Publications by authors named "Danish Munir"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The immunoglobulins of cartilaginous fishes.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Feb 23;115:103873. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Cartilaginous fishes, comprising the chimeras, sharks, skates, and rays, split from the common ancestor with other jawed vertebrates approx. 450 million years ago. Being the oldest extant taxonomic group to possess an immunoglobulin (Ig)-based adaptive immune system, examination of this group has taught us much about the evolution of adaptive immunity, as well as the conserved and taxon-specific characteristics of Igs. Significant progress has been made analyzing sequences from numerous genomic and transcriptomic data sets. These findings have been supported by additional functional studies characterizing the Igs and humoral response of sharks and their relatives. This review will summarize what we have learned about the genomic organization, protein structure, and in vivo function of these Ig isotypes in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the areas where our knowledge is still lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708420PMC
February 2021

Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cells are an effective model to characterise interferon (IFN) and IFN-induced gene expression following salmonid alphavirus infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Nov 29;106:792-795. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Dept Microbiology & Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Institute of Marine & Environmental Technology, Baltimore, USA. Electronic address:

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease, is a serious pathogen of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Given the economic impact of SAV outbreaks, much effort is focussed upon understanding the fish immune response following infection and the exploitation of this knowledge to reduce disease impact. Herein we examine the utility of the long-term Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cell line as a tool to study antiviral responses upon infection with SAV. Following infection with SAV subtype 1 (isolate V4640) we examined the kinetics and magnitude of induction of IFNa, IFN-regulatory factor (IRF) genes IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7b, as well as the antiviral effector Mx by RT-qPCR. SAV-1 non-structural protein (nsp1) transcript levels increased continuously over the experimental period, indicating viral replication, but cytopathic effect (CPE) was not observed. All the immune genes studied showed an increase in transcript levels over the 96-h study period following SAV infection, with strongest induction of Mx. Our data confirm that ASK cells are a suitable model to study the virus-associated immune responses of salmonids and may be a useful tool when assaying the effectiveness of potential prophylactic or antiviral treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.08.043DOI Listing
November 2020