Publications by authors named "Danielle M Brander"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ublituximab plus ibrutinib versus ibrutinib alone for patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (GENUINE): a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and high-risk features have poorer outcomes on ibrutinib than those without high-risk features. The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of adding ublituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, to ibrutinib therapy in this population.

Methods: We did a randomised, phase 3, multicentre study (GENUINE) of patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with at least one of 17p deletion, 11q deletion, or TP53 mutation, at 119 clinics in the USA and Israel. Eligible patients had received at least one previous chronic lymphocytic leukaemia therapy and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower. We randomised patients (1:1) using permuted block randomisation with a block size of four and stratified by previous lines of therapy (one vs two or more) to receive ibrutinib alone or ibrutinib in combination with ublituximab. Treatment allocation was not masked to patients or investigators. Ibrutinib was given orally daily at 420 mg for all cycles. Ublituximab was given intravenously in 28-day cycles, with increasing doses during cycle 1 (≤150 mg on day 1, 750 mg on day 2, and 900 mg on days 8 and 15) and continuing at 900 mg on day 1 of cycles 2-6. After cycle 6, ublituximab was given at 900 mg every three cycles. The study was initially designed with co-primary endpoints of progression-free survival and overall response rate but due to protracted patient accrual, the protocol was amended to have a single primary endpoint of independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (defined as the proportion of patients who had a partial response, complete response, or complete response with incomplete marrow recovery according to the 2008 International Workshop on CLL criteria) in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was evaluated in the population of patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02301156, and the final analysis is presented.

Findings: 224 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom 126 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ublituximab plus ibrutinib (n=64) or ibrutinib alone (n=62) between Feb 6, 2015, and Dec 19, 2016. After a median follow-up of 41·6 months (IQR 36·7-47·3), the overall response rate was 53 (83%) of 64 patients in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and 40 (65%) of 62 patients in the ibrutinib group (p=0·020). 117 patients, including 59 in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and 58 in the ibrutinib group, received at least one dose of treatment and were included in safety analyses. Most adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were neutropenia (11 [19%] patients in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and seven [12%] in the ibrutinib group), anaemia (five [8%] and five [9%]), and diarrhoea (six [10%] and three [5%]). The most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (six [10%] in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and four [7%] in the ibrutinib group), atrial fibrillation (four [7%] and one [2%]), sepsis (four [7%] and one [2%]), and febrile neutropenia (three [5%] and one [2%]). Two patients in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group died due to adverse events (one cardiac arrest and one failure to thrive), neither of which were treatment-related. Five patients in the ibrutinib group died due to adverse events, including one cardiac arrest, one cerebral infarction, one intracranial haemorrhage, one Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia infection, and one unexplained death; the death due to cardiac arrest was considered to be treatment-related.

Interpretation: The addition of ublituximab to ibrutinib resulted in a statistically higher overall response rate without affecting the safety profile of ibrutinib monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. These findings provide support for the addition of ublituximab to Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of these patients.

Funding: TG Therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30433-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Natural History of Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL) Among Relatives in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Families.

Blood 2020 Dec 21. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

NCI, Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

CLL has one of the highest familial-risks among cancers. MBL, the precursor to CLL, has a higher prevalence (13-18%) in families with two or more members with CLL compared to the general population (5-12%). Although, the rate of progression to CLL for high-count MBLs (clonal B-cell count³500/µL) is ~1-5%/year, no low-count MBLs has been reported to progress to date. We report the incidence and natural history of MBL in relatives from CLL families. In 310 CLL families, we screened 1045 relatives for MBL using highly-sensitive flow cytometry and prospectively followed 449 of them. MBL incidence was directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2010 United States population. CLL cumulative incidence was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. At baseline, the prevalence of MBL was 22% (235/1045 relatives). After a median follow-up of 8.1 years among 449 relatives, twelve individuals progressed to CLL with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 1.8%. When considering just the 139 relatives with low-count MBL, the 5-year cumulative incidence increased to 5.7%. Finally, 264 had no MBL at baseline of whom 60 individuals subsequently developed MBL (two high-count and 58 low-count MBLs) with an age- and sex-adjusted incidence of 3.5% after a median of 6 years of follow-up. In a screening cohort of relatives from CLL families, we reported progression from normal to low-count MBL to high-count MBL to CLL, demonstrating that low-count MBL precedes progression to CLL. We estimated a 1.1% annual rate of progression from low-count MBL, which is in excess to that in the general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006322DOI Listing
December 2020

