Publications by authors named "Danielle S Berke"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Role of Anger in Traumatic Harm and Recovery for Sexual Violence Survivors.

J Trauma Dissociation 2021 Jun 10:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Psychotherapy, Private Practice, Berkeley, California, USA.

Sexual violence is a strong predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sexual violence survivors presenting for PTSD treatment may experience and express a range of distressing emotions. An extensive body of research guides clinical conceptualization and targeting of fear responses in PTSD treatment. Models to guide clinicians in working with posttraumatic anger, in contrast, are scarce. To address this gap, we: 1) provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on sexual violence, anger, and trauma recovery among sexual violence survivors; 2) integrate this literature with social functionalist theories of anger; and 3) discuss implications of this integration for adaptively leveraging anger in psychological treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2021.1934937DOI Listing
June 2021

Parameters of Aggressive Behavior in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Military Personnel: A Secondary Analysis of Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Evidence-Based PTSD Treatments.

Behav Ther 2021 01 30;52(1):136-148. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine.

Aggressive behavior is prevalent among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts who have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about whether PTSD treatments reduce aggression or the direction of the association between changes in PTSD symptoms and aggression in the context of PTSD treatment. We combined data from three clinical trials of evidence-based PTSD treatment in service members (N = 592) to: (1) examine whether PTSD treatment reduces psychological (e.g., verbal behavior) and physical aggression, and; (2) explore temporal associations between aggressive behavior and PTSD. Both psychological (Estimate = -2.20, SE = 0.07) and physical aggression (Estimate = -0.36, SE = 0.05) were significantly reduced from baseline to posttreatment follow-up. Lagged PTSD symptom reduction was not associated with reduced reports of aggression; however, higher baseline PTSD scores were significantly associated with greater reductions in psychological aggression (exclusively; ß = -0.67, 95% CI = -1.05, -0.30, SE = -3.49). Findings reveal that service members receiving PTSD treatment report substantial collateral changes in psychological aggression over time, particularly for participants with greater PTSD symptom severity. Clinicians should consider cotherapies or alternative ways of targeting physical aggression among service members with PTSD and alternative approaches to reduce psychological aggression among service members with relatively low PTSD symptom severity when considering evidence-based PTSD treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2020.03.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Men's psychiatric distress in context: Understanding the impact of masculine discrepancy stress, race, and barriers to help-seeking.

J Health Psychol 2020 Nov 24:1359105320977641. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Hunter College of the City University of New York, USA.

This study examined perceived barriers to help-seeking as mechanisms by which masculinity may generate risk for psychiatric distress in men. An online sample of 558 men completed self-report measures of masculine discrepancy stress (i.e. distress about one's perceived gender nonconformity), barriers to help-seeking, and psychiatric distress. A significant indirect effect of masculine discrepancy stress on psychiatric distress emerged through perceived barriers to help-seeking; notably, this effect was stronger among Men of Color (vs White men). The promotion of optimal psychiatric functioning in men may necessitate interventions that target the effects of masculine socialization race-related stress on help-seeking attitudes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105320977641DOI Listing
November 2020

Drink, Don't Think: The Role of Masculinity and Thought Suppression in Men's Alcohol-Related Aggression.

Psychol Men Masc 2020 Jan 4;21(1):36-45. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

The Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, MA.

Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for aggressive behavior. However, evidence suggests that alcohol's effect on aggression varies as a function of individual- and situational-based instigating and inhibiting factors. Endorsement of traditional masculine gender norms has been consistently identified as an instigating factor for alcohol-related aggression. Likewise, individuals who habitually engage in thought suppression (i.e., the attempt to inhibit the occurrence of unwanted thoughts) have been shown to be at increased risk for behavioral disinhibition and aggression. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that thought suppression mediates the association between masculine norms and alcohol-related aggression. Two hundred forty-five men with a history of recent heavy episodic alcohol use completed surveys assessing their endorsement of traditional masculine norms, use of thought suppression, and both trait and alcohol-related aggression. Results indicated that thought suppression fully mediated the association between the toughness masculine norm and alcohol-related aggression. In addition, thought suppression partially mediated the association between the toughness norm and trait aggression. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of cognitive-emotion regulation and norm-based interventions for reducing alcohol-related aggression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/men0000199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048098PMC
January 2020

Correlates of Men's Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual and Relationship Violence: The Role of Masculine Discrepancy Stress.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Oct 14:886260519880999. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.

