressing course, mildly elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and contractures. We also present two additional cases characterized by severe prenatal/neonatal myopathy. Prior extensive genetic testing and histology of these cases did not reveal the genetic etiology of disease. Here, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and bioinformatics to identify likely causal pathogenic variants in each pedigree. In two cases, we identified novel pathogenic variants in COL6A3. In a third case, we identified novel likely pathogenic variants in COL6A6 and COL6A3. We identified a novel splice variant in EMD in a fourth case. Finally, we classify two cases as calcium channelopathies with identification of novel pathogenic variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S. These are the first cases of myopathies reported to be caused by variants in COL6A6 and CACNA1S. Our results demonstrate the utility and genetic diagnostic value of WES in the broad class of NMD phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521965PMC
July 2015

Case report of an epidural cervical Onchocerca lupi infection in a 13-year-old boy.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2015 Aug 1;16(2):217-21. Epub 2015 May 1.

Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix Children's Hospital;

A 13-year-old boy presented with fever and neck pain and stiffness, which was initially misdiagnosed as culture-negative meningitis. Magnetic resonance images of the brain and cervical spine demonstrated what appeared to be an intradural extramedullary mass at the C1-3 level, resulting in moderate cord compression, and a Chiari Type I malformation. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and a C1-3 laminectomy with intradural exploration for excisional biopsy and resection. The lesion containing the parasite was extradural, extending laterally through the C2-3 foramina. Inflammatory tissue secondary to Onchocerca lupi infection was identified, and treatment with steroids and doxycycline was initiated. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic, with MR images demonstrating a significant reduction in lesional size. However, 10 weeks postoperatively, the infection recurred, necessitating a second operation. The patient was treated with an additional course of doxycycline and is currently maintained on ivermectin therapy. This is the second reported case of cervical O. lupi infection in a human. In the authors' experience, oral doxycycline alone was insufficient in controlling the disease, and the addition of ivermectin therapy was necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2014.12.PEDS14462DOI Listing
August 2015

Recurrent idiopathic tumoral calcinosis in a child postoperatively.

Radiol Case Rep 2012 7;7(4):735. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the deposition of calcium salts and crystals in the periarticular soft tissues. It is almost entirely a disease of adults. Histological and radiologically, however, features of this condition are identical regardless of age. Lesions in adults usually involve the hip joint and tend to recur following surgery, whereas in children surgery is often curative. We report a case of recurrent tumoral calcinosis of the sternum of a Hispanic identical-twin female infant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2484/rcr.v7i4.735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4899567PMC
June 2016

Neonatal orchitis mimicking cystic dysplasia of the testis.

Pediatr Radiol 2010 Dec 1;40 Suppl 1:S21-3. Epub 2010 May 1.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, 5777 E. Mayo Blvd., Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.

Neonatal orchitis is an extremely rare disease, usually related to a congenital genitourinary anomaly. We present a 36 weeks' gestation infant who presented at 3 days old with a firm and enlarged right testicle. Testicular US revealed a heterogeneous right testicle with numerous cystic spaces as well as decreased testicular blood flow. The clinical concerns included testicular tumor and cystic dysplasia of the testis because of concurrent renal dysplasia. The scrotal/testicular area was without tenderness or overlying erythema. Radical inguinal orchiectomy revealed diffuse gram-negative orchitis.This case represents an atypical presentation of orchitis. This entity should be added to the differential diagnoses of testicular mass in the neonate even in the absence of physical findings suggestive of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-010-1676-9DOI Listing
December 2010

