Publications by authors named "Dao-Feng Chen"

90 Publications

Molecular Identification Based on Chloroplast Sequences and Anti-complementary Activity Comparison of Juniperus Samples from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Planta Med 2020 Nov 9;86(16):1176-1184. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Pharmacy, Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

(Cupressaceae, Pinales) plants are widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. The leaves and twigs of at least 8 species ( var var. and var. ) have been used as the Tibetan medicine . At present, it is difficult to distinguish among the original species of based only on their similar morphological characteristics. However, in our previous studies, 4 samples from different species exhibited significant differences in both anticomplementary activity and anti-inflammatory effects on acute lung injury To identify the effective original species of reliably, in this study, we developed a sequencing-based DNA molecular technology to distinguish 14 populations of 8 species collected from Tibet region, using trnS-G, trnD - T, and petN-psbM genomic regions to build phylogenetic trees. In addition, their anticomplementary activities were evaluated. The results showed that combined sequence of these 3 genomic regions could identify 8 species clearly and clustered individuals of one species but from different locations, whichever phylogenetic tree was constructed. Moreover, the anticomplementary activities of the 8 species were clustered into 2 groups. Among them, and var. , which formed an independent branch apart from the other 6 species in phylogenetic trees, were the most potent (CH: 0.029 - 0.032 mg/mL). Consequently, DNA identification of using the combined sequence could provide beneficial guidance for further efficacy evaluation and quality control of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1194-0471DOI Listing
November 2020

Synthesis and anticancer activities of biotinylated derivatives of glaucocalyxin A and oridonin.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2020 May 22:1-9. Epub 2020 May 22.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Fourteen glaucocalyxin A biotinylated derivatives, one glaucocalyxin C biotinylated derivative, and two oridonin biotinylated derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed from H NMR, C NMR and HRMS data. The derivatives were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against lung (A549), cervical cancer cell line HeLa derivative (KB), multidrug-resistant KB subline (KB-VIN), triple-negative breast (MDA-MB-231), and estrogen receptor-positive breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines.[Formula: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2020.1760851DOI Listing
May 2020

Regulating the balance of Th17/Treg cells in gut-lung axis contributed to the therapeutic effect of Houttuynia cordata polysaccharides on H1N1-induced acute lung injury.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Apr 28;158:52-66. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Natural Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Our previous study had demonstrated that oral administration of Houttuynia cordata polysaccharides (HCP) without in vitro antiviral activity ameliorated gut and lung injuries induced by influenza A virus (IAV) in mice. However, as macromolecules, HCP was hard to be absorbed in gastrointestinal tract and had no effect on lung injury when administrated intravenously. The action mechanism of HCP was thus proposed as regulating the gut mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Actually, HCP treatment restored the balance of Th17/Treg cells firstly in GALT and finally in the lung. HCP reduced the expression of chemokine CCL20 in the lung and regulated the balance of Th17/Treg carrying CCR6 (the CCL20 receptor), which was associated with specific migration of Th17/Treg cells from GALT to lung. In vitro, HCP inhibited Th17 cell differentiation through the downregulation of phospho-STAT3, whereas it promoted Treg cell differentiation by upregulating phospho-STAT5. Furthermore, its therapeutic effect was abolished in RORγt or Foxp3 mice. These findings indicated that oral administration of macromolecular polysaccharides like HCP might ameliorate lung injury in IAV infected mice via directly regulating the balance of Th17/Treg cells in gut-lung axis. Our results provided a potential mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of polysaccharides on pulmonary infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.04.211DOI Listing
April 2020

Anti-HIV tigliane diterpenoids from Reutealis trisperma.

Phytochemistry 2020 Jun 28;174:112360. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Natural Products Research Laboratories, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7568, United States; Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-butanol extract from the branches and leaves of Reutealis trisperma resulted in the isolation of six undescribed (crotignoids L ~ Q) together with two known (12-deoxyphorbol-13-hexadecanoate and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-myristate) tigliane diterpenoids. Their structures, especially the absolute configurations, were determined from extensive spectroscopic studies, including 2D NMR spectra, CD data analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All isolates were tested for anti-HIV activity against HL4-3 virus in MT4 cells. Except for crotignoid Q, the remaining seven tigliane diterpenoids exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with IC values ranging from 0.0023 to 4.03 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238976PMC
June 2020

Anticomplement ent-labdane diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

Fitoterapia 2020 Apr 27;142:104528. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