Extant literature suggests that men may be less likely than women to engage in prosocial bystander behavior to interrupt sexual and relationship violence. However, there has been little consideration of the influence of masculine gender role discrepancy and masculine discrepancy stress (i.e., stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of traditional gender norms) on men's bystander beliefs and behaviors. The current study fills an important gap in the literature by assessing the influence of masculine gender role discrepancy and masculine discrepancy stress on a range of prosocial bystander behaviors through their influence on the bystander decision-making process. Participants were 356 undergraduate men recruited from two different Southeastern U.S. universities who completed online surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, consequent discrepancy stress, bystander decision-making, and bystander behavior in sexual and relationship violence contexts. Path models indicated significant conditional indirect effects of masculine gender role discrepancy on proactive bystander behaviors (i.e., behaviors related to making a plan in advance of being in a risky situation) and bystander behavior in drinking situations across levels of masculine discrepancy stress. Specifically, men who believed that they are less masculine than the typical man reported more pros to intervention in sexual and relationship violence than cons, and thus reported intervening more, but only if they were high in masculine discrepancy stress. Findings suggest that bystander intervention programs should explicitly address and challenge rigid expectations of what it means to be "manly" to transform gender expectations perpetuating sexual and relationship violence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519880999DOI Listing
October 2019

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Veterans' Experiences of Discrimination in Health Care and Their Relation to Health Outcomes: A Pilot Study Examining the Moderating Role of Provider Communication.

Health Equity 2019 26;3(1):480-488. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans report discrimination in health care, which may be associated with negative health outcomes/behaviors and has implications for LGBT identity disclosure to providers. Quality provider communication may serve to offset some of the deleterious effects of discrimination; however, no research to date has examined provider communication with respect to health among LGBT patients. Participants were 47 LGBT veterans who completed measures related to past health care experiences, experiences of discrimination in health care, perceptions of provider communication, and measures of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and alcohol/tobacco use. The majority of LGBT veterans reported experiencing LGBT-based discrimination in health care, which was associated with higher rates of tobacco use and less comfort in disclosing their LGBT identity to providers. We also found evidence of moderation, such that high-quality provider communication appeared to buffer these associations. LGBT veterans face unique challenges with respect to receiving appropriate health care. The high frequencies of reported discrimination in health care is problematic and warrants further research and intervention. These results highlight the important role of provider communication, and the potential for quality communication to buffer against certain effects, particularly with respect to tobacco use and LGBT identity disclosure, which is an important protective factor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/heq.2019.0069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761590PMC
September 2019

Patterns and predictors of change in trauma-focused treatments for war-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Nov 26;87(11):1019-1029. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

Objective: We evaluated patterns and predictors of change from three efficacy trials of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral treatments (TF-CBT) among service members (N = 702; mean age = 32.88; 89.4% male; 79.8% non-Hispanic/Latino). Rates of clinically significant change were also compared with other trials.

Method: The trials were conducted in the same setting with identical measures. The primary outcome was symptom severity scores on the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview Version (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993).

Results: Symptom change was best explained by baseline scores and individual slopes. TF-CBT was not associated with better slope change relative to Present-Centered Therapy, a comparison arm in 2 trials. Lower baseline scores (β = .33, p < .01) and higher ratings of treatment credibility (β = -.22, p < .01) and expectancy for change (β = -.16, p < .01) were associated with greater symptom change. Older service members also responded less well to treatment (β = .09, p < .05). Based on the Jacobson and Truax (1991) metric for clinically significant change, 31% of trial participants either recovered or improved.

Conclusions: Clinicians should individually tailor treatment for service members with high baseline symptoms, older patients, and those with low levels of credibility and expectancy for change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000426DOI Listing
November 2019

Experiences of trauma, discrimination, microaggressions, and minority stress among trauma-exposed LGBT veterans: Unexpected findings and unresolved service gaps.

Psychol Trauma 2019 Oct 18;11(7):695-703. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

LGBT Health Program, Veterans Health Administration.