Managing toxicities of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2020 12;2020(1):346-356

Duke University Health System, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC.

Despite the proven effective approach to targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in B-cell malignancies, the approved PI3K inhibitors idelalisib and duvelisib have been less commonly selected for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), given the availability of other more tolerable agents. However, patients with CLL/SLL can experience a disease course that is multiply relapsed, refractory, or intolerant to treatment, and PI3K inhibitors can achieve meaningful responses. This article reviews the common early- and late-onset (considered immune-mediated) toxicities with PI3K inhibitors, including infections, hepatotoxicity, diarrhea and/or colitis, and pneumonitis. Data on pretreatment considerations, toxicity management, and drug rechallenge are presented. In addition, next-generation PI3K inhibitors and novel treatment approaches with PI3K inhibitors, including combinations, time-limited treatments, and intermittent dosing, are highlighted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/hematology.2020000119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727518PMC
December 2020

Phase 2 Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Umbralisib in Patients with CLL Who Are Intolerant to BTK or PI3Kδ Inhibitor Therapy.

Blood 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Duke University Health System, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

Purpose: Intolerance is the most common reason for kinase inhibitor (KI) discontinuation in CLL. Umbralisib a novel, highly selective PI3Kδ/CK1ε inhibitor, is active and well tolerated in CLL patients. This phase 2 trial evaluated umbralisib in CLL patients who are intolerant to prior BTK or PI3K inhibitor therapy.

Patients And Methods: In this phase 2 trial (NCT02742090), umbralisib was initiated at 800 mg oral daily in CLL patients requiring therapy per investigator discretion who were intolerant to prior BTK or PI3K inhibitor therapy, until progression or toxicity. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included time to treatment failure and umbralisib safety profile. DNA isolated from buccal swabs was genotyped for polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2D6.

Results: Fifty-one patients were enrolled (44 BTKi and 7 PI3Kδi intolerant). Median age was 70 years (range 48-96), median of 2 prior lines of therapy (1-7), 24% had del17p and/or TP53 mutation, and 65% were IGHV unmutated. Most common AEs leading to prior KI discontinuation were rash (27%), arthralgia (18%), and atrial fibrillation (16%). Median progression free survival (PFS) was 23.5 months (95% CI 13.1-not estimable). 58% of patients were on umbralisib for a longer duration than prior KI. Most common (≥5%) grade ≥3 AEs on umbralisib (all causality) were neutropenia (18%), leukocytosis (14%), thrombocytopenia (12%), pneumonia (12%), and diarrhea (8%). Six patients (12%) discontinued umbralisib due to an AE. Eight patients (16%) had dose reductions and were successfully re-challenged.

Conclusions: Umbralisib is safe and effective in this BTK and alternate PI3K inhibitor intolerant CLL population. These are the first prospective data to confirm that switching from a BTK or alternate PI3K inhibitor to umbralisib can result in durable, well tolerated responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007376DOI Listing
December 2020

Hodgkin lymphoma arising in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: outcomes from a large multi-center collaboration.

