Publications by authors named "Daoyuan Ren"

46 Publications

Gut microbiota-dependent catabolites of tryptophan play a predominant role in the protective effects of turmeric polysaccharides against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 19;12(20):9793-9807. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

Gut barrier dysfunction is triggered by gut microbiota dysbiosis that is closely associated with ulcerative colitis. Recently, more attention has been devoted to the ability of the non-digestively colon-targeted plant polysaccharides to regulate the function and composition of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we first studied the prophylactic capacity of turmeric polysaccharides (TPS) to ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut microbiota imbalance. The results revealed that TPS administration could greatly improve the pathological phenotype, gut barrier disruption and colon inflammation in colitis mice. Besides, targeted metabolomics or 16S rRNA-based microbiota analysis demonstrated that TPS alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by DSS, especially increasing the abundance of probiotics associated with tryptophan metabolism, such as and , where the cecal tryptophan catabolite indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and its ligand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expressions were sharply increased by TPS treatment in colitis mice. Expectedly, TPS was found to exert its gut barrier functions through the activation of AhR to upregulate epithelial tight junction proteins. These findings highlight the protective effects of TPS against ulcerative colitis by modulating the gut microbiota and improving microbial metabolites and gut barrier function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01468dDOI Listing
October 2021

Quantification of myocardial hemorrhage using T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 1.5T with ex-vivo validation.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 09 30;23(1):104. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Dept of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Suite 400, 8700 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Background: T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly used in the diagnosis of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH). For quantifying IMH with T2* CMR, despite the lack of consensus studies, two different methods [subject-specific T2* (ssT2*) and absolute T2* thresholding (aT2* < 20 ms)] are interchangeably used. We examined whether these approaches yield equivalent information.

Methods: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (n = 70) were prospectively recruited for CMR at 4-7 days post revascularization and for 6-month follow up (n = 43). Canines studies were performed for validation purposes, where animals (n = 20) were subject to reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) and those surviving the MI (n = 16) underwent CMR at 7 days and 8 weeks and then euthanized. Both in patients and animals, T2* of IMH and volume of IMH were determined using ssT2* and aT2* < 20 ms. In animals, ex-vivo T2* CMR and mass spectrometry for iron concentration ([Fe]) were determined on excised myocardial sections. T2* values based on ssT2* and absolute T2* threshold approaches were independently regressed against [Fe] and compared. A range of T2* cut-offs were tested to determine the optimized conditions relative to ssT2*.

Results: While both approaches showed many similarities, there were also differences. Compared to ssT2*, aT2* < 20 ms showed lower T2* and volume of IMH in patients and animals independent of MI age (all p < 0.005). While T2* determined from both methods were highly correlated against [Fe] (R = 0.9 for both), the slope of the regression curve for ssT2* was significantly larger as compared to aT2* < 20 ms (0.46 vs. 0.32, p < 0.01). Further, slightly larger absolute T2* cut-offs (patients: 23 ms; animals: 25 ms) showed similar IMH characteristics compared to ssT2*.

Conclusion: Current quantification methods have excellent capacity to identify IMH, albeit the T2*of IMH and volume of IMH based on aT2* < 20 ms are smaller compared to ssT2*. Thus the method used to quantify IMH from T2* CMR may influence the diagnosis for IMH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-021-00779-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8482734PMC
September 2021

Chlorogenic acid inhibits trimethylamine--oxide formation and remodels intestinal microbiota to alleviate liver dysfunction in high L-carnitine feeding mice.

Food Funct 2021 Nov 1;12(21):10500-10511. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

High L-carnitine ingestion has been shown to cause liver injury, mechanically due to an elevated circulating level of trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-derived metabolite from L-carnitine. This study aimed to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CGA), a health-promoting polyphenol, could inhibit TMAO formation and thereafter might prevent L-carnitine-induced liver injury in mice. Feeding of mice with 3% L-carnitine in drinking water increased the serum and urinary levels of TMAO ( < 0.01 Normal), whereas the serum and urinary TMAO formation was sharply reduced by CGA administration ( < 0.01). At the phylum level, CGA inhibited the L-carnitine-induced increase in the abundance of and , while it promoted . At the genus level, CGA notably increased the abundance of and , but reduced the population of , and in high L-carnitine feeding mice. Meanwhile, CGA caused strong inhibition against the increase of liver injury markers ( AST, ALT and ALP), hepatic inflammatory cytokines ( IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and TNF-β) and dyslipidemia ( TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C) in L-carnitine-fed mice ( < 0.05). These findings suggest that CGA holds great potential to alleviate liver dysfunction induced by high L-carnitine ingestion. The beneficial effect might be attributed to the protection against TMAO formation and the improvement of the health-promoting gut microbiota, as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of CGA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01778kDOI Listing
November 2021

Sexual Dysfunction and the Impact of Beta-Blockers in Young Males With Coronary Artery Disease.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 21;8:708200. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Interventional Medicine, Shanghai, China.