School of Pharmacy, Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, PR China. Electronic address:

Bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of two new ent-labdane diterpenoids (1-2), along with eighteen known congeners (3-20) from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata. Except andrographolide (3) and isoandrographolide (4), eighteen diterpenoids (1-2, 5-20) exhibited potent anticomplement activity with the CH and AP values of 23.1-638.3 μg/mL and 54.2-603.9 μg/mL, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of the isolates showed that 14-dehydroxylation, glycosidation and the opening of lactone were essential for anticomplement activity. Although inactive, andrographolide (3) was successfully transformed to anticomplement compounds (5 and 10) in vitro by human fecal bacteria, indicating that this major ent-labdane diterpenoid of A. paniculata might also exhibit anticomplement activity in vivo through their potential active metabolites. The targets of several bioactive ent-labdane diterpenoids in complement activation cascade were identified as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104528DOI Listing
April 2020

Flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata attenuate H1N1-induced acute lung injury in mice via inhibition of influenza virus and Toll-like receptor signalling.

Phytomedicine 2020 Feb 16;67:153150. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background: Influenza virus is one of the most important human pathogens, causing substantial seasonal and pandemic morbidity and mortality. Houttuynia cordata is a traditionally used medicinal plant for the treatment of pneumonia. Flavonoids are one of the major bioactive constituents of Houttuynia cordata.

Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of flavonoid glycosides from H. cordata on influenza A virus (IAV)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.

Methods: Flavonoids from H. cordata (HCF) were extracted from H. cordata and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47). HCF (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or Ribavirin (100 mg/kg, the positive control) were administered intragastrically. Survival rates, life spans, weight losses, lung indexes, histological changes, inflammatory infiltration, and inflammatory markers in the lungs were measured. Lung virus titers and neuraminidase (NA) activities were detected. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and levels of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation (NF-κB p65(p)) in the lungs were analysed. The effects of HCF on viral replication and TLR signalling were further evaluated in cells.

Results: HCF contained 78.5% flavonoid glycosides. The contents of rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin in HCF were 8.8%, 26.7%, 9.9% and 31.7%. HCF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the survival rate and life span of mice infected with the lethal H1N1 virus. In H1N1-induced ALI, mice treated with HCF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) showed lesser weight loss and lower lung index than the model group. The lungs of HCF-treated ALI mice presented more intact lung microstructural morphology, milder inflammatory infiltration, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) than in the model group. Further investigation revealed that HCF exerted antiviral and TLR-inhibitory effects in vivo and in vitro. HCF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced lung H1N1 virus titers and inhibited viral NA activity in mice. HCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) elevated the levels of interferon-β in lungs. HCF also decreased the expression of TLR3/4/7 and level of NF-κB p65(p) in lung tissues. In vitro experiments showed that HCF (50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) significantly inhibited viral proliferation and suppressed NA activity. In RAW 264.7 cells, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 agonist-stimulated cytokine secretion, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were constrained by HCF treatment. Furthermore, among the four major flavonoid glycosides in HCF, hyperin and quercitrin inhibited both viral replication and TLR signalling in cells.

Conclusion: HCF significantly alleviated H1N1-induced ALI in mice, which were associated with its dual antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects via inhibiting influenzal NA activity and TLR signalling. among the four major flavonoid glycosides in HCF, hyperin and quercitrin played key roles in the therapeutic effect of HCF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153150DOI Listing
February 2020

A new abietane diterpene and anti-complementary constituents from .

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jan 5:1-8. Epub 2020 Jan 5.

School of Pharmacy, Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new abietane diterpene () and twenty-five known compounds () from the twigs and leaves of . All the compounds were isolated from for the first time. The structure of was assigned by spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography analysis. Five lignans (, , , and ), two flavones ( and ), and one coumarin () exhibited anti-complementary activity with CH values ranging from 0.3 to 3.69 mM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1709191DOI Listing
January 2020

Rapid Recognition and Targeted Isolation of Anti-HIV Daphnane Diterpenes from Guided by UPLC-MS.

J Nat Prod 2020 01 20;83(1):134-141. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

School of Pharmacy, Institutes of Integrative Medicine , Fudan University , Shanghai 201203 , People's Republic of China.

