Publications by authors named "Danielle M Karyadi"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Radiation-related genomic profile of papillary thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident.

Science 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident increased papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) incidence in surrounding regions, particularly for I-exposed children. We analyzed genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic characteristics of 440 PTCs from Ukraine (359 with estimated childhood I exposure and 81 unexposed children born after 1986). PTCs displayed radiation dose-dependent enrichment of fusion drivers, nearly all in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and increases in small deletions and simple/balanced structural variants that were clonal and bore hallmarks of non-homologous end-joining repair. Radiation-related genomic alterations were more pronounced for those younger at exposure. Transcriptomic and epigenomic features were strongly associated with driver events but not radiation dose. Our results point to DNA double-strand breaks as early carcinogenic events that subsequently enable PTC growth following environmental radiation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abg2538DOI Listing
April 2021

In utero exposure to zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy and clonal hematopoiesis in HIV-exposed uninfected newborns.

AIDS 2021 03 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville

Objective: Zidovudine (ZDV) has been extensively used in pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but few studies have evaluated potential mutagenic effects of ZDV during fetal development.

Design: Our study investigated clonal hematopoiesis in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) newborns, 94 of whom were ZDV-exposed and 91 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-unexposed and matched for potential confounding factors.

Methods: Utilizing high depth sequencing and genotyping arrays, we comprehensively examined blood samples collected during the first week after birth for potential clonal hematopoiesis (CH) associated with fetal ZDV exposure, including clonal single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and large structural copy number or copy neutral alterations.

Results: We observed no statistically significant difference in the number of SNVs and indels per person in ZDV exposed children (adjusted ratio (95% confidence interval) for expected number of mutations=0.79 [0.50, 1.22], P = 0.3), and no difference in the number of large structural alterations. Mutations in common CH driver genes were not found in the study population. Mutational signature analyses on SNVs detected no novel signatures unique to the ZDV-exposed children and the mutational profiles were similar between the two groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that CH at levels detectable in our study is not strongly influenced by in utero ZDV exposure; however, additional follow-up studies are needed to further evaluate the safety and potential long-term impacts of in utero ZDV exposure in HEU children as well as better investigate genomic aberrations occurring late in pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002894DOI Listing
March 2021

Subsequent Neoplasm Risk Associated With Rare Variants in DNA Damage Response and Clinical Radiation Sensitivity Syndrome Genes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 21;4. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: Radiotherapy for childhood cancer is associated with elevated subsequent neoplasm (SN) risk, but the contribution of rare variants in DNA damage response and radiation sensitivity genes to SN risk is unknown.

Patients And Methods: We conducted whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors originally diagnosed during 1970 to 1986 (mean follow-up, 32.7 years), with reconstruction of doses to body regions from radiotherapy records. We identified patients who developed SN types previously reported to be related to radiotherapy (RT-SNs; eg, basal cell carcinoma [BCC], breast cancer, meningioma, thyroid cancer, sarcoma) and matched controls (sex, childhood cancer type/diagnosis, age, SN location, radiation dose, survival). Conditional logistic regression assessed SN risk associated with potentially protein-damaging rare variants (SnpEff, ClinVar) in 476 DNA damage response or radiation sensitivity genes with exact permutation-based values using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of < 8.06 × 10.

Results: Among 5,105 childhood cancer survivors of European descent, 1,108 (21.7%) developed at least 1 RT-SN. Out-of-field RT-SN risk, excluding BCC, was associated with homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene variants (patient cases, 23.2%; controls, 10.8%; odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 3.9; = 4.79 × 10), most notably but nonsignificantly for (patient cases, 4.0%; matched controls, 0.6%; = 9.64 × 10). HRR variants were not associated with likely in/near-field RT-SNs, excluding BCC (patient cases, 12.7%; matched controls, 12.9%; = .92). Irrespective of radiation dose, risk for RT-SNs was also associated with variants (patient cases, 1.8%; controls, 0.4%; = 3.31 × 10), another gene implicated in DNA double-strand break repair.

Conclusion: In this large-scale discovery study, we identified novel associations between RT-SN risk after childhood cancer and potentially protein-damaging rare variants in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair, particularly HRR. With replication, these results could affect screening recommendations for childhood cancer survivors and risk-benefit assessments of treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469586PMC
August 2020

Whole genome sequencing of canids reveals genomic regions under selection and variants influencing morphology.