We aimed to assess the association of erectile dysfunction (ED) with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis, and to examine whether revascularization and medication use have an impact on ED status in patients with early onset of coronary artery disease (EOCAD). International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) was used to evaluate sexual function in 296 male patients with EOCAD (age, 39.9 ± 4.8 years), and 354 male controls (age, 40.6 ± 4.4 years). The extent of coronary atherosclerosis was measured by Gensini score. Endothelial function was evaluated by two vasomotor indexes including endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) by ELISA. ED was more frequent (57.8 vs. 31.1%, < 0.001) and serious (IIEF-5 score:17.7 ± 6.0 vs. 21.6 ± 5.0, < 0.001) among EOCAD patients than that among controls. IIEF-5 score was negatively correlated with Gensini score (r = -0.383, < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ED (EOCAD vs. controls) was 1.88 [95% confidential interval (CI), 1.12-3.18]. However, ET-1 and NO attenuated the association between ED and EOCAD (adjusted OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.84-2.80). IIEF-5 score increased after coronary revascularization in patients not on beta-blockers (18.71 ± 4.84 vs. 17.59 ± 6.05, < 0.001) as compared with baseline, while stayed unchanged in the subgroup using beta-blockers (17.82 ± 5.12 vs. 17.70 ± 5.98, = 0.09). ED was common in patients with EOCAD, and associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction may be a pathophysiologic mechanism underlying both ED and EOCAD. Coronary revascularization confers a benefit in ED amelioration, while this effect did not appear in patients using beta-blocker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.708200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8333273PMC
July 2021

Fuzhuan Brick Tea Polysaccharide Improved Ulcerative Colitis in Association with Gut Microbiota-Derived Tryptophan Metabolism.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 27;69(30):8448-8459. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

Fuzhuanbrick tea (FBT) has attracted wide attention because of its substantial nutritional value. This article first studied the protective mechanism of FBT polysaccharide (FBTP) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technology and metabonomics. It was demonstrated that the administration of FBTP by oral gavage (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg·bw) could decrease the disease activity index (DAI), prevent colon shortening, and alleviate colon tissue damage and inflammation in mice with UC. Interestingly, FBTP relieved the intestinal microbiota disorder caused by UC and contributed to the proliferation of beneficial microbiota, such as and , followed by a significant increase in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Furthermore, FBTP dramatically altered tryptophan metabolism and elevated the fecal contents of indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAld) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It was also found that FBTP significantly increased the colonic expressions of aromatic hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) and interleukin-22 (IL-22) and further promoted the expressions of intestinal tight junction (TJ) proteins ZO-1 and occludin in the colitis mice. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that FBTP can relieve UC by regulating intestinal flora disorders, promoting microbial metabolism, and repairing the intestinal barrier.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02774DOI Listing
August 2021

Grape seed proanthocyanidins reduced the overweight of C57BL/6J mice through modulating adipose thermogenesis and gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 20;12(18):8467-8477. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

Activating the thermogenic function of adipocytes is an attractive therapeutic strategy against obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Proanthocyanidins are a class of polyphenols which are widely found in plants and daily foods. This aim of this study is to investigate the modulatory effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and microbiome regulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and its associated molecular mechanism. An 8-week administration of GSPE at 200 mg per kg bw in mice significantly reduced their final body weight, antagonized their HFD-induced insulin resistance and elevated their levels of adiponectin and leptin, respectively ( < 0.05). GSPE significantly increased the expression levels of thermogenic marker UCP1 in BAT and elevated the expression of a key transcription factor of browning, PRDM16, and thermogenic markers UCP1 and PGC-1α in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). The high doses of GSPE also increased the levels of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in the colon of HFD-fed mice ( < 0.05). Furthermore, GSPE normalized the colonic / ratios, reversed the relative abundance of , , , and induced by HFD, and improved the structural diversity of the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01361kDOI Listing
September 2021

Assessment of intramyocardial hemorrhage with dark-blood T2*-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 07 15;23(1):88. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, PACT Bldg - Suite 400, 8700 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) within myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Bright-blood T2*-based cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as the reference standard for non-invasive IMH detection. Despite this, the dark-blood T2*-based CMR is becoming interchangeably used with bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR in both clinical and preclinical settings for IMH detection. To date however, the relative merits of dark-blood T2*-weighted with respect to bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR for IMH characterization has not been studied. We investigated the diagnostic capacity of dark-blood T2*-weighted CMR against bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR for IMH characterization in clinical and preclinical settings.

Materials And Methods: Hemorrhagic MI patients (n = 20) and canines (n = 11) were imaged in the acute and chronic phases at 1.5 and 3 T with dark- and bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR. Imaging characteristics (Relative signal-to-noise (SNR), Relative contrast-to-noise (CNR), IMH Extent) and diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, area-under-the-curve, and inter-observer variability) of dark-blood T2*-weighted CMR for IMH characterization were assessed relative to bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR.