Daphnane diterpenes with a 5/7/6-tricyclic ring system exhibit potent anti-HIV activity but are found in low abundance as plant natural products. In this study, an effective approach based on mass spectrometric fragmentation pathways was conducted to specifically recognize and isolate anti-HIV compounds of this type from . Briefly, the fragmentation pathways of reference analogues were elucidated based on characteristic ion fragments of / 323 → 295 → 267 or / 253 → 238 → 197 by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-IT-MS) and then applied to the differentiations of substances with or without an oxygenated group at C-12. Twenty-seven daphnane diterpenes were successfully recognized from a petroleum ether extract of , including some potential new compounds and isomers that could not be identified accurately only from the ion fragments. Further separation of these target compounds using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC led to the isolation of three new (, , and ) and 14 known compounds, whose structures were identified and confirmed based on MS, NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. The isolates exhibited anti-HIV activities at nanomolar concentrations. The results demonstrated that this strategy is feasible and reliable to rapidly recognize and isolate daphnane diterpenes from .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441572PMC
January 2020

Bupleurum polysaccharides ameliorated renal injury in diabetic mice associated with suppression of HMGB1-TLR4 signaling.

Chin J Nat Med 2019 Sep;17(9):641-649

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs) is isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, a key traditional Chinese medicine. The study was to investigate the effects of BPs on diabetic kidney injury. After two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotozin (STZ) 100 mg·kg, renal injury in diabetic mice was induced and BPs was orally administrated at dosages of 30 and 60 mg·kg·d. The STZ injected mice developed renal function damage, renal inflammation and fibrosis known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). BPs significantly reduced serum creatinine level and urinary albumin excretion rate, with the attenuated swelling of kidneys. BPs treatment obviously alleviated the pathological damage of renal tissue. The progression of renal injury in BPs treated mice was inhibited with less expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The inhibition of inflammation in kidney was associated with the reduced level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). BPs administration suppressed the over-expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with lowered activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in renal tissue of diabetic mice. Oral administration of BPs effectively prevented the development ofrenal injury in diabetic mice. This study suggested that the protection provided by BPs might affect through the interruption of HMGB1-TLR4 pathway, leading to the inhibition of renal inflammation and fibrotic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(19)30078-0DOI Listing
September 2019

The therapeutic effects of Jaceosidin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

J Pharmacol Sci 2019 Jul 18;140(3):228-235. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI) results from various factors including uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage and the over-activated complement with high mortality rates. Jaceosidin was a flavonoid compound with significant anti-complement activity. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Jaceosidin on ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were orally administrated with Jaceosidin (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) after LPS challenge. 24 h after LPS challenge, Jaceosidin could significantly decrease the lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and the protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Jaceosidin could down-regulate the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), together with up-regulation the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in BALF. Jaceosidin could significantly decrease the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), COX-2 mRNA and NF-κB p65 mRNA together with increasing the activity of catalase (CAT). Additionally, Jaceosidin attenuated lung histopathological changes, inhibited the expressions of COX-2 and NF-κB p65 and reduced complement deposition with decreasing the levels of complement 3 (C3) and complement 3c (C3c) in serum. These data suggest that Jaceocidin may dampen the inflammatory response and decrease the levels of complement together with the antioxidant activity following LPS-induced ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphs.2019.07.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Structural Characterization and Anti-complementary Activities of Two Polysaccharides from Houttuynia cordata.

Planta Med 2019 Sep 27;85(13):1098-1106. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

School of Pharmacy, Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

In previous studies, crude polysaccharides showed beneficial effects on acute lung injury , a syndrome in which anti-complementary activities played an important role. Anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation of polysaccharides led to the isolation of two highly branched homogeneous polysaccharides, HC-PS1 and HC-PS3, with a molecular weight of 274 530 and 216 384 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Superdex columns. Their structural characterization was performed by IR, GC-MS, methylation, NMR, and SEM analysis. Both HC-PS1 and HC-PS3 are composed of eight types of monosaccharides, including rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose, galacturonic acid, and xylose. The main linkages of the sugar residues in HC-PS1 include terminal Rha, terminal and 1,5-linked Ara; 1,3,6-linked and 1,4,6-linked Man; terminal, 1,4-linked, 1,3-linked, 1,3,6-linked and 1,4,6-linked and 1,3,4,6-linked Glc; and terminal, 1,4-linked and 1,6-linked Gal. The main monosaccharide linkages in HC-PS3 are similar to that of HC-PS1, except the additional 1,3,4-linked Man and the absence of 1,3,6-linked Glc. HC-PS1 and HC-PS3 were found to inhibit complement activation through both the classical and alternative pathways with 50% inhibition concentrations of 0.272 - 0.318 mg/mL without interfering with the coagulation system. Preliminary mechanism studies indicated that both HC-PS1 and HC-PS3 inhibited the activation of the complement system by interacting with C2, C4, and C5. The results suggest that HC-PS1 and HC-PS3 could be valuable for the treatment of diseases associated with the excessive activation of the complement system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0955-7841DOI Listing
September 2019

Potent Anti-HIV Ingenane Diterpenoids from Euphorbia ebracteolata.