Haematologica 2020 Oct 5;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Division of Hematology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who develop Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have limited survival. No current therapeutic standard of care exists. We conducted a multi-center retrospective study of patients with Hodgkin Transformation (HT) of CLL. Clinicobiologic characteristics, treatment type, and survival outcomes were analyzed and compared with historic case series. Ninety-four patients were identified. Median age at HT was 67 years (range, 38-85). Median time from CLL diagnosis to HT was 5.5 years (range, 0-20.2). Prior to HT, patients received a median of 2 therapies for CLL (range, 0-12). As initial therapy for HT, 61% (n=62) received ABVD-based regimens (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine). Seven (7%) patients received hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) while in first complete remission (CR1). The median number of treatments for HT per patient was 1 (range, 0-5) with 59 (61%) patients only receiving one line of therapy. After HT, patients had a median follow-up of 1.6 years (range, 0-15.1). Two-year overall survival (OS) after HT diagnosis was 72% (95%CI 62-83%). The patients who received standard ABVD-based therapy had a median OS of 13.2 years. Although limited by small sample size, the patients who underwent HCT for HT in CR1 had a similar 2-year OS (n=7; 67%) compared to patients who did not undergo HCT for HT in CR1 (n=87; 72%; p=0.46). In this multi-center study, HT patients treated with ABVD-based regimens had prolonged survival supporting the use of these regimens as standard of care for these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.256388DOI Listing
October 2020

Efficacy of bendamustine and rituximab in unfit patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Indirect comparison with ibrutinib in a real-world setting. A GIMEMA-ERIC and US study.

Cancer Med 2020 Nov 24;9(22):8468-8479. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Strategic Research Program on CLL, Division of Experimental Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Limited information is available on the efficacy of front-line bendamustine and rituximab (BR) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with reduced renal function or coexisting conditions. We therefore analyzed a cohort of real-world patients and performed a matched adjusted indirect comparison with a cohort of patients treated with ibrutinib. One hundred and fifty-seven patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) <70 mL/min and/or CIRS score >6 were treated with BR. The median age was 72 years; 69% of patients had ≥2 comorbidities and the median CrCl was 59.8 mL/min. 17.6% of patients carried TP53 disruption. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 45 months; TP53 disruption was associated with a shorter PFS (P = 0.05). The overall survival (OS) at 12, 24, and 36 months was 96.2%, 90.1%, and 79.5%, respectively. TP53 disruption was associated with an increased risk of death (P = 0.01). Data on 162 patients ≥65 years treated with ibrutinib were analyzed and compared with 165 patients ≥65 years treated with BR. Factors predicting for a longer PFS at multivariable analysis in the total patient population treated with BR and ibrutinib were age (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10, P < 0.01) and treatment with ibrutinib (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.93, P = 0.03). In a post hoc analysis of patients in advanced stage, a significant PFS advantage was observed in patient who had received ibrutinib (P = 0.03), who showed a trend for OS advantage (P = 0.08). We arrived at the following conclusions: (a) BR is a relatively effective first-line regimen in a real-world population of unfit patients without TP53 disruption, (b) ibrutinib provided longer disease control than BR in patients with advanced disease stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666748PMC
November 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of novel agents.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(16):3977-3989

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Although novel agents (NAs) have improved outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a subset will progress through all available NAs. Understanding outcomes for potentially curative modalities including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) following NA therapy is critical while devising treatment sequences aimed at long-term disease control. In this multicenter, retrospective cohort study, we examined 65 patients with CLL who underwent alloHCT following exposure to ≥1 NA, including baseline disease and transplant characteristics, treatment preceding alloHCT, transplant outcomes, treatment following alloHCT, and survival outcomes. Univariable and multivariable analyses evaluated associations between pre-alloHCT factors and progression-free survival (PFS). Twenty-four-month PFS, overall survival (OS), nonrelapse mortality, and relapse incidence were 63%, 81%, 13%, and 27% among patients transplanted for CLL. Day +100 cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 24%; moderate-severe GVHD developed in 27%. Poor-risk disease characteristics, prior NA exposure, complete vs partial remission, and transplant characteristics were not independently associated with PFS. Hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index independently predicts PFS. PFS and OS were not impacted by having received NAs vs both NAs and chemoimmunotherapy, 1 vs ≥2 NAs, or ibrutinib vs venetoclax as the line of therapy immediately pre-alloHCT. AlloHCT remains a viable long-term disease control strategy that overcomes adverse CLL characteristics. Prior NAs do not appear to impact the safety of alloHCT, and survival outcomes are similar regardless of number of NAs received, prior chemoimmunotherapy exposure, or NA immediately preceding alloHCT. Decisions about proceeding to alloHCT should consider comorbidities and anticipated response to remaining therapeutic options.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448605PMC
August 2020

Outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with CLL: a multicenter international experience.