Results: At both clinical and preclinical settings, compared to bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR, dark-blood T2*-weighted images had significantly lower SNR, CNR and reduced IMH extent (all p < 0.05). Dark-blood T2*-weighted CMR also demonstrated weaker sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and inter-observer variability compared to bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR (all p < 0.05). These observations were consistent across infarct age and imaging field strengths.

Conclusion: While IMH can be visible on dark-blood T2*-weighted CMR, the overall conspicuity of IMH is significantly reduced compared to that observed in bright-blood T2*-weighted images, across infarct age in clinical and preclinical settings at 1.5 and 3 T. Hence, bright-blood T2*-weighted CMR would be preferable for clinical use since dark-blood T2*-weighted CMR carries the potential to misclassify hemorrhagic MIs as non-hemorrhagic MIs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-021-00787-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281666PMC
July 2021

Circulating CD34+VEGFR-2+ endothelial progenitor cells correlate with revascularization-mediated long-term improvement of cardiac function in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions.

Int J Cardiol 2021 01 15;322:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in angiogenesis and neocollateralization. This study assessed if circulating EPCs can predict long-term improvement of global left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: In this single-center, prospective, observational study, 115 consecutive patients with CTOs were evaluated by standard transthoracic echocardiography (ECHO) before and 9-12 months after PCI. Numbers of circulating putative EPCs were determined by flow cytometry analysis of mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood samples drawn before and 72 h after PCI.

Results: At mean 11.3 ± 2.5 months post vs. before PCI (all P < .05): by SAQ-7 summary scores, angina frequency, physical limitation and quality of life scores were greater; by ECHO, LVEDd decreased and LVEF increased, which were more significant in patients with Rentrop grades 2/3 vs. 0/1. At 72 h post vs. before PCI, CD34VEGFR-2CD133 (0.82 ± 0.32 × 10/L vs. 1.00 ± 0.39 × 10/L, P = .003), CD34VEGFR-2CD133 (0.24 ± 0.12 × 10/L vs. 0.27 ± 0.14 × 10/L, P = .028), and CD14Tie2VEGFR-2 (6.60 ± 3.32 × 10/L vs. 7.82 ± 3.91 × 10/L, P = .006) cell numbers were lower. The baseline levels of CD34VEGFR-2cells (P = .001) and CD14Tie2VEGFR-2cells (P < .001) were association with the grade of collateralization. In addition, the baseline and peri-procedural decrease of circulating CD34VEGFR-2 cells correlated with the increase of LVEF (P < .001, P < .001, respectively) and the decrease of LVEDd (P = .022, P = .029, respectively) at follow-up.

Conclusions: In this small study, the baseline levels of circulating CD34VEGFR-2+ EPCs and its reduction after successful revascularization of CTOs correlated with long-term improvement in global LV systolic function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.08.031DOI Listing
January 2021

Procedural and In-hospital Outcomes of Rotational Atherectomy in Retrograde Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention.

Angiology 2021 01 17;72(1):44-49. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Cardiology, 92323Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are characterized by a high incidence of severe plaque calcifications, which are associated with a high use of the retrograde approach and a low success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the feasibility of rotational atherectomy (RA) in retrograde CTO-PCI remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the safety and efficacy of RA in retrograde CTO-PCI. Consecutive patients (n = 129) who underwent RA during CTO-PCI were categorized into anterograde and retrograde groups according to the CTO crossing approach. The distributions of the baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups, but the lesion type was more complex ( = .001), and the starting burr size was smaller ( = .003) in the retrograde group than in the anterograde group. There was a trend of a higher incidence of procedural complications in the retrograde group than in the anterograde group ( = .054). Technical and procedural success and in-hospital outcomes were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In conclusion, RA was feasible in retrograde CTO PCI, but some specific precautions are required before and during the procedure. In addition, further investigation of the long-term outcomes of RA in retrograde CTO PCI is necessary.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319720949312DOI Listing
January 2021

Circulating metabolites from the choline pathway and acute coronary syndromes in a Chinese case-control study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 24;17:39. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, ZhongShan Hospital, Fudan University, 1609 Xietu Road, Shanghai, 200032 China.

Background: Accumulating evidence shows that circulating levels of trimethylamine N-oxide, which is generated from the metabolism of dietary choline, may predict cardiovascular disease among Caucasians. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), one common presentation of cardiovascular disease, is a spectrum of signs and symptoms due to acute decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries. The relationship between the metabolites from choline pathway and ACS remains unclear. We aimed to assess the associations of circulating metabolites from the choline pathway with ACS among a Chinese population, who consume a different dietary pattern than their Western counterparts.

Methods: We recruited 501 participants who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital,Shanghai China between March 2017 and June 2018, including 254 ACS cases and 247 controls. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure circulating concentrations of metabolites in the choline pathway, including betaine, choline, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine N-oxide. A composite metabolite score using a weighted sum of these four metabolites, and the betaine/choline ratio were calculated. Multivariable logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association of metabolites with ACS, with adjustment of age, sex, body mass index, smoking index, history of diseases, and kidney function.