J Nat Prod 2019 06 11;82(6):1587-1592. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy , Fudan University , Shanghai 201203 , People's Republic of China.

Two new (1 and 2) and 14 known (3-16) ingenane diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata by bioassay-guided fractionation together with UPLC-MS analysis. The absolute configurations of the new diterpenoids were established from electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data and ECD calculations. Except for ingenol (16), the ingenane diterpenoids with long aliphatic chain substituents (1-15) exhibited potent activities against HIV-1, with IC values of 0.7 to 9.7 nM and selectivity index values of 96.2 to 20 263. From the results, it was concluded that long aliphatic chain substituents are required for the enhanced anti-HIV activity of ingenane diterpenoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00088DOI Listing
June 2019

Houttuynia cordata polysaccharide alleviated intestinal injury and modulated intestinal microbiota in H1N1 virus infected mice.

Chin J Nat Med 2019 Mar;17(3):187-197

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Houttuynia cordata polysaccharide (HCP) is extracted from Houttuynia cordata, a key traditional Chinese medicine. The study was to investigate the effects of HCP on intestinal barrier and microbiota in H1N1 virus infected mice. Mice were infected with H1N1 virus and orally administrated HCP at a dosage of 40 mg(kg(d. H1N1 infection caused pulmonary and intestinal injury and gut microbiota imbalance. HCP significantly suppressed the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and decreased mucosubstances in goblet cells, but restored the level of zonula occludens-1 in intestine. HCP also reversed the composition change of intestinal microbiota caused by H1N1 infection, with significantly reduced relative abundances of Vibrio and Bacillus, the pathogenic bacterial genera. Furthermore, HCP rebalanced the gut microbiota and restored the intestinal homeostasis to some degree. The inhibition of inflammation was associated with the reduced level of Toll-like receptors and interleukin-1β in intestine, as well as the increased production of interleukin-10. Oral administration of HCP alleviated lung injury and intestinal dysfunction caused by H1N1 infection. HCP may gain systemic treatment by local acting on intestine and microbiota. This study proved the high-value application of HCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(19)30021-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7128561PMC
March 2019

In vivo effect of quantified flavonoids-enriched extract of Scutellaria baicalensis root on acute lung injury induced by influenza A virus.

Phytomedicine 2019 Apr 10;57:105-116. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background: Scutellaria baicalensis root is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, fever and influenza. Flavonoids are the major chemical components of S. baicalensis root.

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effects and action mechanism of flavonoids-enriched extract from S. baicalensis root (FESR) on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by influenza A virus (IAV) in mice.

Methods: The anti-influenza, anti-inflammatory and anti-complementary properties of FESR and the main flavonoids were evaluated in vitro. Mice were challenged intranasally with influenza virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47) 2  h before treatment. FESR (50, 100 and 200  mg/kg) was administrated intragastrically. Baicalin (BG), the most abundant compound in FESR was given as reference control. Survival rates, life spans and lung indexes of IAV-infected mice were measured. Histopathological changes, virus levels, inflammatory markers and complement deposition in lungs were analyzed.

Result: Compared with the main compound BG, FESR and lower content aglycones (baicalein, oroxylin A, wogonin and chrysin) in FESR significantly inhibited H1N1 activity in virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and markedly decreased nitric oxide (NO) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vitro assays showed that FESR and BG had no anti-complementary activity whereas baicalein, oroxylin A, wogonin and chrysin exhibited obvious anti-complementary activity. Oral administration of FESR effectively protected the IAV-infected mice, increased the survival rate (FESR: 67%; BG: 33%), decreased the lung index (FESR: 0.90; BG: 1.00) and improved the lung morphology in comparing with BG group. FESR efficiently decreased lung virus titers, reduced haemagglutinin (HA) titers and inhibited neuraminidase (NA) activities in lungs of IAV-infected mice. FESR modulated the inflammatory responses by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and increasing the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in lung tissues. Although showing no anti-complementary activity in vitro, FESR obviously reduced complement deposition and decreased complement activation product level in the lung .