Blood 2020 09;136(10):1134-1143

Department of Haematology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Given advanced age, comorbidities, and immune dysfunction, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients may be at particularly high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Robust analysis of outcomes for CLL patients, particularly examining effects of baseline characteristics and CLL-directed therapy, is critical to optimally manage CLL patients through this evolving pandemic. CLL patients diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 across 43 international centers (n = 198) were included. Hospital admission occurred in 90%. Median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 70.5 years. Median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score was 8 (range, 4-32). Thirty-nine percent were treatment naive ("watch and wait"), while 61% had received ≥1 CLL-directed therapy (median, 2; range, 1-8). Ninety patients (45%) were receiving active CLL therapy at COVID-19 diagnosis, most commonly Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi's; n = 68/90 [76%]). At a median follow-up of 16 days, the overall case fatality rate was 33%, though 25% remain admitted. Watch-and-wait and treated cohorts had similar rates of admission (89% vs 90%), intensive care unit admission (35% vs 36%), intubation (33% vs 25%), and mortality (37% vs 32%). CLL-directed treatment with BTKi's at COVID-19 diagnosis did not impact survival (case fatality rate, 34% vs 35%), though the BTKi was held during the COVID-19 course for most patients. These data suggest that the subgroup of CLL patients admitted with COVID-19, regardless of disease phase or treatment status, are at high risk of death. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to assess severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection risk, these data should be validated independently, and randomized studies of BTKi's in COVID-19 are needed to provide definitive evidence of benefit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472711PMC
September 2020

Impact of exercise on the immune system and outcomes in hematologic malignancies.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(8):1801-1811

Division of Medical Oncology, and.

Exercise is increasingly recognized as important to cancer care. The biology of how exercise improves outcomes is not well understood, however. Studies show that exercise favorably influences the immune system in healthy individuals (neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and a number of cytokines). Thus, exercise in patients with hematologic cancer could significantly improve immune function and tumor microenvironment. We performed a literature search and identified 7 studies examining exercise and the immune environment in hematologic malignancies. This review focuses on the role of exercise and physical activity on the immune system in hematologic malignancies and healthy adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189285PMC
April 2020

Prognostic Testing and Treatment Patterns in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in the Era of Novel Targeted Therapies: Results From the informCLL Registry.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 03 21;20(3):174-183.e3. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Willamette Valley Cancer Institute & Research Center/US Oncology Research, Eugene, OR.

Introduction: The therapeutic landscape for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has significantly shifted with the approval of novel agents. Understanding current prognostic testing and treatment practices in this new era is critical. Beginning enrollment in 2015, informCLL is the first United States-based real-world, prospective, observational registry that initiated enrollment after approval of novel agents.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years, started CLL treatment within 30 days of enrollment, and provided consent. For this planned interim analysis, treatments were classified into 5 groups: ibrutinib, chemoimmunotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and other novel agents.

Results: Frequency of prognostic testing and treatment patterns are reported among 840 patients (459 previously untreated; 381 relapsed/refractory), enrolled largely (96%) from community practice settings. Testing for chromosomal abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization, TP53 mutation, or IGHV mutation status occurred infrequently among all patients (31%, 11%, and 11%, respectively). Chemoimmunotherapy was the most common treatment in previously untreated patients (42%), whereas ibrutinib was the most common treatment among relapsed/refractory patients (51%). Of patients who tested positive for del(17p) or TP53 mutation, 34% and 26% received chemoimmunotherapy, respectively. Among patients who did not have fluorescence in situ hybridization or TP53 mutation testing prior to enrollment, 33% and 32% received chemoimmunotherapy, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that prognostic testing rates were poor, and approximately one-third of high-risk patients (del[17p] and TP53) received chemoimmunotherapy, which is not aligned with current CLL treatment recommendations. This represents an opportunity to educate and alert health care professionals about the necessity of prognostic testing to guide optimal CLL treatment decisions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890939PMC
March 2020