Results: After adjusting for traditional risk factors, per 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in choline was positively associated with the odds of ACS [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.77(1.44-2.18)], and the other metabolites were not associated with ACS at a statistical significance level. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of the metabolite score, those in the highest quartile had higher odds of ACS [OR (95% CI), 3.18(1.85-5.54),  < 0.001 for trend]. Per 1-SD increment in metabolite score was positively associated with higher odds of ACS [OR (95% CI), 1.80 (1.37-2.40)], and per 1-SD increment in the betaine/choline ratio was inversely associated with the odds of ACS [OR (95% CI), 0.49 (0.39-0.60)].

Conclusions: Among our Chinese participants, trimethylamine N-oxide was not associated with ACS, while a composite metabolite score of metabolites from the choline pathway was associated with increased odds of ACS. The choline pathway metabolites may be related to the pathophysiology of ACS among Chinese.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00460-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245747PMC
May 2020

Incidence, predictors and clinical significance of periprocedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

J Cardiol 2020 09 27;76(3):309-316. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although technological and equipment innovations have given rise to delicate and safe coronary intervention procedures, periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is still one of the common complications. The relationship between PMI, defined by various biomarker thresholds, and clinical prognosis remains controversial. We sought to assess the determinants and prognosis of PMI in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Consecutive stable CAD patients with negative preoperative troponin T levels undergoing elective PCI in our hospital were enrolled from July 2017 to December 2017. PMI was defined as troponin T values >99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) within 16-24h post-PCI. The correlation of cardiovascular events and PMI was assessed after a median follow-up of 18 months.

Results: PMI occurred in 45.3% of the 1572 patients included, with 11.2% having troponin T levels elevated more than 5 times the URL after PCI. Independent risk factors for PMI were age ≥65 years, prior PCI, bifurcation lesion, stent number, and multivessel disease. During the follow-up period, patients with PMI had a higher incidence of unplanned revascularization [10.8% vs. 7.2%, adjusted hazard ratio (adHR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.06; p=0.045] and target vessel revascularization (5.8% vs. 2.7%, adHR 1.90, 95% CI 1.06-3.38; p=0.030) than those without PMI. However, no significant impact of PMI on the risk of death and myocardial infarction was found.

Conclusions: PMI defined by troponin T levels >99th percentile URL correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in stable CAD patients undergoing elective PCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.03.008DOI Listing
September 2020

Consumption of two whole kiwifruit (Actinide chinensis) per day improves lipid homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism and gut microbiota in healthy rats.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Aug 9;156:186-195. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China. Electronic address:

Golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) peel is a by-product enriched with polyphenols. The effects of fleshes of two Actinidia chinensis fruits (ACF) and fleshes with peels of two Actinidia chinensis fruits (ACFP) on lipid homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism and gut microbiota was investigated in healthy rats. Intervention of ACF and ACFP for 4 weeks significantly reduced total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and increased the high-density lipoprotein levels in rats. ACF and ACFP ameliorated lipid peroxidation in rats, by the lowering hepatic MDA level and enhancing GSH-Px and SOD activities. In addition, ACFP significantly decreased the saturated fatty acids in serum and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acids in hepatic and serum of rats. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed that ACF and ACFP evidently increased the microbial richness and diversity of gut microbiota. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly reduced from 3.04 in ND group to 1.34 and 2.12 in ACF and ACFP groups, respectively. Moreover, ACF and ACFP significantly increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus and Barnesiella) and reduced harmful bacteria (Enterococcus, Escherichia, and Staphylococcus). Overall, ACFP exerts more potent health-improving effects than ACF. Our study provides a scientific basis for the development of kiwifruit (including pericarp)-based novel natural products with significant health benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.04.028DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of okra fruit powder supplementation on metabolic syndrome and gut microbiota diversity in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

Food Res Int 2020 04 23;130:108929. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to explore a novel strategy for dietary okra fruit powder (OFP) consumption on attenuation of non-alcohol fatty liver damage, lipid metabolic disorder and gut microbiota dysbiosis and associated mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet and HFD feeds supplemented with or without OFP (2.5%, 5% and 10%, n = 10) for 12 weeks. The results showed that supplementation of OFP caused strong inhibition on HFD-caused high blood glucose, body weight gain and liver fat accumulation, as well as dyslipidemia involved in a dose-dependent modulation of hepatic FAS and CD36 expressions of obese mice. The hepatic LXR-α energy metabolism and PPAR-α pathway were also doubly activated by OFP to alleviate lipogenesis, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Malonaldehyde production was effectively antagonized, and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were elevated by OFP supplementation in HFD-fed mice. OFP also significantly improved colonic SCFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyrate acid) formation, especially for butyrate production via increasing the proportion of selected butyrate-producing bacteria. OFP also dramatically modified the gut microbial species at the family level with suppressing an increase in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and F/B ratio, and the decrease in Bacteroidetes caused by HFD. These findings support that dietary OFP consumption is a novel strategy to prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome and gut microbiota imbalance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108929DOI Listing
April 2020

Protective Effect of Saponins-Enriched Fraction of Gynostemma pentaphyllum against High Choline-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Hepatic Damage in Mice.