Conclusion: FESR has a great potential for the treatment of ALI induced by IAV and the underlying action mechanism might be closely associated with antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-complementary properties. Furthermore, FESR resulted in more potent therapeutic effect than BG in the treatment of IAV-induced ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.12.009DOI Listing
April 2019

Flavonoids rather than alkaloids as the diagnostic constituents to distinguish Sophorae Flavescentis Radix from Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma: an HPLC fingerprint study.

Chin J Nat Med 2018 Dec;16(12):951-960

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Sophorae Flavescentis Radix (Sophora flavescens Ait., SFR) and Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma (S. tonkinensis Gapnep., STR) are two commonly used traditional Chinese medicines from Sophora (Leguminosae) plants, which are believed to possess similar bioactive components with entirely different clinical applications. In order to find out the characteristic chemical constituents potentially leading to the unique medicinal properties claimed for each of the two closely related TCMs, an HPLC fingerprint method was developed for analyses of the alkaloid and flavonoid constituents of SFR and STR, respectively, which were further evaluated and compared through similarity calculation and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The results from the present study showed that the alkaloid fingerprints of the two herbs were similar, with many components co-existing in both drugs and various batches of samples from different species being mixed together in the HCA dendrogram. However, their flavonoid constituents were totally different with specific fingerprints being yielded for each herb, and further HCA analysis showed that the tested samples could almost be clearly divided into two groups based on their origins of species. The results from the present study indicated that the flavonoid constituents could serve as the differentially diagnostic constituents of SFR and STR and might potentially attributed to their distinct therapeutic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30137-7DOI Listing
December 2018

A novel dimeric flavonol glycoside from subsp. .

Nat Prod Res 2019 Jul 11;33(14):2032-2037. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

a Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization, School of Pharmacy, Ministry of Education , Shihezi University , Shihezi , P.R. China.

A novel dimeric flavonol glycoside, Cynanflavoside A (), together with six analogues, kaempferol-3---L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--D-glucopyranoside (), quercetin-3---L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--D-glucopyranoside (), kaempferol-3---L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--D-xylopyranoside (), quercetin-3---L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--D-xylopyranoside , kaempferol-3---D-glucopyranosyl-7---L-rhamnopyranoside (), and quercetin-3--galactoside () were isolated from the -butyl alcohol extract of subsp. . Their structures were determined spectroscopically and compared with previously reported spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activity , and only compound exhibited anti-complement effects with CH value of 0.33 mM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1483931DOI Listing
July 2019

Iridoids from Pedicularis verticillata and Their Anti-Complementary Activity.

Chem Biodivers 2018 Jun 23;15(6):e1800033. Epub 2018 May 23.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832002, P. R. China.

Three new iridoids named as pediverticilatasin A - C (1 - 3, resp.), together with five known iridoids (4 - 8, resp.) were isolated from the whole plants of Pedicularis verticillata. The structures of three new compounds were identified as (1S,7R)-1-ethoxy-1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-7-methylcyclopenta[c]pyran-4(3H)-one (1), (1S,4aS,7R,7aS)-1-ethoxy-1,4a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-7-hydroxy-7-methylcyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carboxylic acid (2), (1S,4aS,7R,7aS)-1-ethoxy-1,4a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-7-hydroxy-7-methylcyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carbaldehyde (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and compared with the NMR spectra data in the literature. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activity on the classical pathway of the complement system in vitro. Among which, compounds 1, 3, and 6 exhibited anti-complementary effects with CH values ranging from 0.43 to 1.72 mm, which are plausible candidates for developing potent anti-complementary agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201800033DOI Listing
June 2018

Anticomplement compounds from Polygonum chinense.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 05 29;28(9):1495-1500. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China; Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Five new compounds including two phenyldilactones (1, 2), two coumarins (3, 4) and a dimer of N-E-feruloyl tyramine (5) together with twenty-three known compounds (6-28) were isolated from a medicinal plant Polygonum chinense. The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed spectral analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 5 were elucidated by Mosher's method, Mo(OAc)-induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and ECD calculation. All the compounds were found to show potent anticomplement activity with CH and AP values ranging from 0.18 to 1.45 mM, and 0.26 to 2.80 mM, respectively. Phenyldilactones and phenylpropionic tyramines were firstly reported as anticomplement agents. The targets of compounds 1, 3, 5 and 10 in complement activation cascade were identified as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.03.079DOI Listing
May 2018

[Anti-complement alkaloids from whole plants of Viola yedoensis].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2017 Dec;42(24):4794-4800

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China.