The efficacy and safety of venetoclax therapy in elderly patients with relapsed, refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2020 03 4;188(6):918-923. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Elderly chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients treated outside of trials have notably greater toxicity with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib compared to younger patients. It is not known whether the same holds true for the B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor venetoclax. We provide a comprehensive analysis of key safety measures and efficacy in 342 patients comparing age categories ≥75 and <75 years treated in the relapsed, refractory non-trial setting. We demonstrate that venetoclax has equivalent efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory CLL patients who are elderly, the majority of whom are previous ibrutinib-exposed and therefore may otherwise have few clear therapeutic options.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528953PMC
March 2020

Ibrutinib plus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab as initial treatment for younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Aug 14;6(8):e419-e428. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Oncology, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) can improve disease-free survival for younger (age ≤65 years) fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with mutated IGHV. However, patients with unmutated IGHV rarely have durable responses. Ibrutinib is active for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia irrespective of IGHV mutation status but requires continuous treatment. We postulated that time-limited ibrutinib plus FCR would induce durable responses in younger fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, single-arm phase 2 trial at seven sites in the USA. We enrolled patients aged 65 years or younger with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Our initial cohort (original cohort) was not restricted by prognostic marker status and included patients who had del(17p) or TP53 aberrations. After a protocol amendment (on March 21, 2017), we enrolled an additional cohort (expansion cohort) that included patients without del(17p). Ibrutinib was given orally (420 mg/day) for 7 days, then up to six 28-day cycles were administered intravenously of fludarabine (25 mg/m, days 1-3), cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m, days 1-3), and rituximab (375 mg/m day 1 of cycle 1; 500 mg/m day 1 of cycles 2-6) with continuous oral ibrutinib (420 mg/day). Responders continued on ibrutinib maintenance for up to 2 years, and patients with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow after 2 years were able to discontinue treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR. Analyses were done per-protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02251548) and is ongoing.

Findings: Between Oct 23, 2014, and April 23, 2018, 85 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled. del(17p) was detected in four (5%) of 83 patients and TP53 mutations were noted in three (4%) of 81 patients; two patients had both del(17p) and TP53 mutations. Median patients' age was 55 years (IQR 50-58). At data cutoff, median follow-up was 16·5 months (IQR 10·6-34·1). A complete response and undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR was achieved by 28 (33%, 95% CI 0·23-0·44) of 85 patients (p=0·0035 compared with a 20% historical value with FCR alone). A best response of undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow was achieved by 71 (84%) of 85 patients during the study. One patient had disease progression and one patient died (sudden cardiac death after 17 months of ibrutinib maintenance, assessed as possibly related to ibrutinib). The most common all-grade toxic effects were haematological, including thrombocytopenia in 63 (74%) patients, neutropenia in 53 (62%), and anaemia in 41 (49%). Grade 3 or 4 non-haematological serious adverse events included grade 3 atrial fibrillation in three (4%) patients and grade 3 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in two (2%).

Interpretation: The proportion of patients who achieved undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow with ibrutinib plus FCR is, to our knowledge, the highest ever published in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia unrestricted by prognostic marker status. Ibrutinib plus FCR is promising as a time-limited combination regimen for frontline chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treatment in younger fit patients.

Funding: Pharmacyclics and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30104-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036668PMC
August 2019

A retrospective comparison of venetoclax alone or in combination with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in R/R CLL.