Pulmonary pathology in thyroid transcription factor-1 deficiency syndrome.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010 Aug 4;182(4):549-54. Epub 2010 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by neurologic, thyroidal, and pulmonary dysfunction. Children usually have mild-to-severe respiratory symptoms and occasionally die of respiratory failure. Herein, we describe an infant with a constitutional 14q12-21.3 haploid deletion encompassing the TTF-1 gene locus who had cerebral dysgenesis, thyroidal dysfunction, and respiratory insufficiency. The clinical course was notable for mild hyaline membrane disease, continuous ventilatory support, and symmetrically distributed pulmonary cysts by imaging. He developed pneumonia and respiratory failure and died at 8 months. Pathologically, the lungs had grossly visible emphysematous changes with "cysts" up to 2 mm in diameter. The airway generations and radial alveolar count were diminished. In addition to acute bacterial pneumonia, there was focally alveolar septal fibrosis, pneumocyte hypertrophy, and clusters of airspace macrophages. Ultrastructurally, type II pneumocytes had numerous lamellar bodies, and alveolar spaces contained fragments of type II pneumocytes and extruded lamellar bodies. Although immunoreactivity for surfactant protein SP-A and ABCA3 was diminished, that for SP-B and proSP-C was robust, although irregularly distributed, corresponding to the distribution of type II pneumocytes. Immunoreactivity for TTF-1 protein was readily detected. In summation, we document abnormal airway and alveolar morphogenesis and altered expression of surfactant-associated proteins, which may explain the respiratory difficulties encountered in TTF-1 haploinsufficiency. These findings are consistent with experimental evidence documenting the important role of TTF-1 in pulmonary morphogenesis and surfactant metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201002-0167CRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2937244PMC
August 2010

Regulation of alveologenesis: clinical implications of impaired growth.

Pathology 2008 Feb;40(2):124-40

Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

During its development that begins in intrauterine life, the lung is transformed from a simple epithelial lined sac that emerges from the foregut into a complex arrangement of blood vessels, airways, and alveoli that make up the mature lung structure. This remarkable transformation that continues for several years postnatally, is achieved by the influence of several genes, transcription factors, growth factors and hormones upon the cells and proteins of the lung bud. A seminal event in this process is the formation of the air-blood barrier within the alveolar wall, an evolutionary modification that permits independent air-breathing existence in mammals. Molecular biological techniques have enabled elucidation of the mechanistic pathways contributing to alveologenesis and have provided probable molecular bases for examples of impaired alveologenesis encountered by the paediatric pathologist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313020701818981DOI Listing
February 2008

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha from macrophages enhances LPS-induced clara cell expression of keratinocyte-derived chemokine.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2008 Jan 2;38(1):8-15. Epub 2007 Aug 2.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 902 Yalem, Box 8052, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a cytokine produced by alveolar macrophages in response to LPS in the lung. Clara cells are bronchiolar epithelial cells that produce a variety of proinflammatory cytokines in response to LPS but not to TNF-alpha. In this study, we examined whether TNF-alpha affects Clara cell cytokine production in the setting of LPS stimulation. Using a transformed murine Clara cell line (C22), we observed that both LPS and TNF-alpha induced production of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. We also found that simultaneous LPS and TNF-alpha stimulation is synergistic for KC production, but additive for MCP-1 production. By using a Transwell coculture system of RAW264.7 macrophages and Clara cells isolated from C57Bl/6 mice, we found that macrophages produce a soluble factor that enhances Clara cell KC production in response to LPS. Cocultures of Clara cells from mice deficient in TNF-alpha receptors with RAW264.7 macrophages demonstrated that the effect of macrophages on Clara cells is mediated primarily via TNF-alpha. To determine whether these findings occur in vivo, we treated wild-type and TNF receptor-deficient mice intratracheally with LPS and examined the expression of KC. LPS-treated, TNF receptor-deficient mice showed much less KC mRNA in airway epithelial cells compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, a similar number of KC-expressing cells was seen in the lung periphery. Thus, upregulation of KC by Clara cells in the setting of LPS stimulation is largely dependent on TNF-alpha originating from alveolar macrophages. These findings shed light on macrophage-Clara cell interactions in regulating the pulmonary inflammatory response to LPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2007-0203OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2176132PMC
January 2008

Clara cells impact the pulmonary innate immune response to LPS.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007 Aug 25;293(2):L383-92. Epub 2007 May 25.