Objective: LGBT veterans experience high rates of trauma, discrimination, and minority stress. However, guidelines for case conceptualization and treatment remain limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the experiences of trauma and other high impact experiences among LGBT veterans to inform case conceptualization and treatment.

Method: We recruited 47 LGBT veterans with a history of exposure to LGBT-related Criterion A trauma and performed semistructured interviews about their experiences in trauma treatment, barriers to engagement, and treatment needs and preferences. We used thematic analysis of qualitative codes guided by inductive and deductive approaches to characterize the variety of trauma and high impact experiences reported.

Results: LGBT veterans disclosed a range of clinically relevant stressors, including Criterion A traumatic events, minority stress, and microaggression experiences, including interpersonal and institutional discrimination perpetrated by fellow service members/veterans, citizens, therapy group members, and health care providers.

Conclusion: These data provide a unique account of LGBT veteran's identity-related trauma and concomitant interpersonal and institutional discrimination, microaggression experiences, minority stress, and traumatic stress symptoms. Findings highlight existing service gaps regarding evidence-based treatments for the sequalae of trauma, discrimination, microaggressions, and minority stress. In addition, we noted past and present issues in military and health care settings that may lead to or exacerbate trauma-related distress and discourage treatment seeking among LGBT veterans. We provide suggestions for clinical work with LGBT veterans and encourage ongoing research and development to eliminate remaining service gaps. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000464DOI Listing
October 2019

Defining and Measuring Moral Injury: Rationale, Design, and Preliminary Findings From the Moral Injury Outcome Scale Consortium.

J Trauma Stress 2019 06 4;32(3):363-372. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In the current paper, we first describe the rationale for and methodology employed by an international research consortium, the Moral Injury Outcome Scale (MIOS) Consortium, the aim of which is to develop and validate a content-valid measure of moral injury as a multidimensional outcome. The MIOS Consortium comprises researchers and clinicians who work with active duty military service members and veterans in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, and Canada. We describe the multiphase psychometric development process being conducted by the Consortium, which will gather phenomenological data from service members, veterans, and clinicians to operationalize subdomains of impact and to generate content for a new measure of moral injury. Second, to illustrate the methodology being employed by the Consortium in the first phase of measure development, we present a small subset of preliminary results from semistructured interviews and questionnaires conducted with care providers (N = 26) at three of the 10 study sites. The themes derived from these initial preliminary clinician interviews suggest that exposure to potentially morally injurious events is associated with broad psychological/behavioral, social, and spiritual/existential impacts. The early findings also suggest that the outcomes associated with acts of commission or omission and events involving others' transgressions may overlap. These results will be combined with data derived from other clinicians, service members, and veterans to generate the MIOS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22380DOI Listing
June 2019

Predictors of attendance and dropout in three randomized controlled trials of PTSD treatment for active duty service members.

Behav Res Ther 2019 07 8;118:7-17. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiological Research and Information Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Dropout from first-line posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments is a significant problem. We reported rates and predictors of attendance and dropout in three clinical trials of evidence-based PTSD treatments in military service members (N = 557). Service members attended 81.0% of treatment sessions and 30.7% dropped out. Individually delivered treatment was associated with greater attendance rates (β = 0.23, p < .001) than group therapy; trauma-focused treatments were associated with higher dropout (β = 0.19, p < .001) than Present-Centered Therapy. Age was a significant predictor of session attendance (β = 0.17, p < .001) and drop out (β = -0.23, p < .001). History of traumatic brain injury (TBI) predicted lower attendance rates (β = -0.26, p < .001) and greater dropout (β = 0.19, p < .001). Regardless of treatment type or format, patients who did not drop out were more likely to experience clinically significant gains (d = 0.49, p < .001). Results demonstrate that dropout from PTSD treatments in these trials was significantly associated with treatment outcome and suggest that strategies are needed to mitigate dropout, particularly in group and trauma-focused therapies, and among younger service members and those with TBI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.003DOI Listing
July 2019

Dynamic changes in marines' reports of PTSD symptoms and problem alcohol use across the deployment cycle.