Blood Adv 2019 05;3(10):1568-1573

Nottingham University Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Venetoclax (VEN) is approved for relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as monotherapy (VENmono) or in combination with rituximab. Whether VEN plus anti-CD20 (VENcombo) is superior to VENmono is unknown. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis comparing 321 CLL patients treated with VENmono vs VENcombo across the United States and the United Kingdom. We examined demographics, baseline characteristics, dosing, adverse events, response rates, and outcomes. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, in patients treated with VENmono vs VENcombo. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed with COX regression. Three hundred twenty-one CLL patients were included (3 median prior treatments, 78% prior ibrutinib). The overall response rates (ORRs) were similar (VENmono, 81% ORR, 34% complete remission [CR] vs VENcombo, 84% ORR, 32% CR). With a median follow-up of 13.4 months, no differences in PFS and OS were observed between the groups. In unadjusted analyses, the hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS for VENmono vs VENcombo were HR 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-1.8; = .7) and HR 1.2 (95% CI, 0.6-2.3; = .5), respectively. When adjusting for differences between the cohorts, the addition of an anti-CD20 antibody in combination with VEN did not impact PFS (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.0; = .9) or OS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6; = .8). We demonstrate comparable efficacy between VENmono and VENcombo in a heavily pretreated, high-risk, retrospective cohort, in terms of both response data and survival outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538868PMC
May 2019

Post-translational regulation could be determine functional differences between SET alpha and beta isoform - Response to Cristóbal et al.

Br J Haematol 2019 08 1;186(4):637. Epub 2019 May 1.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15934DOI Listing
August 2019

Tumor Lysis, Adverse Events, and Dose Adjustments in 297 Venetoclax-Treated CLL Patients in Routine Clinical Practice.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 07 19;25(14):4264-4270. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: Clinical trials of venetoclax reported negligible rates of clinical tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) when using an extended dose escalation schedule. We aimed to understand TLS prophylaxis, rates of select adverse events (AE), and impact of dosing modifications in routine clinical practice.

Experimental Design: This retrospective cohort study included 297 CLL venetoclax-treated patients outside of clinical trials in academic and community centers. Demographics, baseline disease characteristics, venetoclax dosing, TLS risk and prophylaxis, and AEs were collected.

Results: The group was 69% male, 96% had relapsed/refractory CLL, 45% had deletion chromosome 17p, 84% had unmutated , 80% received venetoclax monotherapy, and median age was 67. TLS risk was categorized as low (40%), intermediate (32%), or high (28%), and 62% had imaging prior to venetoclax initiation. Clinical TLS occurred in 2.7% of patients and laboratory TLS occurred in 5.7%. Pre-venetoclax TLS risk group and creatinine clearance independently predict TLS development in multivariable analysis. Grade 3/4 AEs included neutropenia (39.6%), thrombocytopenia (29.2%), infection (25%), neutropenic fever (7.9%), and diarrhea (6.9%). Twenty-two patients (7.4%) discontinued venetoclax due to an AE. Progression-free survival was similar regardless of number of dose interruptions, length of dose interruption, and stable venetoclax dose.

Conclusions: These data provide insights into current use of venetoclax in clinical practice, including TLS rates observed in clinical practice. We identified opportunities for improved adherence to TLS risk stratification and prophylaxis, which may improve safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0361DOI Listing
July 2019

Ibrutinib Regimens versus Chemoimmunotherapy in Older Patients with Untreated CLL.

N Engl J Med 2018 12 1;379(26):2517-2528. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

From Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus (J.A.W., A.S.R., N.A.H., W.Z., K.A.R., G.L., J.S.B., H.G.O., J.C.B.); the Alliance Statistics and Data Center (A.S.R., A.M.B., B.M.-E., B.F., S.J.M.), Mayo Clinic (W.D., S.A.P., M.L.), Rochester, MN; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (N.L.B.); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham (D.M.B., H.E.), and First Health of the Carolinas Cancer Center, Pinehurst (C.K.) - both in North Carolina; the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (P.M.B.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (S.C.), and the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte (A.H.) - both in California; Dana-Farber Partners CancerCare (J.R.B., R.M.S.) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center (J.S.A.) - both in Boston; Fort Wayne Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fort Wayne, IN (S.N.); University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center (R.A.L.) and Loyola University Chicago (S.E.S.) - both in Chicago; the University of Calgary, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada (C.O.); and the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (R.F.L.).