Biol Pharm Bull 2020 ;43(3):463-473

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University.

Choline as a quaternary amine nutrient is metabolized to trimethylamine by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-derived metabolite associated with liver toxicity and cardiovascular disease. The study was to probe the possible vasoprotective and hepatoprotective effects of total saponins of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (TSGP) in 3% high-choline water-feeding mice. The purified TSGP was obtained with content of 83.0% saponins, and its antioxidant activities were evaluated in vitro. Furthermore, the mice fed with high choline for 8 weeks significantly expressed vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver oxidative stress (p < 0.01 vs. Normal). Administration of TSGP at 400 and 800 mg/kg·body weight (b.w.) significantly lowered the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxane A (TXA) levels, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, but effectively elevated the serum nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and prostaglandin I (PGI) levels, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), T-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in high choline-fed mice. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining also suggested that TSGP could exert the significant protection against endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in high choline-treated mice. These findings suggest that TSGP is of the saponins-enriched extract, and is a good candidate of dietary supplement and therapeutic application in vascular and hepatic oxidative injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b19-00805DOI Listing
September 2020

M2 macrophage-derived exosomes carry microRNA-148a to alleviate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibiting TXNIP and the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2020 05 20;142:65-79. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Background: Reperfusion may cause injuries to the myocardium in ischemia situation. Emerging studies suggest that exosomes may serve as key mediators in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury.

Objective: The study was conducted to figure out the mechanism of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes (M2-exos) in MI/R injury with the involvement of microRNA-148a (miR-148a).

Methods And Results: M2 macrophages were prepared and M2-exos were collected and identified. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs) were extracted for in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model establishment, while rat cardiac tissues were separated for in vivo MI/R model establishment. Differentially expressed miRNAs in NCMs and H/R-treated NCMs after M2-exos treatment were evaluated using microarray analysis. The target relation between miR-148a and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was identified using dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Gain- and loss- of function studies of miR-148a and TXNIP were performed to figure out their roles in MI/R injury. Meanwhile, the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway and pyroptosis of NCMs were evaluated. M2 macrophages carried miR-148a into NCMs. Over-expression of miR-148a enhanced viability of H/R-treated NCMs, reduced infarct size in vivo, and alleviated dysregulation of cardiac enzymes and Ca overload in both models. miR-148a directly bound to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of TXNIP. Over-expressed TXNIP triggered the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway activation and induced cell pyroptosis of NCMs, and the results were reproduced in in vivo studies.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that M2-exos could carry miR-148a to mitigate MI/R injury via down-regulating TXNIP and inactivating the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. This study may offer new insights into MI/R injury treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.02.007DOI Listing
May 2020

Supplementation of Inulin with Various Degree of Polymerization Ameliorates Liver Injury and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in High Fat-Fed Obese Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jan 13;68(3):779-787. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science , Shaanxi Normal University , Xi'an 710119 , China.

The chain length of fructan determines its different physiological effects. This study is to explore the effects of low-performance inulin [LPI, degree of polymerization (DP) ≤ 9] and high-performance inulin (HPI, DP ≥ 23) on obesity-associated liver injury of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding mice and its underlying mechanism. Eight weeks of supplementation of C57BL/6J mice with HPI, relative to LPI ( < 0.05), caused the more efficient improvement against the HFD-induced liver insulin resistance through activating IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway and reduced protein expressions of inflammatory factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the liver. HPI exhibited the more positive effects on liver steatosis by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in comparison with LPI ( < 0.05). HPI also increased acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels in the colon of HFD-fed mice ( < 0.05). Compared to LPI, HPI feeding of HFD-fed mice led to the more effective decrease in the Firmicutes abundance from 72.1% to 34.5%, but a more significant increase in the Bacteroidetes population from 19.8 to 57.1% at the phyla level, and increased the abundance of , and at the genus level ( < 0.05). Depending on DP, HPI exerts the more positive regulation on liver injury and gut microbiota dysfunction than LPI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06571DOI Listing
January 2020

Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch polysaccharide prevents hepatic steatosis in high fructose-fed mice associated with changes in the gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2019 Dec;10(12):8137-8148

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.