Nat Commun 2019 04 2;10(1):1489. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Domestic dog breeds are characterized by an unrivaled diversity of morphologic traits and breed-associated behaviors resulting from human selective pressures. To identify the genetic underpinnings of such traits, we analyze 722 canine whole genome sequences (WGS), documenting over 91 million single nucleotide and small indels, creating a large catalog of genomic variation for a companion animal species. We undertake both selective sweep analyses and genome wide association studies (GWAS) inclusive of over 144 modern breeds, 54 wild canids and a hundred village dogs. Our results identify variants of strong impact associated with 16 phenotypes, including body weight variation which, when combined with existing data, explain greater than 90% of body size variation in dogs. We thus demonstrate that GWAS and selection scans performed with WGS are powerful complementary methods for expanding the utility of companion animal systems for the study of mammalian growth and biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09373-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445083PMC
April 2019

Whole exome sequencing in 75 high-risk families with validation and replication in independent case-control studies identifies TANGO2, OR5H14, and CHAD as new prostate cancer susceptibility genes.

Oncotarget 2017 Jan;8(1):1495-1507

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility is defined by a continuum from rare, high-penetrance to common, low-penetrance alleles. Research to date has concentrated on identification of variants at the ends of that continuum. Taking an alternate approach, we focused on the important but elusive class of low-frequency, moderately penetrant variants by performing disease model-based variant filtering of whole exome sequence data from 75 hereditary PCa families. Analysis of 341 candidate risk variants identified nine variants significantly associated with increased PCa risk in a population-based, case-control study of 2,495 men. In an independent nested case-control study of 7,121 men, there was risk association evidence for TANGO2 p.Ser17Ter and the established HOXB13 p.Gly84Glu variant. Meta-analysis combining the case-control studies identified two additional variants suggestively associated with risk, OR5H14 p.Met59Val and CHAD p.Ala342Asp. The TANGO2 and HOXB13 variants co-occurred in cases more often than expected by chance and never in controls. Finally, TANGO2 p.Ser17Ter was associated with aggressive disease in both case-control studies separately. Our analyses identified three new PCa susceptibility alleles in the TANGO2, OR5H14 and CHAD genes that not only segregate in multiple high-risk families but are also of importance in altering disease risk for men from the general population. This is the first successful study to utilize sequencing in high-risk families for the express purpose of identifying low-frequency, moderately penetrant PCa risk mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341753PMC
January 2017

Biallelic BRCA2 Mutations Shape the Somatic Mutational Landscape of Aggressive Prostate Tumors.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 05 14;98(5):818-829. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

To identify clinically important molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa), we characterized the somatic landscape of aggressive tumors via deep, whole-genome sequencing. In our discovery set of ten tumor/normal subject pairs with Gleason scores of 8-10 at diagnosis, coordinated analysis of germline and somatic variants, including single-nucleotide variants, indels, and structural variants, revealed biallelic BRCA2 disruptions in a subset of samples. Compared to the other samples, the PCa BRCA2-deficient tumors exhibited a complex and highly specific mutation signature, featuring a 2.88-fold increased somatic mutation rate, depletion of context-specific C>T substitutions, and an enrichment for deletions, especially those longer than 10 bp. We next performed a BRCA2 deficiency-targeted reanalysis of 150 metastatic PCa tumors, and each of the 18 BRCA2-mutated samples recapitulated the BRCA2 deficiency-associated mutation signature, underscoring the potent influence of these lesions on somatic mutagenesis and tumor evolution. Among all 21 individuals with BRCA2-deficient tumors, only about half carried deleterious germline alleles. Importantly, the somatic mutation signature in tumors with one germline and one somatic risk allele was indistinguishable from those with purely somatic mutations. Our observations clearly demonstrate that BRCA2-disrupted tumors represent a unique and clinically relevant molecular subtype of aggressive PCa, highlighting both the promise and utility of this mutation signature as a prognostic and treatment-selection biomarker. Further, any test designed to leverage BRCA2 status as a biomarker for PCa must consider both germline and somatic mutations and all types of deleterious mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863563PMC
May 2016

Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor.

Genome Res 2015 Nov 31;25(11):1646-55. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA;

Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.190314.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617961PMC
November 2015

Confirmation of genetic variants associated with lethal prostate cancer in a cohort of men from hereditary prostate cancer families.