Division of Allergy and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Airway epithelial cells secrete proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS, but cytokine production by a prominent nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cell, the Clara cell, specifically, is unknown. To investigate Clara cell cytokine production in response to LPS, we used a transformed murine Clara cell line, C22, and isolated Clara cells from C57Bl/6 mice. Stimulation of both cell types with LPS resulted in significant upregulation of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, but did not induce TNF-alpha production. To determine whether LPS induces cytokine production by Clara cells in vivo, LPS was instilled intratracheally into mice. KC was expressed by Clara cells, alveolar type 2 cells, and alveolar macrophages, 2 h after LPS administration, as determined by in situ hybridization. TNF-alpha, although not expressed in airway epithelial cells, was expressed primarily in alveolar macrophages in response to LPS. To assess the impact of Clara cells on KC and TNF-alpha production in the lung in the early response to LPS, mice were treated with naphthalene to selectively induce Clara cell injury before LPS stimulation. KC expression in the airways and the lung periphery, and KC and TNF-alpha levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, were significantly reduced in naphthalene-treated vs. vehicle-treated mice after LPS stimulation. Furthermore, transwell cocultures of C22 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages indicated that C22 cells released a soluble factor(s) in response to LPS that enhanced macrophage production of TNF-alpha. These results indicate that Clara cells elaborate cytokines and modulate the lung innate immune response to LPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00024.2007DOI Listing
August 2007

Molecular mechanisms of pulmonary vascular development.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2007 Jan-Feb;10(1):1-17

Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

In this era of rapidly advancing vascular biology research, a vast array of growth factors and signaling molecules have been recognized as key players in the mechanisms that control lung vascular development. In the lung, vascular development is a complex, multistep process that includes specialization of primitive cells to vascular progenitors; formation of primitive vascular networks; remodeling with local regression and branching; specialization toward arteries, veins, and lymphatics; stabilization of vessels by matrix production and recruitment of supporting cells; and maintenance of the vascular structure. This complex, highly organized process requires exquisite orchestration of the regulatory activity of multiple molecules in a specific temporospatial order. Most of these molecules are members of 3 major growth factor families that have been recently identified. They are the vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin, and ephrin families. Understanding the functional reach of several members of these growth factor families is integral to an appreciation of the etiology and pathogenesis of developmental lung vascular disorders affecting newborns. This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular bases of lung vascular development and some of the pulmonary diseases resulting from aberrant vascular growth, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, congenital cystic pulmonary disorders, congenital pulmonary hemangiomatosis, and lung hypoplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2350/06-06-0122.1DOI Listing
May 2007

Pediatric CD56+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a review of the literature.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006 Dec;130(12):1859-64

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, CB# 7525, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7525, USA.

Context: Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are a heterogeneous group of CD30+ large cell lymphomas that, according to the World Health Organization classification, are defined as being of T-cell origin, based on immunophenotype, and/or the finding of a T-cell gene rearrangement by molecular studies. Most cases express cytotoxic granule-associated proteins. Relatively recent data have suggested that some T-cell ALCLs are derived from cytolytic CD4+ cells, gammadelta T cells, or natural killer-like (CD56+ or CD57+) T cells. We encountered a pediatric case of CD56+, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive ALCL of apparent natural killer-like T-cell origin (showing positivity for CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, surface CD3 partial positivity, CD7, CD8, CD56, TIA-1, and granzyme B). The patient had initial lymph node and multiple sites of cutaneous involvement and an aggressive clinical course with multiple recurrences after varying periods of complete remission.

Objective: To review the current pediatric literature regarding the incidence, differential diagnosis, and clinical course of such cases.

Data Sources: Relevant articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine) between 1975 and 2006.