Fifteen alkaloids were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the whole plants of Viola yedoensis by various column chromatographic techniques such as silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified as neoechinulin A(1),N-benzoyl-L-p-hydroxy-phenylalaninol(2),aurantiamide acetate(3),aurantiamide(4),anabellamide(5),trichosanatine(6),indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester(7),3-carboxyindole(8),N-trans-feruloyl-tyramine(9),paprazine(10),7'-(3', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]propenamide(11),cannabisin F(12),N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)octacosanamide(13),N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)hexacosanamide(14)and N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol(15). All the compounds except 3 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. These alkaloids exhibited anti-complement activity against the classical pathway(CP)and the alternative pathway(AP)with the CH50 and AP50 values ranging from 0.12 to 0.33 g•L⁻¹ and 0.22 to 0.50 g•L⁻¹, respectively. Preliminary mechanism study using complement-depleted sera showed that these alkaloids acted on different complement components in the complement activation cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170928.012DOI Listing
December 2017

Polysaccharides extracted from the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC modulates macrophage functions.

Chin J Nat Med 2017 Dec;15(12):889-898

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of polysaccharides extracted from Bupleurum chinense DC (BCPs) on macrophage functions. In the in vivo experiment, 1 mL of 5% sodium thioglycollate was injected into the abdomen of the mice on Day 0 and macrophages were harvested on Day 4. The macrophages were cultured in plates and treated with different concentrations of BCPs and stimulus. Effects of BCPs on macrophage functions were assessed by chemotaxis assay, phagocytosis assay and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Our results showed the enhanced chemotaxis, phagocytosis and secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines by macrophages when treated with BCPs. However, when chemotaxis and phagocytosis were up-regulated by complement components or opsonized particles, BCPs inhibited these effects. Also, the NO production induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was suppressed by BCPs mildly. Moreover, BCPs had an inhibitory effect on the [Ca] elevation of macrophages. These results suggested that BCPs exerted modulatory effects on macrophage functions, which may contribute to developing novel approaches to treating inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30004-9DOI Listing
December 2017

Oplopane Sesquiterpenes from Ligularia knorringiana and Their Anti-Complementary Activity.

Chem Biodivers 2018 Mar 7;15(3):e1700515. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832002, P. R. China.

Three new oplopane sesquiterpenes, knorringianalarins D - F (1 - 3, respectively), and five known analogues (4 - 8, respectively), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Ligularia knorringiana. The structures of three new compounds were identified as 4-acetoxy-11α,12-epoxy-2β-hydroxy-3β-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-9α-(4-methylsenecioyloxy)oplop-10(14)-ene (1), 3β,4-diacetoxy-9α-(4-acetoxy-4-methylsenecioyloxy)-11α,12-epoxy-8α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)oplop-10(14)-ene (2), and (1R,5R,6R,7R,9R)-5,9,11-trihydroxy-4,15-dinoroplop-10(14)-en-3-one (3) based on spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR, mass spectrometry, and CD spectroscopy techniques. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activity on the classical pathway of the complement system in vitro. Among which, three oplopane sesquiterpenes (3, 7, and 8) exhibited better anti-complementary effects with CH values ranging from 0.33 to 0.89 mm, which are plausible candidates for developing potent anti-complementary agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700515DOI Listing
March 2018

[Removal of lipopolysaccharides from anti-complementary crude polysaccharides of Houttuynia Herba].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2017 Sep;42(17):3398-3402

School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China.