Int J Cancer 2015 May 13;136(9):2166-71. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Germline genetic variants have been suggested as prognostic biomarkers for identifying patients at high risk for lethal prostate cancer (PCa). Validation studies have confirmed the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fatal PCa, but whether these variants affect PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) in patients with an inherited predisposition to PCa, based on familial history, is unknown. For this study, a cohort of 957 PCa patients from 270 hereditary prostate cancer families of European ancestry was genotyped for a panel of 22 PCSM-associated SNPs. Death certificates were reviewed to confirm cause of death. Mixed-effect Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess survival according to genotypes, accounting for relatedness and clinicopathological factors. Within this cohort, 98 PCa deaths were confirmed over an average follow-up period of 12.7 years after diagnosis. Variant allele carriers for three SNPs had significantly altered risk for PCSM [rs635261 at RNASEL, hazard ratio (HR), 0.35, 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.002; rs915927 in XRCC1, HR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.21-3.02; p = 0.009; and rs2494750 at AKT1, HR, 0.45, 95% CI, 0.23-0.90; p = 0.016). These results confirm the association of genetic variation in three genes with PCa lethality in a cohort of men with an inherited susceptibility to the disease and provide validation evidence that germline SNPs provide prognostic information for PCa patients. Development of a panel of germline biomarkers with clinical utility for distinguishing patients at detection who have an increased risk for fatal PCa is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4331209PMC
May 2015

Germline missense variants in the BTNL2 gene are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013 Sep 5;22(9):1520-8. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

Division of Public Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Rare, inherited mutations account for 5% to 10% of all prostate cancer cases. However, to date, few causative mutations have been identified.

Methods: To identify rare mutations for prostate cancer, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multiple kindreds (n = 91) from 19 hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) families characterized by aggressive or early-onset phenotypes. Candidate variants (n = 130) identified through family- and bioinformatics-based filtering of WES data were then genotyped in an independent set of 270 HPC families (n = 819 prostate cancer cases; n = 496 unaffected relatives) for replication. Two variants with supportive evidence were subsequently genotyped in a population-based case-control study (n = 1,155 incident prostate cancer cases; n = 1,060 age-matched controls) for further confirmation. All participants were men of European ancestry.

Results: The strongest evidence was for two germline missense variants in the butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) gene (rs41441651, p.Asp336Asn and rs28362675, p.Gly454Cys) that segregated with affection status in two of the WES families. In the independent set of 270 HPC families, 1.5% (rs41441651; P = 0.0032) and 1.2% (rs28362675; P = 0.0070) of affected men, but no unaffected men, carried a variant. Both variants were associated with elevated prostate cancer risk in the population-based study (rs41441651: OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.27-5.87; P = 0.010; rs28362675: OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.16-5.46; P = 0.019).

Conclusions: Results indicate that rare BTNL2 variants play a role in susceptibility to both familial and sporadic prostate cancer.

Impact: Results implicate BTNL2 as a novel prostate cancer susceptibility gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3769499PMC
September 2013

A copy number variant at the KITLG locus likely confers risk for canine squamous cell carcinoma of the digit.

PLoS Genet 2013 Mar 28;9(3):e1003409. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The domestic dog is a robust model for studying the genetics of complex disease susceptibility. The strategies used to develop and propagate modern breeds have resulted in an elevated risk for specific diseases in particular breeds. One example is that of Standard Poodles (STPOs), who have increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the digit (SCCD), a locally aggressive cancer that causes lytic bone lesions, sometimes with multiple toe recurrence. However, only STPOs of dark coat color are at high risk; light colored STPOs are almost entirely unaffected, suggesting that interactions between multiple pathways are necessary for oncogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on STPOs, comparing 31 SCCD cases to 34 unrelated black STPO controls. The peak SNP on canine chromosome 15 was statistically significant at the genome-wide level (P(raw) = 1.60 × 10(-7); P(genome) = 0.0066). Additional mapping resolved the region to the KIT Ligand (KITLG) locus. Comparison of STPO cases to other at-risk breeds narrowed the locus to a 144.9-Kb region. Haplotype mapping among 84 STPO cases identified a minimal region of 28.3 Kb. A copy number variant (CNV) containing predicted enhancer elements was found to be strongly associated with SCCD in STPOs (P = 1.72 × 10(-8)). Light colored STPOs carry the CNV risk alleles at the same frequency as black STPOs, but are not susceptible to SCCD. A GWAS comparing 24 black and 24 light colored STPOs highlighted only the MC1R locus as significantly different between the two datasets, suggesting that a compensatory mutation within the MC1R locus likely protects light colored STPOs from disease. Our findings highlight a role for KITLG in SCCD susceptibility, as well as demonstrate that interactions between the KITLG and MC1R loci are potentially required for SCCD oncogenesis. These findings highlight how studies of breed-limited diseases are useful for disentangling multigene disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3610924PMC
March 2013

Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array.