Background: Ibrutinib has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) since 2016 but has not been compared with chemoimmunotherapy. We conducted a phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of ibrutinib, either alone or in combination with rituximab, relative to chemoimmunotherapy.

Methods: Patients 65 years of age or older who had untreated CLL were randomly assigned to receive bendamustine plus rituximab, ibrutinib, or ibrutinib plus rituximab. The primary end point was progression-free survival. The Alliance Data and Safety Monitoring Board made the decision to release the data after the protocol-specified efficacy threshold had been met.

Results: A total of 183 patients were assigned to receive bendamustine plus rituximab, 182 to receive ibrutinib, and 182 to receive ibrutinib plus rituximab. Median progression-free survival was reached only with bendamustine plus rituximab. The estimated percentage of patients with progression-free survival at 2 years was 74% with bendamustine plus rituximab and was higher with ibrutinib alone (87%; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.58; P<0.001) and with ibrutinib plus rituximab (88%; hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.59; P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the ibrutinib-plus-rituximab group and the ibrutinib group with regard to progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.62; P=0.49). With a median follow-up of 38 months, there was no significant difference among the three treatment groups with regard to overall survival. The rate of grade 3, 4, or 5 hematologic adverse events was higher with bendamustine plus rituximab (61%) than with ibrutinib or ibrutinib plus rituximab (41% and 39%, respectively), whereas the rate of grade 3, 4, or 5 nonhematologic adverse events was lower with bendamustine plus rituximab (63%) than with the ibrutinib-containing regimens (74% with each regimen).

Conclusions: Among older patients with untreated CLL, treatment with ibrutinib was superior to treatment with bendamustine plus rituximab with regard to progression-free survival. There was no significant difference between ibrutinib and ibrutinib plus rituximab with regard to progression-free survival. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and Pharmacyclics; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01886872 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1812836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325637PMC
December 2018

SET alpha and SET beta mRNA isoforms in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2019 02 15;184(4):605-615. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Alteration in RNA splicing is implicated in carcinogenesis and progression. Mutations in spliceosome genes and alternative splicing of other genes have been noted in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), a common B cell malignancy with heterogeneous outcomes. We previously demonstrated that differences in the amount of SET oncoprotein (a physiological inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase, PP2A) is associated with clinical aggressiveness in patients with CLL. It is unknown if alternative splicing of gene transcripts regulating kinases and phosphatases affects disease pathobiology and CLL progression. We show here for the first time that mRNA levels of the alternatively spliced SET isoforms, SETA and SETB (SETα and SETβ), significantly correlate with disease severity (overall survival and time-to-first-treatment) in CLL patients. In addition, we demonstrate that relative increase of SETA to SETB mRNA can discriminate patients with a more aggressive disease course within the otherwise favourable CLL risk classifications of IGHV mutated and favourable hierarchical fluorescence in situ hybridisation groups. We validate our finding by showing comparable relationships of SET mRNA with disease outcomes using samples from an independent CLL cohort from a separate institution. These findings indicate that alternative splicing of SET, and potentially other signalling cascade molecules, influences CLL biology and patient outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15677DOI Listing
February 2019

Outcomes of front-line ibrutinib treated CLL patients excluded from landmark clinical trial.

Am J Hematol 2018 11 26;93(11):1394-1401. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Cardinal Health, Dublin, Ohio.