Conclusions: Our review did not confirm a uniformly aggressive clinical course in pediatric cases of CD56+ ALCLs. Such cases suggest the usefulness of the analysis of CD56-positivity in additional cases of ALCL in an attempt to accrue additional information on this condition. Future accrual of such cases may address whether such cases should be treated more aggressively or with possible targeted therapeutic regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1043/1543-2165(2006)130[1859:PCALCL]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
December 2006

Development of vaccines and passive immunotherapy against SARS coronavirus using mouse and SCID-PBL/hu mouse models.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2006 ;581:561-6

Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

We have investigated novel vaccines strategies against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV infection using cDNA constructs encoding the structural antigens; spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E), or nucleocapsid (N) protein, derived from SARS CoV (strain HKU39849, TW1, or FFM-1). As SARS-CoV is thought to infect the alveolar epithelial cell of the lung,in the present study, a type II alveolar epithelial cell clone, T7, was used to analyze the mechanism of CTL against SARS CoV membrane antigens. Mice vaccinated with SARS CoV (N) DNA or (M) DNA using pcDNA 3.1 (+) plasmid vector showed T-cell immune responses (CTL induction and proliferation) against type II alveolar epithelial cells (T7) transfected with SARS (N) or (M) DNA, respectively. To determine whether these DNA vaccines could induce T-cell immune responses in humans as well as in mice, SCID-PBL/hu mice were immunized with these DNA vaccines. PBL from healthy human volunteers were administered i.p. into IL-2 receptor gamma-chain-disrupted NOD-SCID mice [IL-2R(-/-) NOD-SCID]. SCID-PBL/hu mice thus constructed can be used to analyze the human immune response in vivo. The SCID-PBL/hu mice were immunized with SARS (N) DNA or (M) DNA and analyzed for a human T-cell immune response. The M DNA vaccine enhanced CTL activity and proliferation in the presence of M peptide in SCID-PBL/hu mice. Furthermore, the SARS N DNA vaccine induced CTL activity (IFN-gamma production by recombinant N protein or N protein-pulsed autologous B blast cells) and proliferation of spleen cells in SCID-PBL/hu mice. These results, demonstrate that SARS M and N DNA vaccines induced human CTL and human T-cell proliferative responses. On the other hand, we have developed SARS DNA vaccines that induce human neutralizing antibodies and human monoclonal antibodies against SARS CoV. Transgenic mice expressing SARS-CoV receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) are also under development. These vaccines are expected to induce immune responses specific for SARS CoV in human and should provide useful tool for development of protective vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-33012-9_102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123019PMC
December 2006

Severe bilateral panlobular emphysema and pulmonary arterial hypoplasia: unusual manifestations of Menkes disease.

Am J Med Genet A 2005 Dec;139A(2):151-5

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport characterized by neurological deterioration, connective tissue, and vascular defects, abnormal hair, and death in early childhood. We report on a patient with Menkes disease in whom severe diffuse emphysema caused respiratory failure and death at 14 months of age. He had severe growth and developmental delays and other typical clinical manifestations of Menkes disease. He developed respiratory problems requiring continuous supplemental oxygen and a progressively enlarging soft tissue mass appeared on the neck. Imaging studies revealed cystic spaces in multiple lobes of the lung consistent with bullous emphysema. The neck mass was determined to be an internal jugular venous aneurysm. At autopsy, extensive emphysematous change was evident. Post-mortem barium injections of the pulmonary arterial system revealed marked dilatation and tortuosity of the preacinar pulmonary arteries and reduced numbers of intra-acinar arteries. Severe emphysema, presumably caused by abnormal elastin due to deficiency of the copper-dependent enzyme lysyl oxidase, may represent an underestimated clinical complication of Menkes disease and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.31001DOI Listing
December 2005

Cardiac conduction abnormalities and congenital immunodeficiency in a child with Kabuki syndrome: case report.

BMC Med Genet 2005 Jul 25;6:28. Epub 2005 Jul 25.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University, 1465 South Grand Blvd., Saint Louis, MO 63104-1095, USA.