Nat Genet 2013 Apr;45(4):385-91, 391e1-2

The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK.

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ∼30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832790PMC
April 2013

HOXB13 mutations in a population-based, case-control study of prostate cancer.

Prostate 2013 May 5;73(6):634-41. Epub 2012 Nov 5.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin malignancy in men in the Western world, yet few disease-associated mutations have been found. Recently, a low frequency recurring mutation in the HOXB13 gene was reported among both hereditary PC families and men from the general population.

Materials And Methods: We determined the distribution and frequency of the G84E HOXB13 variant in 1,310 incipient PC cases and 1,259 age-mated controls from a population-based, case-control study of PC.

Results: The G84E mutation was more frequent in cases than controls (1.3% vs. 0.4%, respectively), and men with the HOXB13 G84E variant had a 3.3-fold higher relative risk of PC compared with noncarriers (95% CI, 1.21-8.96). There was a stronger association between the G84E variant and PC among men with no first-degree relative with PC (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.12-14.51) compared to men with a family history of PC (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.30-7.50; P = 0.36 for interaction). We observed some evidence of higher risk estimates associated with the variant for men with higher versus lower Gleason score (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.38-12.38 vs. OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.88-8.30), and advanced versus local stage (OR, 4.47; 95% CI, 1.28-15.57 vs. OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.04-8.49), however these differences were not statistically different.

Conclusions: These results confirm the association of a rare HOXB13 mutation with PC in the general population and suggest that this variant may be associated with features of more aggressive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.22604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3612366PMC
May 2013

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci associated with aggressive and non-aggressive disease.

Hum Mol Genet 2013 Jan 12;22(2):408-15. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Strangeways Laboratory, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PrCa), but these explain less than one-third of the heritability. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS including 5953 cases of aggressive PrCa and 11 463 controls (men without PrCa). We computed association tests for approximately 2.6 million SNPs and followed up the most significant SNPs by genotyping 49 121 samples in 29 studies through the international PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. We not only confirmed the association of a PrCa susceptibility locus, rs11672691 on chromosome 19, but also showed an association with aggressive PrCa [odds ratio = 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.21), P = 1.4 × 10(-8)]. This report describes a genetic variant which is associated with aggressive PrCa, which is a type of PrCa associated with a poorer prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/dds425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3526158PMC
January 2013

Analysis of Xq27-28 linkage in the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics (ICPCG) families.

BMC Med Genet 2012 Jun 19;13:46. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

Inherited Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Background: Genetic variants are likely to contribute to a portion of prostate cancer risk. Full elucidation of the genetic etiology of prostate cancer is difficult because of incomplete penetrance and genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that genetic linkage to prostate cancer has been found on several chromosomes including the X; however, identification of causative genes has been elusive.

Methods: Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using 26 microsatellite markers in each of 11 groups of multiple-case prostate cancer families from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). Meta-analyses of the resultant family-specific linkage statistics across the entire 1,323 families and in several predefined subsets were then performed.

Results: Meta-analyses of linkage statistics resulted in a maximum parametric heterogeneity lod score (HLOD) of 1.28, and an allele-sharing lod score (LOD) of 2.0 in favor of linkage to Xq27-q28 at 138 cM. In subset analyses, families with average age at onset less than 65 years exhibited a maximum HLOD of 1.8 (at 138 cM) versus a maximum regional HLOD of only 0.32 in families with average age at onset of 65 years or older. Surprisingly, the subset of families with only 2-3 affected men and some evidence of male-to-male transmission of prostate cancer gave the strongest evidence of linkage to the region (HLOD = 3.24, 134 cM). For this subset, the HLOD was slightly increased (HLOD = 3.47 at 134 cM) when families used in the original published report of linkage to Xq27-28 were excluded.