Psychol Addict Behav 2019 Mar 20;33(2):162-170. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiological Research and Information Center, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse are commonly co-occurring problems in active-duty service members (SMs) and veterans. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the temporal associations between these problems in the acute period following exposure to combat stressors. Discerning the temporal associations between these problems across the deployment cycle could inform prevention and treatment efforts. In this study, we examined the association between PTSD symptom severity and problem alcohol use in a large cohort of United States Marines (n = 758) evaluated prior to deployment and approximately 1, 5, and 8 months postdeployment. Results indicate that problem alcohol use was associated with a subsequent exacerbation of PTSD symptoms between the 1st and 2nd and 2nd and 3rd postdeployment assessments. PTSD symptom severity was associated with increased problem alcohol use between the 1st and 2nd postdeployment assessments. These findings suggest that problem drinking may lead to new onset or worsening of PTSD symptoms over time and that SMs with greater PTSD symptom severity upon returning from deployment may increase alcohol use in the weeks immediately following homecoming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000430DOI Listing
March 2019

Self-Blame and PTSD Following Sexual Assault: A Longitudinal Analysis.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Mar 21;36(5-6):NP3153-NP3168. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

VA Boston Healthcare System, MA, USA.

Sexual assault is a prevalent trauma associated with high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Social cognitive theories posit that behavioral self-blame (i.e., attributing the cause of the assault to personal peri-event behavior) contributes to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD symptoms. Yet the direction of the association between self-blame and PTSD symptoms in the acute aftermath of sexual assault is unknown. This study evaluated temporal pathways between behavioral self-blame and PTSD symptom severity in an epidemiological sample of sexual assault survivors ( = 126) assessed at four time points in the months immediately following the assault. Results of cross-lagged panel modeling revealed that reports of behavioral self-blame at the first assessment following sexual assault predicted PTSD symptom severity at Time 2. However, there was no association between behavioral self-blame at Time 2 and PTSD symptom severity at Time 3, nor was there an association between behavioral self-blame at Time 3 and PTSD symptom severity at Time 4. Instead, PTSD symptom severity predicted behavioral self-blame at Times 3 and 4. Findings suggest that behavioral self-blame following sexual assault may be particularly relevant to the onset of PTSD symptoms, while PTSD symptoms themselves appear to intensify subsequent perceptions of behavioral self-blame. Clinical implications and limitations are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260518770652DOI Listing
March 2021

Masculinity, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: A critical review and integrated model.

Clin Psychol Rev 2018 12 31;66:106-116. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States; University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Relative to girls and women, boys and men experience disproportionate rates of "externalizing" problems (e.g., aggressive behavior, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder). Unfortunately, relatively little is understood about how gender operates in the etiology, expression, and maintenance of men's psychopathology. We argue that this gap in knowledge reflects the challenge of accounting for the dynamic nature of masculinity (i.e., the fact that the influence of masculinity on men's lives varies across context, time, and individuals). Likewise, emotion regulation, the process by which individuals modify their emotions to respond to the varying demands of their environment, is itself an inherently dynamic construct. Difficulty regulating emotion has been identified as a transdiagnostic factor common to a range of psychiatric diagnoses and behavior problems. Integrating the literature on emotion regulation and masculinity, therefore, offers promise for enhancing our ability to understand the effects of gender on men's psychopathology and to alleviate its deleterious consequences. In keeping with this goal, we review and synthesize the available literature on masculinity and emotion regulation into a cross-cutting framework of masculinity and men's psychopathology. Implications are discussed in terms of recommendations for an integrated intervention approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2018.01.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Optimizing trauma-informed intervention for intimate partner violence in veterans: The role of alexithymia.

Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 14;97:222-229. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

National Center for PTSD, Boston, MA, USA.

Recent research supports the efficacy of Strength at Home-Men's Program (SAH-M), a trauma-informed group intervention designed to reduce use of intimate partner violence (IPV) in veterans (Taft, Macdonald, Creech, Monson, & Murphy, 2016). However, change-processes facilitating the effectiveness of SAH-M have yet to be specified. Alexithymia, a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotional experience characterized by difficulty identifying and distinguishing between feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and use of an externally oriented thinking style, has been shown to predict PTSD severity and impulsive aggression; however, no studies have investigated the relationship between alexithymia and IPV. As such, the current study examined the role of improvements in alexithymia as a potential facilitator of treatment efficacy among 135 male veterans/service members, in a randomized control trial SAH-M. After an initial assessment including measures of IPV and alexithymia, participants were randomized to an Enhanced Treatment as Usual (ETAU) condition or SAH-M. Participants were assessed three and six months after baseline. Results demonstrated a statistically significant association between alexithymia and use of psychological IPV at baseline. Moreover, participants in the SAH-M condition self-reported significantly greater reductions in alexithymia over time relative to ETAU participants. Findings suggest that a trauma-informed intervention may optimize outcomes, helping men who use IPV both limit their use of violence and improve deficits in emotion processing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.007DOI Listing
October 2017