Background: Since it's recognition in 1981, a more complete phenotype of Kabuki syndrome is becoming evident as additional cases are identified. Congenital heart defects and a number of visceral abnormalities have been added to the typical dysmorphic features originally described.

Case Report: In this report we describe the clinical course of a child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome based on characteristic clinical, radiological and morphologic features who died of a cardiac arrhythmia at 11-months of age. This infant, however, had abnormal pulmonary architecture and alterations in his cardiac conduction system resulting in episodes of bradycardia and asystole. This child also had an immunological phenotype consistent with common variable immunodeficiency. His clinical course consisted of numerous hospitalizations for recurrent bacterial infections and congenital hypogammaglobulinemia characterized by low serum IgG and IgA but normal IgM levels, and decreased antibody levels to immunizations. T-, B- and NK lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell function studies were normal.

Conclusion: This child may represent a more severe phenotype of Kabuki syndrome. Recurrent infections in a child should prompt a thorough immunological evaluation. Additionally, electrophysiology testing may be indicated if cardiopulmonary events occur which are not explained by anatomic defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-6-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1190177PMC
July 2005

A novel inflammation-induced ubiquitin E3 ligase in alveolar type II cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005 Jul;333(1):253-63

Department of Pediatrics, Mattel Children's Hospital at UCLA and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

LINCR was identified as a glucocorticoid-attenuated response gene induced in the lung during endotoxemia. The LINCR protein has structural similarities to Drosophila Neuralized, which regulates the developmentally important Notch signaling pathway. Endotoxemia-induced LINCR expression in vivo was localized by in situ hybridization to alveolar epithelial type II cells, and shown to be induced by LPS and inflammatory cytokines in the T7 alveolar epithelial type II cell line. RING domain-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of LINCR was demonstrated using full-length FLAG-LINCR or a deletion mutant lacking the RING domain expressed in 293T cells, and using a GST-LINCR RING fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli. LINCR preferentially interacted with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH6 and preferentially generated polyubiquitin chains linked via non-canonical lysine residues. We conclude that LINCR is a novel inflammation-induced ubiquitin E3 ligase expressed in alveolar epithelial type II cells, and discuss its potential role in the lung response to inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.102DOI Listing
July 2005

Primary type II alveolar epithelial cells present microbial antigens to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2005 Aug 15;289(2):L274-9. Epub 2005 Apr 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Smith Bldg., Rm. 516, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) can produce various antimicrobial and proinflammatory effector molecules. This, together with their abundance and strategic location, suggests a role in host defense against pulmonary pathogens. We report that murine type II AEC, like their human counterparts, express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Using a murine model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we find that type II AEC become activated and have increased cell surface expression of class II MHC, CD54, and CD95 following infection. Type II AEC use the class II MHC pathway to process and present mycobacterial antigens to immune CD4+ T cells isolated from mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, not only can type II AEC contribute to the pulmonary immunity by secreting chemokines that recruit inflammatory cells to the lung, but they can also serve as antigen-presenting cells. Although type II AEC are unlikely to prime naïve T cells, their ability to present antigens to T cells demonstrates that they can participate in the effector phase of the immune response. This represents a novel role for type II AEC in the immunological response to pulmonary pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00004.2005DOI Listing
August 2005

The development of vaccines against SARS corona virus in mice and SCID-PBL/hu mice.

Vaccine 2005 Mar;23(17-18):2269-72

Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone, Sakai, Osaka 591-8555, Japan.

We have investigated to develop novel vaccines against SARS CoV using cDNA constructs encoding the structural antigen; spike protein (S), membrane protein (M), envelope protein (E), or nucleocapsid (N) protein, derived from SARS CoV. Mice vaccinated with SARS-N or -M DNA using pcDNA 3.1(+) plasmid vector showed T cell immune responses (CTL induction and proliferation) against N or M protein, respectively. CTL responses were also detected to SARS DNA-transfected type II alveolar epithelial cells (T7 cell clone), which are thought to be initial target cells for SARS virus infection in human. To determine whether these DNA vaccines could induce T cell immune responses in humans as well as in mice, SCID-PBL/hu mice was immunized with these DNA vaccines. As expected, virus-specific CTL responses and T cell proliferation were induced from human T cells. SARS-N and SARS-M DNA vaccines and SCID-PBL/hu mouse model will be important in the development of protective vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115605PMC
March 2005

Pulmonary pathology.