An Affi-Prep Polymyxin column was combined with a Phenyl Sepharose column and a Sephacryl S-300 column, respectively, to remove the lipopolysaccharides(LPS) in the anti-complementary crude polysaccharides of Houttuynia Herba. The contents of LPS in the polysaccharides were determined by chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate(TAL)method during the procedure of purifying. The anti-complementary activities of the polysaccharides were also compared before and after the removal of LPS. Less remanent LPS was detected after purified using Penyl Sepharose combined with polymyxin column, with the clearance rate of 42.85%. All the columns had no effect on the anti-complementary activity of the polysaccharides. Penyl Sepharose combined with polymyxin column would be sound for LPS removal of the anti-complementary polysaccharides without reducing their bioactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170728.011DOI Listing
September 2017

Preparative separation and quantitative determination of two kaurenoic acid isomers in root barks of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

Chin J Nat Med 2017 Aug;15(8):625-630

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

The kaurenoic acid-type diterpenoids in Acanthopanacis Cortex have been reported to be the major active components. However, the diterpenoids are present as position isomers that exacerbate the challenges in obtaining standards compounds. Little work has been done on the quantitative analysis of the diterpenoids in the herb. In the present study, two diterpenoid isomers ent-16βH,17-isovalerate-kauran-19-oic acid (1) and ent-16βH,17-methyl butanoate-kauran-19-oic acid (2) with high purity were separated by analytical HPLC, followed by recrystallization in acetone. Furthermore, an HPLC-ELSD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 1 and 2 in 9 batches of Acanthopanacis Cortex samples. The HPLC separation and quantification was achieved in 40 min using an Agela Promosil C column eluted with a gradient of water and acetonitrile. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999 9) within the test ranges. The LOD ranged from 0.407 2 to 0.518 0 μg and LOQ ranged from 1.018 0 to 1.295 0 μg. The precisions (%RSD) were within 1.47% for the two isomers. The recovery of the assay was in the range of 98.78%-99.11% with RSD values less than 2.76%. It is the first time to establish a quantitative HPLC method for the analysis of the bioactive kaurenoic acid isomers in the herb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30090-0DOI Listing
August 2017

Polymyxin B as an inhibitor of lipopolysaccharides contamination of herb crude polysaccharides in mononuclear cells.

Chin J Nat Med 2017 Jul;15(7):487-494

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) contamination in herbal crude polysaccharides is inevitable. The present study was performed to explore the effect of polymyxin B on abolishing the influence of LPS contamination in mononuclear cells. LPS was pretreated with polymyxin B sulfate (PB) at different concentrations for 1, 5 or 24 h, and then used to stimulate RAW264.7 and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs). The nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cell culture supernatant, as the indications of cell response, were assayed. Bupleurum chinensis polysaccharides (BCPs) with trace amount contamination of LPS was treated with PB. 30 μg·mL of PB, treating LPS (10 and 1 000 ng·mL in stimulating RAW264.7 and MPMs respectively) at 37 °C for 24 h, successfully abolished the stimulating effect of LPS on the cells. When the cells were stimulated with LPS, BCPs further promoted NO production. However, pretreated with PB, BCPs showed a suppression of NO production in MPMs and no change in RAW264.7. In the in vitro experiments, LPS contamination in polysaccharide might bring a great interference in assessing the activity of drug. Pretreatment with PB (30 μg·mL) at 37 °C for 24 h was sufficient to abolish the effects of LPS contamination (10 and 1 000 ng·mL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30074-2DOI Listing
July 2017

Anti-complementary constituents of Anchusa italica.

Nat Prod Res 2017 Nov 24;31(21):2572-2574. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

a Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic Phytomedicine Resources Ministry of Education , Shihezi University College of Pharmacy , Shihezi , P. R. China.

Activity-guided fractionation for complement inhibitors led to the isolation of 24 known compounds from Anchusa italica. Chemical types include eight megastigmane compounds, five triterpenoid compounds, five lignan compounds, three flavonoid compounds, two alkaloid compounds and one phenthyl alcohol compound. Among which, a lignan (medioresinol), an alkaloid (5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one) and a flavonoid (5-hydroxyl-3', 4', 6, 7-tetramethoxy flavone) exhibited better anticomplementary effects with CH values ranging from 0.07 to 0.82 mM, which are plausible candidates for developing potent anticomplementary agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1320789DOI Listing
November 2017

Anti-complementary constituents of Viola kunawarensis.

Nat Prod Res 2017 Oct 3;31(19):2312-2315. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

a Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic Phytomedicine Resources Ministry of Education , Shihezi University College of Pharmacy , Shihezi , P.R. China.