Psychosocial rehabilitation after war trauma with adaptive disclosure: Design and rationale of a comparative efficacy trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2017 10 14;61:10-15. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MA, United States; Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States; Boston University, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from warzone exposure is associated with chronic and disabling social and occupational problems. However, functional impairment is rarely assessed or targeted directly in PTSD treatments, which instead focus on symptom reduction. Trauma-related contributors to diminished functioning, including guilt, shame, and anger resulting from morally compromising or loss-based war experiences, are also underemphasized. The goal of this clinical trial is to fill a substantial gap in the treatment of military-related PTSD by testing a modified Adaptive Disclosure (AD) therapy for war-related PTSD stemming from moral injury and traumatic loss focused on improving psychosocial functioning AD.

Method And Design: This paper describes the rationale and design of a multi-site randomized controlled trial comparing AD to Present-Centered Therapy (PCT). We will recruit 186 veterans with PTSD, who will be assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-months post-treatment. Primary outcomes are functional changes (i.e., functioning/disability and quality of life). Secondary outcomes are mental health variables (i.e., PTSD, depression, guilt, shame). We hypothesize that veterans treated with AD will experience greater improvements in all outcomes compared to those treated with PCT.

Discussion: This trial will advance knowledge in rehabilitation research by testing the first therapy specifically designed to address psychosocial functioning among veterans with war-related PTSD. The results may improve the quality of mental health care for veterans by offering an ecologically sound treatment for experiences that are uniquely impactful for war veterans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2017.07.012DOI Listing
October 2017

Do beliefs about gender roles moderate the relationship between exposure to misogynistic song lyrics and men's female-directed aggression?

Aggress Behav 2017 Apr 16;43(2):123-132. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123-132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21668DOI Listing
April 2017

Psychopathy Traits and Violent Assault Among Men With and Without History of Arrest.

J Interpers Violence 2019 06 25;34(12):2438-2457. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

2 University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Although research suggests that the antisocial behavior (ASB) facet of psychopathy generally carries the greatest predictive power for future violence, these findings are drawn primarily from forensic samples and may reflect criterion contamination between historical violence and future violence perpetration. Likewise, these findings do not negate the association of other psychopathy facets to violence or their role in the development of violence, nor do they offer practical utility in the primary prevention of violence. There are a number of empirical and theoretical reasons to suspect that the callous affect (CA) facet of psychopathy may demonstrate stronger statistical association to violence in nonforensic populations. We tested the association of CA to severe acts of violence (e.g., assault with intent to harm, injure, rape, or kill) among men with and without history of arrest ( N = 600) using both the three- and four-facet models of psychopathy. CA was robustly associated with violence outcomes across the two groups in the three-facet model. When testing the four-facet model, CA was strongly associated with violence outcomes among men with no history of arrest, but only moderately associated with assaults causing injury among men with history of arrest. These results are consistent with data from youth populations that implicate early emotional deficits in later aggressive behavior and suggest CA may help to identify individuals at risk for violence before they become violent. Implications for the public health system and the primary prevention of violence are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260516660972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861013PMC
June 2019

Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence.

J Interpers Violence 2019 03 24;34(6):1163-1182. Epub 2016 May 24.

University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260516650967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861012PMC
March 2019

Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

Violence Vict 2016 28;31(2):200-14. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

University of Georgia, USA.

The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-14-00060DOI Listing
June 2016

Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

Inj Prev 2016 10 24;22(5):370-4. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881164PMC
October 2016

Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

Arch Sex Behav 2016 Feb 7;45(2):459-65. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0413-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816038PMC
February 2016

Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence.

Pers Individ Dif 2014 Oct;68:160-164

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine , a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men's historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868426PMC
October 2014