Authors:
Daphne E deMello

Semin Neonatol 2004 Aug;9(4):311-29

Department of Pathology, St. Louis University Health Sciences Center and Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.

Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis. These pathological changes result from inherited disorders of surfactant proteins or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Abnormal lung vascular development is the basis for another cause of fatal neonatal respiratory distress, alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without associated misalignment of veins. Diagnosis of these genetically transmitted disorders is important because of the serious implications for future siblings. There is also a critical need for establishing an archival tissue bank to permit future molecular biological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2003.12.001DOI Listing
August 2004

Defective pulmonary development in the absence of heparin-binding vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002 Aug;27(2):194-203

Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center and Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

Development of the airways, alveoli, and the pulmonary vasculature in the fetus is a process that is precisely controlled. One of the growth factors involved, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is so critical for embryonic development that in the mouse, elimination of just a single allele is lethal. In the early stages of lung development, the mouse VEGF gene expresses three isoforms (120, 164, and 188) in a distinct temporo-spatial pattern, suggesting a specific function for each. We engineered mice that express only VEGF 120, to study the role of VEGF isoforms in lung development. Lung vessel development in these mice was studied by scanning electron microscopy of Mercox casts of lung vasculature. Airway and air-blood barrier development was analyzed by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry. In all VEGF120/120 fetuses and pups, lung vascular casts were smaller and less dense compared with 120/+ and wild-type littermates. Although the generation count of pre-acinar vessels was similar in all three genotypes, the most peripheral vessels were dilated and were more widely separated in 120/120 fetuses of all ages, compared with 120/+ and wild-type littermates. In addition, 120/120 animals had fewer air-blood barriers and a decreased airspace-parenchyma ratio compared with 120/+ and wild-type littermates. We concluded that the absence of VEGF 164 and 188 isoforms impairs lung microvascular development and delays airspace maturation, indicating an essential role for heparin-binding VEGF isoforms in normal lung development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/ajrcmb.27.2.4703DOI Listing
August 2002

Generation and characterization of a conditionally immortalized lung clara cell line from the H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2002 Mar;38(3):154-64

Department of Pathology, St. Louis University Health Sciences Center and Pediatric Research Institute, Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Missouri 63104, USA.

The Clara cell is believed to be the progenitor of the peripheral airway epithelium, and it produces the surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-B, in addition to the 10-kDa Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP or CC10). To date, attempts to develop Clara cell lines have been unsuccessful. Most such attempts have involved the in vitro insertion of a transforming viral oncogene. We have reported previously the characterization of a differentiated conditionally immortalized murine lung Type II epithelial cell line, T7, from the H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse. We have also used this mouse model to derive Clara cell lines. In this model, the need for in vitro gene insertion is circumvented by the creation of a transgene, in which the large tumor antigen of a temperature-sensitive strain (tsA58) of the simian virus 40 (SV40) is fused with the major histocompatibility complex promoter H-2Kb. The promoter is active in a wide range of tissues and is induced by interferons (IFN). From the lungs of animals harboring the hybrid construct, we isolated and characterized Clara cells. The cells contain dense secretory granules and mitochondria typical of Clara cells, and express SP-A, SP-B, SP-D, and the Clara cell secretory protein, CC10. Withdrawal of the IFN and elevation of the incubation temperature permit normal cell differentiation similar to that of Clara cells in vivo. This cell line should be very useful for the investigation of normal Clara cell function and gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1290/1071-2690(2002)038<0154:GACOAC>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2002