Activity-guided fractionation for complement inhibitors led to the isolation of 22 known compounds from Viola kunawarensis. Chemical types include six sterol compounds, three coumarin compounds, five megastigmane compounds, two triterpenoid compounds, two phenylpropanoid compounds, one chlorophyll, one amide, and two lipid compounds. Among which, two sterols (stigmasta-4-ene-3β,6β-diol and saringosterone), one amide (aurantiamide acetate) and a norsesquiterpenoid (solalyratin B) exhibited better anti-complementary effects with CH values ranging from 0.02 to 0.08 mM, which are plausible candidates for developing potent anti-complementary agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1297446DOI Listing
October 2017

Anticomplement triterpenoids from the roots of Ilex asprella.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 02 6;27(4):880-886. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, PR China. Electronic address:

Five new (1-5) and twenty-eight known (6-33) triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Ilex asprella. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the detailed spectral analysis. The ursane and oleanane triterpenoids were found to show anticomplement activity with some structure-activity relationships. Several triterpenoids (1-3, 6-7) exhibited potent anticomplement activity with the CH and AP values of 0.058-0.131mg/mL and 0.080-0.444mg/mL, respectively. It was found that caffeoyl group could enhance activity remarkably, followed by coumaroyl and feruloyl group. The 28-carboxyl group was also important to anticomplement activity for the triterpenoids. However, the triterpenoids with lactone ring (4, 9-14) exhibited weak activity and triterpenoid glycosides (5, 23-33) showed no inhibition. The targets of several bioactive triterpenoids in complement activation cascade were identified as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.01.007DOI Listing
February 2017

Polysaccharides from Arnebia euchroma Ameliorated Endotoxic Fever and Acute Lung Injury in Rats Through Inhibiting Complement System.

Inflammation 2017 Feb;40(1):275-284

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Arnebiaeuchroma (Royle) Johnst (Ruanzicao) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM). It is extensively used in China and other countries for treatment of inflammatory diseases. It is known that hyper-activated complement system involves in the fever and acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. In our preliminary studies, anti-complementary activity of crude Arnebiaeuchroma polysaccharides (CAEP) had been demonstrated in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of crude Arnebiaeuchroma polysaccharides (CAEP) using two animal models, which relate with inappropriate activation of complement system. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever model, the body temperature and leukocytes of peripheral blood in rats were significantly increased, while the complement levels of serum were remarkably decreased. CAEP administration alleviated the LPS-induced fever, reduced the number of leukocytes, and improved the levels of complement. Histological assay showed that there were severe damages and complement depositions in lung of the ALI rats. Further detection displayed that the oxidant stress was enhanced, and total hemolytic activity and C3/C4 levels in serum were decreased significantly in the ALI model group. Remarkably, CAEP not only attenuated the morphological injury, edema, and permeability in the lung but also significantly weakened the oxidant stress in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the ALI rats. The levels of complement and complement depositions were improved by the CAEP treatment. In conclusion, the CAEP treatment ameliorated febrile response induced by LPS and acute lung injury induced by LPS plus ischemia-reperfusion. CAEP exerted beneficial effects on inflammatory disease potentially via inhibiting the inappropriate activation of complement system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-016-0478-0DOI Listing
February 2017

Anti-Complementary Components of Helicteres angustifolia.

Molecules 2016 Nov 10;21(11). Epub 2016 Nov 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

A first phenalenon derivative with an acetyl side chain at C-8, 8-acetyl-9-hydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methyl-1-phenalenon (compound ), and a pair of new sesquilignan epimers at C-7″ of hedyotol C and hedyotol D analogs, hedyotol C 7″-β-d-glucopyranoside (compound ) and hedyotol D 7″--β-d-glucopyranoside (compound ) were isolated from the aerial parts of together with nine known compounds (-). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including mass spectroscopy, and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance. Eleven isolates exhibited anti-complementary activity. In particular, compounds and exhibited potent anti-complementary activities against the classical and alternative pathways with CH values of 0.040 ± 0.009 and 0.009 ± 0.002 mM, and AP values of 0.105 ± 0.015 and 0.021 ± 0.003 mM, respectively. The targets of compounds and in the complement activation cascade were also identified. In conclusion, the anti-complementary components of possessed chemical diversity and consisted mostly of flavonoids and lignans in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273495PMC
November 2016

Four New Diterpenoids from the Roots of Euphorbia pekinensis.

Chem Biodivers 2016 Oct;13(10):1404-1409

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, P. R. China.

Three new isopimarane diterpenoids (1 - 3) and one new abietane diterpenoid (4) were isolated and identified from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis, together with four known diterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, NMR, and CD), and their cytotoxicities and anticomplement activities were evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201600091DOI Listing
October 2016