High fructose (HF) diet-induced liver steatosis is associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the modulatory effects of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krash seed polysaccharide (ASKP) on fatty acid metabolism and intestinal microbiota in mice fed with HF water. Administration of HF-fed mice with ASKP prevented fat accumulation and blunted metabolic inflammation and endotoxaemia. ASKP-treated mice displayed improved glucose tolerance and fully exhibited protection against hepatic steatosis. Besides, ASKP was effective in improving the changes in the composition of liver fatty acids via modulating hepatic SREBP-1c, SCD-1, ACC and FAS expressions. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that ASKP treatment modified the gut microbial species at the phylum level with a decrease of Firmicutes and a slight increase of Bacteroidetes (p > 0.05). Interestingly, ASKP markedly increased the proportion of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia at the genus level in HF-fed mice. These findings support the beneficial metabolic effects of ASKP through amelioration of the HF-induced features of liver steatosis, which is associated with health maintenance of the intestinal microecosystem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo01890eDOI Listing
December 2019

Regulatory Effects of Stachyose on Colonic and Hepatic Inflammation, Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis, and Peripheral CD4 T Cell Distribution Abnormality in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Oct 14;67(42):11665-11674. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

A long-term high-fat diet (HFD) can cause a range of health problems. Gut microbiota plays a decisive role in the development of HFD-associated inflammation, involved in function of T cells. This study was designed to probe the regulative effects of dietary stachyose, a functional oligosaccharide, on HFD-induced weight gain, inflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and T cell abnormality in C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were divided into three groups which received normal chow, HFD and HFD plus stachyose (400 mg/kg), respectively. Results showed that administration of stachyose diminished the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TNF-α level and elevation of peripheral blood leukocyte populations to alleviate the HFD-caused colonic and hepatic inflammation in mice. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed that stachyose improved the intestinal homeostasis of HFD-fed mice by improving the bacterial diversity with the increases in the relative abundances of the Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, , Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and , as well as the fecal level of butanoic acid, while decreasing the ratio of -to- and the abundances of the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, , , , and . Flow cytometric analysis showed that stachyose antagonized the HFD-induced decrease of peripheral CD4 T cell population in mice. Conclusively, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of stachyose can ameliorate the HFD-associated colonic and hepatic inflammation and its complications by modulating gut microbiota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04731DOI Listing
October 2019

Correction: Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

Food Funct 2019 Jul;10(7):4452-4453

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.

Correction for 'Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells' by Qiu Wu et al., Food Funct., 2018, 9, 1736-1746.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo90027fDOI Listing
July 2019

Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activity-based comparative study of peel and flesh polyphenols from .

Food Nutr Res 2019 26;63. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Kiwifruit () peel has been always considered as useless because of the harsh taste. To promote the full utilization of kiwifruit resources it is essential to explore the nutritional benefits of kiwifruit peel.

Objective: Our studies explored the difference in polyphenolic composition and biological activity including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activity of the flesh and peel of kiwifruit.

Design: Antioxidant activity of the extracted polyphenols of the peel and flesh of was checked by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), hydroxyl ion reduction, and ion chelating ability. Antibacterial activity against , , and and antiproliferative activity HepG2 was tested in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) chromatogram of the peel and flesh further differentiated the phenolic acid profile.

Results: The pericarp of kiwifruit was found to be more abundant in polyphenols and flavonoids than the flesh, with contents of 12.8 mg/g and 2.7 mg/g, respectively. LC/MS analysis revealed that the catachin, quercetin and epigallocatechin content (the main polyphenols in kiwifruit) in the peel was significantly higher than in the flesh ( < 0.05). The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the peel was significantly higher when compared to the flesh. Moreover, the proliferation of HepG2 cells was time- and dose-dependently inhibited by kiwifruit polyphenols, with IC values of 170 μg/mL and 291 μg/mL for peel and flesh polyphenols after 72 h of treatment time, respectively.

Conclusion: Kiwifruit peel, with higher content of phenolics and flavonoids, exerts more potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity than the flesh. Our study provides scientific evidence for the development of kiwifruit, especially peel-based, novel natural products with excellent bioactivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v63.1577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6495110PMC
April 2019

Immunomodulatory effects of an acidic polysaccharide fraction from herbal Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea in RAW264.7 cells.

Food Funct 2019 Apr 3;10(4):2186-2197. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Hazard Factors Assessment in Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.

A new acidic polysaccharide (GPTP-3) with a molecular weight of 2.49 × 10 Da was extracted and purified from Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that GPTP-3 mainly comprised mannose (20.4%), glucuronic acid (17.4%), glucose (33.4%), and galactose (21.4%) (parentheses indicate the molar percentages). Immunostimulating assays indicated that GPTP-3 could markedly promote the secretion of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in murine macrophage RAW264.7. TLR4 was found to be a recognized target of GPTP-3. Moreover, TLR4-related mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, including ERK, JNK, p38, and Akt, were rapidly activated by GPTP-3 in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, GPTP-3 was found to induce the nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit p65. All these findings suggest that MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and NF-κB pathways are involved in GPTP-3-induced macrophage activations, and GPTP-3 has the potential to be developed as a functional food with immunomodulatory functions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00219gDOI Listing
April 2019

Dietary Intake of Whole Strawberry Inhibited Colonic Inflammation in Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Treated Mice via Restoring Immune Homeostasis and Alleviating Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Aug 5;67(33):9168-9177. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Food Science , University of Massachusetts , Amherst , Massachusetts 01003 , United States.