Conclusions: Although there was not strong support for linkage to the Xq27-28 region in the complete set of families, the subset of families with earlier age at onset exhibited more evidence of linkage than families with later onset of disease. A subset of families with 2-3 affected individuals and with some evidence of male to male disease transmission showed stronger linkage signals. Our results suggest that the genetic basis for prostate cancer in our families is much more complex than a single susceptibility locus on the X chromosome, and that future explorations of the Xq27-28 region should focus on the subset of families identified here with the strongest evidence of linkage to this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-13-46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495053PMC
June 2012

The MTAP-CDKN2A locus confers susceptibility to a naturally occurring canine cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012 Jul 23;21(7):1019-27. Epub 2012 May 23.

Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Background: Advantages offered by canine population substructure, combined with clinical presentations similar to human disorders, makes the dog an attractive system for studies of cancer genetics. Cancers that have been difficult to study in human families or populations are of particular interest. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15% to 25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD).

Methods: Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected BMD in North America and Europe. Both independent and combined genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify cancer-associated loci. Fine mapping and sequencing narrowed the primary locus to a single gene region.

Results: Both populations shared the same primary locus, which features a single haplotype spanning MTAP and part of CDKN2A and is present in 96% of affected BMD. The haplotype is within the region homologous to human chromosome 9p21, which has been implicated in several types of cancer.

Conclusions: We present the first GWAS for histiocytic sarcoma in any species. The data identify an associated haplotype in the highly cited tumor suppressor locus near CDKN2A. These data show the power of studying distinctive malignancies in highly predisposed dog breeds.

Impact: Here, we establish a naturally occurring model of cancer susceptibility due to CDKN2 dysregulation, thus providing insight about this cancer-associated, complex, and poorly understood genomic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0190-TDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392365PMC
July 2012

Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study.

Nat Genet 2011 Jul 10;43(8):785-91. Epub 2011 Jul 10.

The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, UK.

Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of stage 3, in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 individuals with prostate cancer (cases) and 4,164 controls. We followed up ten new association signals through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p11, 3q23, 3q26, 5p12, 6p21, 12q13 and Xq12 (P = 4.0 × 10(-8) to P = 2.7 × 10(-24)). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated with PrCa than that previously reported. More than 40 PrCa susceptibility loci, explaining ∼25% of the familial risk in this disease, have now been identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396006PMC
July 2011

Family-based association analysis of 42 hereditary prostate cancer families identifies the Apolipoprotein L3 region on chromosome 22q12 as a risk locus.

Hum Mol Genet 2010 Oct 14;19(19):3852-62. Epub 2010 Jul 14.

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Building 50, Room 5351, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Multiple genome-wide scans for hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) have identified susceptibility loci on nearly every chromosome. However, few results have been replicated with statistical significance. One exception is chromosome 22q, for which five independent linkage studies yielded strong evidence for a susceptibility locus in HPC families. Previously, we refined this region to a 2.53 Mb interval, using recombination mapping in 42 linked pedigrees. We now refine this locus to a 15 kb interval, spanning Apolipoprotein L3 (APOL3), using family-based association analyses of 150 total prostate cancer (PC) cases from two independent family collections with 506 unrelated population controls. Analysis of the two independent sets of PC cases highlighted single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the APOL3 locus showing the strongest associations with HPC risk, with the most robust results observed when all 150 cases were combined. Analysis of 15 tagSNPs across the 5' end of the locus identified six SNPs with P-values < or =2 × 10(-4). The two independent sets of HPC cases highlight the same 15 kb interval at the 5' end of the APOL3 gene and provide strong evidence that SNPs within this 15 kb interval, or in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, contribute to HPC risk. Further analyses of this locus in an independent population-based, case-control study revealed an association between an SNP within the APOL3 locus and PC risk, which was not confirmed in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility data set. This study further characterizes the 22q locus in HPC risk and suggests that the role of this region in sporadic PC warrants additional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddq283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935853PMC
October 2010

Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study.

Nat Genet 2009 Oct 20;41(10):1116-21. Epub 2009 Sep 20.

The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, UK.

Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we previously conducted a genome-wide association study in which 541,129 SNPs were genotyped in 1,854 PrCa cases with clinically detected disease and in 1,894 controls. We have now extended the study to evaluate promising associations in a second stage in which we genotyped 43,671 SNPs in 3,650 PrCa cases and 3,940 controls and in a third stage involving an additional 16,229 cases and 14,821 controls from 21 studies. In addition to replicating previous associations, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11 and 22 (with P = 1.6 x 10(-8) to P = 2.7 x 10(-33)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846760PMC
October 2009

Multiple novel prostate cancer predisposition loci confirmed by an international study: the PRACTICAL Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008 Aug;17(8):2052-61

Section of Cancer Genetics Team, The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, United Kingdom.

A recent genome-wide association study found that genetic variants on chromosomes 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 19 and X were associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in these loci using a worldwide consortium of 13 groups (PRACTICAL). Blood DNA from 7,370 prostate cancer cases and 5,742 male controls was analyzed by genotyping assays. Odds ratios (OR) associated with each genotype were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Six of the seven SNPs showed clear evidence of association with prostate cancer (P = 0.0007-P = 10(-17)). For each of these six SNPs, the estimated per-allele OR was similar to those previously reported and ranged from 1.12 to 1.29. One SNP on 3p12 (rs2660753) showed a weaker association than previously reported [per-allele OR, 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.16; P = 0.06) versus 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.31)]. The combined risks associated with each pair of SNPs were consistent with a multiplicative risk model. Under this model, and in combination with previously reported SNPs on 8q and 17q, these loci explain 16% of the familial risk of the disease, and men in the top 10% of the risk distribution have a 2.1-fold increased risk relative to general population rates. This study provides strong confirmation of these susceptibility loci in multiple populations and shows that they make an important contribution to prostate cancer risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776652PMC
August 2008

Identification and characterization of novel SNPs in CHEK2 in Ashkenazi Jewish men with prostate cancer.

Cancer Lett 2008 Oct 20;270(1):173-80. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Department of Oncology and Medical Genetics, Cancer Prevention Centre, E740, Sir MB Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) is a protein involved in arresting cell cycle in response to DNA damage. To investigate whether it plays an important role in the development of prostate cancer (PRCA) in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we sequenced CHEK2 in 75 AJ individuals with prostate, breast, or no cancer (n=25 each). We identified seven coding SNPs (five are novel) that changed the amino-acid sequence, resulting in R3W, E394F, Y424H, S428F, D438Y, P509S, and P509L. We determined the frequency of each variant in 76 AJ families collected by members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) where >or=2 men were affected by PRCA. Only one variant, Y424H in exon 11, was identified in more than two families. Exon 11 was then screened in nine additional AJ ICPCG families (a total of 85 families). The Y424H variant occurred in nine affected cases from four different families; however, it did not completely segregate with the disease. We performed bioinformatics analysis, which showed that Y424H is a non-conservative missense substitution that falls at a position that is invariant in vertebrate CHEK2 orthologs. Both SIFT and Align-GVGD predict that Y424H is a loss of function mutation. However, the frequency of Y424H was not significantly different between unselected AJ cases from Montreal/Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) and AJ controls from Israel/MSKCC (OR 1.18, 95%CI: 0.34-4.61, p=.99). Moreover, functional assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the Y424H substitution did not alter function of CHEK2 protein. Although we cannot rule out a subtle influence of the CHEK2 variants on PRCA risk, these results suggest that germline CHEK2 mutations have a minor role in, if any, PRCA susceptibility in AJ men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.05.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2969172PMC
October 2008

Association of megalin genetic polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk and prognosis.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 Jun;14(12):3823-31

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Purpose: Megalin, an endocytic receptor expressed by prostate epithelial cells, can internalize biologically active androgens bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Genetic variation within megalin could potentially influence levels of steroid hormone uptake.

Experimental Design: Forty haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) were analyzed in a population-based, case-control study of 553 Caucasian men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between the ages of 40 and 64 years from the Seattle-Puget Sound region and 534 control men. Prostate cancer risk was estimated using adjusted unconditional logistic regression for both individual SNPs and haplotypes. Risks of disease recurrence/progression and prostate-specific cancer mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: We found no strong evidence of altered risk of developing prostate cancer for any of the htSNPs when they were assessed individually or in haplotypes. However, three htSNPs were significantly associated with both disease recurrence/progression and mortality. Risk of recurrence/progression alone was also associated with five additional htSNPs, and six other htSNPS showed evidence of modification by primary androgen deprivation therapy. Two additional htSNPs were significantly associated with altered risk of death from prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that common genetic variation within the megalin gene could alter both risk of recurrence/progression and prostate-specific cancer mortality. In addition, androgen deprivation therapy effectiveness may be modified by the activity of this gene. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has examined polymorphisms within the megalin gene for associations with prostate cancer risk and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675883PMC
June 2008

Multiple independent genetic variants in the 8q24 region are associated with prostate cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008 May;17(5):1203-13

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.