Strawberry () is a major edible berry with various potential health benefits. This study determined the protective effects of whole strawberry (WS) against dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice. In colitic mice, dietary WS reduced the disease activity index, prevented the colon shortening and spleen enlargement, and alleviated the colonic tissue damages. The abundance of proinflammatory immune cells was reduced by dietary WS in the colonic mucosa, which was accompanied by the suppression of overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that dietary WS decreased the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the colonic mucosa. Moreover, dietary WS partially reversed the alteration of gut microbiota in the colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, e.g., and , and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, e.g., and . Dietary WS also restored the decreased production of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum of the colitic mice. The results revealed the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of dietary WS in the colon, which is critical for the rational utilization of strawberry for the prevention of inflammation-driven diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05581DOI Listing
August 2019

Role of Myocardial Extracellular Volume Fraction Measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Prediction of Left Ventricular Functional Outcome after Revascularization of Chronic Total Occlusion of Coronary Arteries.

Korean J Radiol 2019 01 27;20(1):83-93. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University; Department of Medical Imaging, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the value of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in predicting myocardial functional outcome after revascularization of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO).

Materials And Methods: Thirty patients with CTO underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and 6 months after revascularization. Three baseline markers of functional outcome were evaluated in the dysfunctional segments assigned to the CTO vessels: ECV, transmural extent of infarction (TEI), and unenhanced rim thickness (RIM). At the global level, the ECV values of the whole myocardium with and without a hyperenhanced region (global and remote ECV) were respectively measured.

Results: In per-segment analysis, ECV was superior to TEI and RIM in predicting functional recovery (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.86 vs. 0.75 and 0.73, all values < 0.010), and it emerged as the only independent predictor of regional functional outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.89; < 0.001) independent of collateral circulation. In per-patient analysis, global baseline ECV was indicative of ejection fraction (EF) at the follow-up examination (β = -0.61, < 0.001) and changes in EF (β = -0.57, = 0.001) in multivariate regression analysis. A patient with global baseline ECV less than 30.0% (AUC, 0.93; sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%) was more likely to demonstrate significant EF improvement (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17-0.85; = 0.019).

Conclusion: Extracellular volume fraction obtained by CMR may provide incremental value for the prediction of functional recovery both at the segmental and global levels in CTO patients, and may facilitate the identification of patients who can benefit from revascularization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2018.0069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315067PMC
January 2019

Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

Food Funct 2018 Mar 2;9(3):1736-1746. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.

This study was designed to investigate the tumor-inhibitory effects of quercetin (Que) and its water-soluble metabolites, quercetin-3'-sulfate (Q3'S) and quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G), as well as to make the molecular mechanism and structure-antitumor relationship clear. It was found that Que, Q3'S, and Q3G could inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC values of 23.1, 27.6, and 73.2 μM, respectively, and their anticancer effect was ranked as Que > Q3'S > Q3G. Furthermore, flow cytometric assay revealed that Que, Q3'S, and Q3G mediated the cell-cycle arrest principally at the S phase and decreased the number of G0/G1 and G2/M after a 48 h treatment with human breast MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it was found that 70.8%, 58.2%, and 48.0% of MCF-7 cancer cells entered the early phase of apoptosis when treated with 100 μM Que, Q3'S, and Q3G for 48 h, respectively. In addition, induction of apoptosis by Que, Q3'S, and Q3G was accompanied by marginal generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the MCF-7 cancer cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that Que, Q3'S, and Q3G possess strong antitumor effects through induction of an ROS-dependent apoptosis pathway in MCF-7 cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7fo01964eDOI Listing
March 2018

Chemical characteristics of an Ilex Kuding tea polysaccharide and its protective effects against high fructose-induced liver injury and vascular endothelial dysfunction in mice.

Food Funct 2017 Jul;8(7):2536-2547

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, and Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.

The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Ilex Kuding tea polysaccharides (IKTP) on high fructose (HF)-induced liver injury and vascular endothelial dysfunction in mice. IKTP were identified as acidic heteropolysaccharides by FT-IR and HPLC. Healthy male Kunming mice fed 20% fructose in drinking water for 8 consecutive weeks significantly displayed dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, continuous administration of IKTP at 200, 400 and 800 mg per kg bw in HF-fed mice could prevent the damage caused by HF-diets, especially at dosages of 400 and 800 mg per kg bw (p < 0.01). IKTP significantly reduced the HF-induced elevation of the serum TC, TG, LDL-C, TXA and ET-1 levels, as well as AST and ALT activities, while markedly increased the HF-induced decline of HDL-C, PGI and eNOS levels in the serum compared to HF-fed mice. Meanwhile, the hepatic MDA level was lowered while SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased in IKTP-treated mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Histopathology of the liver and cardiovascular aortic by H&E or oil red O staining confirmed the liver steatosis and the vascular injury induced by HF-diets and the protective effects of IKTP. These findings suggest that HF causes oxidative damage, and IKTP alleviates liver injury and vascular endothelial dysfunction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00490gDOI Listing
July 2017

Chemical characterization of a novel polysaccharide ASKP-1 from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seed and its macrophage activation via MAPK, PI3k/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells.