Recently, the 8q24 region has been identified as a prostate cancer susceptibility locus in a genome-wide scan of prostate cancer families in Iceland and an admixture scan of African Americans. Further investigations of variants at 8q24 have shown the existence of additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that enhance prostate cancer risk, suggesting the possibility of multiple regions harboring variants for the disease. In the present population-based study of Caucasians (1,308 cases and 1,266 controls) and African Americans (149 cases and 85 controls), we tested the association between prostate cancer and 23 SNPs in the 8q24 region. Fourteen SNPs in Caucasians and 5 SNPs in African Americans were significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons; of these, 5 SNPs in Caucasians and 3 in African Americans were independently associated with risk. The strongest association was for rs6983561 (carriers of any C allele) with an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.1) in Caucasians; variants in rs979200, rs1016343, rs7837328, and rs10090154 were also independently associated with risk. In African Americans, the strongest association was for rs7000448 (carriers of any T allele) with an odds ratio of 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-8.7). In addition, two SNPs that extend the boundaries of the 8q24 region were significantly associated with risk: rs979200 at the centromeric boundary and rs3891248, located in the first intron of the c-MYC gene (IVS1-355), which identifies a new telomeric boundary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2811DOI Listing
May 2008

Fine mapping of familial prostate cancer families narrows the interval for a susceptibility locus on chromosome 22q12.3 to 1.36 Mb.

Hum Genet 2008 Feb 8;123(1):65-75. Epub 2007 Dec 8.

Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Genetic studies suggest that hereditary prostate cancer is a genetically heterogeneous disease with multiple contributing loci. Studies of high-risk prostate cancer families selected for aggressive disease, analysis of large multigenerational families, and a meta-analysis from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG), all highlight chromosome 22q12.3 as a susceptibility locus with strong statistical significance. Recently, two publications have narrowed the 22q12.3 locus to a 2.18 Mb interval using 54 high-risk families from the ICPCG collaboration, as defined by three recombination events on either side of the locus. In this paper, we present the results from fine mapping studies at 22q12.3 using both haplotype and recombination data from 42 high-risk families contributed from the Mayo Clinic and the Prostate Cancer Genetic Research Study (PROGRESS) mapping studies. No clear consensus interval is present when all families are used. However, in the subset of 14 families with >/=5 affected men per family, a 2.53-Mb shared consensus segment that overlaps with the previously published interval is identified. Combining these results with data from the earlier ICPCG study reduces the three-recombination interval at 22q12.3 to approximately 1.36 Mb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-007-0451-yDOI Listing
February 2008

Genome-wide linkage scan of prostate cancer Gleason score and confirmation of chromosome 19q.

Hum Genet 2007 Jul 8;121(6):729-35. Epub 2007 May 8.

Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Despite evidence that prostate cancer has a genetic etiology, it has been extremely difficult to confirm genetic linkage results across studies, emphasizing the large extent of genetic heterogeneity associated with this disease. Because prostate cancer is common--approximately one in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their life--genetic linkage studies are likely plagued by phenocopies (i.e., men with prostate cancer due to environmental or lifestyle factors), weakly penetrant alleles, or a combination of both, making it difficult to replicate linkage findings. One way to account for heterogeneous causes is to use clinical information that is related to the aggressiveness of disease as an endpoint for linkage analyses. Gleason grade is a measure of prostate tumor differentiation, with higher grades associated with more aggressive disease. This semi-quantitative score has been used as a quantitative trait for linkage analysis in several prior studies. Our aim was to determine if prior linkage reports of Gleason grade to specific loci could be replicated, and to ascertain if new regions of linkage could be found. Gleason scores were available for 391 affected sib pairs from 183 hereditary prostate cancer pedigrees as part of the PROGRESS study. Analyzing Gleason score as a quantitative trait, and using microsatellite markers, suggestive evidence for linkage (P-value
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-007-0368-5DOI Listing
July 2007