Food Funct 2017 Mar;8(3):1299-1312

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of the purified Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seed polysaccharide (ASKP-1) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Chemical characteristic analysis revealed that ASKP-1 consisted of 14.1% mannose, 56.9% glucose and 19.6% galactose with the average molecular weight of 9.08 × 10 Da and the mixed glycan backbone structure containing 1→4)-Glcp (39.8%), 1→6)-Galp (18.8%), 1→3,6)-Manp (19.6%), 1→)-Glcp (10.8%), 2→6)-Manp (4.0%) and 2→3,5)-Araf (7.0%). In vitro studies showed that ASKP-1 markedly induced the release of cytotoxic molecules (NO and ROS) and secretion of the cytokines (TNF-α, INF-β, and IL-6) and significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, TLR4 was found to be a recognized target of ASKP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, including phosphorylated ERK, JNK, p38 and Akt, were rapidly activated by ASKP-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, ASKP-1 was found to cause the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor NF-κB subunit p65 and the degradation of IκB-α in RAW264.7 macrophages. All these findings suggest that MAPK, PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways are involved in ASKP-1-induced macrophage activation, and ASKP-1 is a potential immunomodulating function food.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fo01699eDOI Listing
March 2017

Beneficial effects of apple peel polyphenols on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in high choline-fed mice.

Food Funct 2017 Mar;8(3):1282-1292

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of Red Fuji apple peel polyphenolic extract (APP) on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice fed a high choline diet. The mice were fed 3% dietary choline in drinking water for 8 weeks and displayed vascular dysfunction and liver damage (p < 0.01). The administration of APP at 600 and 900 mg per kg bw significantly elevated serum NO, HDL and 6-Keto-PGF1a levels and lowered serum TC, TG, LDL, ET-1 and TXB2 levels in the HC-fed mice. Besides, APP also caused the reduction of AST, ALT activities and MDA, CRP, TNF-α levels, and increased the hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities of the HC-fed mice. Furthermore, the histopathology of the liver by conventional H&E and oil red O staining confirmed the liver steatosis induced by a choline diet and the hepatoprotective effect of APP. The experiment results indicated that the polyphenolic extract from apple peel might be regarded as a preventive and therapeutic product for the amelioration of HC diet-induced vascular dysfunction and hepatic injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00147aDOI Listing
March 2017

Protective effects of ursolic acid against hepatotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction in mice with chronic high choline diet consumption.

Chem Biol Interact 2016 Oct 25;258:102-7. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, China. Electronic address:

This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of ursolic acid (UA), a plant-based pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxyl acid, against vascular endothelial damage and liver oxidative injury in the mice fed with 3% dietary high choline (HC) water. Mice fed 3% HC water for 8 weeks significantly displayed liver oxidative stress and vascular endothelial dysfunction (p < 0.01). Furthermore, continuous administration of UA at 400 and 800 mg/kg bw in HC-fed mice could significantly inhibit the HC-induced elevation of serum total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, endothelin 1 and thromboxane A2 levels as well as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, while the HC-induced decline of serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin I2 levels could be markedly elevated following the treatment (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). UA at 400 and 800 mg/kg bw also increased the hepatic total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased hepatic malonaldehyde and non-esterified fatty acid levels, relative to HC-treated mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Moreover, the conventional haematoxylin and eosin staining observation of the liver and vascular tissues suggested that UA exerted a significant protective role against HC diet-induced endothelial damage and liver injury in mice. This is the first report showing high intake of dietary choline can induce liver damage and UA has the potential preventive effect against vascular and liver injury in HC-fed mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2016.08.019DOI Listing
October 2016

Hepatotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction induced by high choline diet and the protective effects of phloretin in mice.

Food Chem Toxicol 2016 Aug 15;94:203-12. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China. Electronic address:

The involvement of choline and its metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis has been repeatedly confirmed. Phloretin, a dihydrochalcone flavonoid usually present in apples, possesses a variety of biological activities including vascular nutrition. This study was designed to investigate whether phloretin could alleviate or prevent high choline-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice. Mice were provided with 3% high choline water and given phloretin orally daily for 10 weeks. The high choline-treated mice showed the significant dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia with the impaired liver and vascular endothelium (p < 0.01). Administration of phloretin at 200 and 400 mg/kg bw significantly reduced the choline-induced elevation of serum TC, TG, LDL-C, AST, ALT, ET-1 and TXA2 (p < 0.01), and markedly antagonized the choline-induced decrease of serum PGI2, HDL-C and NO levels. Furthermore, phloretin elevated hepatic SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased hepatic MDA levels of the mice exposed to high choline water. Moreover, histopathological test with the H&E and Oil Red O staining of liver sections confirmed the high choline diet-caused liver steatosis and the hepatoprotective effect of phloretin. These findings suggest that high choline causes oxidative damage, and phloretin alleviate vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.004DOI Listing
August 2016

Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

Int J Biol Macromol 2016 Oct 15;91:856-66. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China. Electronic address:

Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.06.042DOI Listing
October 2016
-->