Ibrutinib demonstrated superior response rates and survival for treatment-naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients in a pivotal study that excluded patients younger than 65 (<65) and/or with chromosome 17p13 deletion (del[17p13]). We examined outcomes and toxicities of CLL patients who would have been excluded from the pivotal study, specifically <65 and/or those with del[17p13]. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study examined CLL patients treated with front-line ibrutinib at 20 community and academic centers, categorizing them based on key inclusion criteria for the RESONATE-2 trial: <65 vs ≥65 and present vs absent del[17p13]. Of 391 included patients, 57% would have been excluded from the pivotal study. Forty-one percent of our cohort was <65, and 30% had del(17p13). Patients <65 were more likely to start 420 mg of ibrutinib daily; those who started at reduced doses had inferior PFS. The most common adverse events were arthralgias, fatigue, rash, bruising, and diarrhea. Twenty-four percent discontinued ibrutinib at 13.8 months median follow-up; toxicity was the most common reason for discontinuation, though progression and/or transformation accounted for a larger proportion of discontinuations in <65 and those with del(17p13). Response rates were similar for <65 and those with del(17p13). However, patients with del(17p13) had inferior PFS and OS. Ibrutinib in the front-line setting has extended beyond the population in which it was initially studied and approved. This study highlights and compares important differences in ibrutinib dosing, treatment interruptions, toxicities, reasons for discontinuation, and survival outcomes in two important patient populations not studied in RESONATE-2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552812PMC
November 2018

Real-world outcomes and management strategies for venetoclax-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in the United States.

Haematologica 2018 09 7;103(9):1511-1517. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Cardinal Health, Dublin, OH, USA.

Venetoclax is a BCL2 inhibitor approved for 17p-deleted relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia with activity following kinase inhibitors. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with venetoclax to describe outcomes, toxicities, and treatment selection following venetoclax discontinuation. A total of 141 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were included (98% relapsed/refractory). Median age at venetoclax initiation was 67 years (range 37-91), median prior therapies was 3 (0-11), 81% unmutated , 45% del(17p), and 26.8% complex karyotype (≥ 3 abnormalities). Prior to venetoclax initiation, 89% received a B-cell receptor antagonist. For tumor lysis syndrome prophylaxis, 93% received allopurinol, 92% normal saline, and 45% rasburicase. Dose escalation to the maximum recommended dose of 400 mg daily was achieved in 85% of patients. Adverse events of interest included neutropenia in 47.4%, thrombocytopenia in 36%, tumor lysis syndrome in 13.4%, neutropenic fever in 11.6%, and diarrhea in 7.3%. The overall response rate to venetoclax was 72% (19.4% complete remission). With a median follow up of 7 months, median progression free survival and overall survival for the entire cohort have not been reached. To date, 41 venetoclax treated patients have discontinued therapy and 24 have received a subsequent therapy, most commonly ibrutinib. In the largest clinical experience of venetoclax-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, the majority successfully completed and maintained a maximum recommended dose. Response rates and duration of response appear comparable to clinical trial data. Venetoclax was active in patients with mutations known to confer ibrutinib resistance. Optimal sequencing of newer chronic lymphocytic leukemia therapies requires further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.193615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119152PMC
September 2018

Drivers of treatment patterns in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia stopping ibrutinib or idelalisib therapies.

Cancer Biol Ther 2018 07 30;19(7):636-643. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

e Division of Hematologic Malignancies & Cellular Therapy, Duke University , Durham , NC , United States.

Novel therapies including kinase inhibitors (KI) have led to high and durable response in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however, some patients stop therapy. This study evaluates reasons for treatment changes among CLL patients who stopped KI in real-world practice. Sixty-nine US oncologists/hematologists provided patient-level data abstracted from charts of CLL adult patients who initiated a KI and later (1) switched to another anti-neoplastic regimen (Switched cohort), (2) discontinued the KI and remained untreated (Discontinued cohort), or (3) restarted the same KI after an interruption of ≥60 days (Restarted cohort). Demographics, clinical/treatment characteristics, and reasons for stopping, restarting, and switching the KI therapy were described. In the Switched cohort, reasons for stopping included disease progression (72.5%), low/no disease activity (3.9%), adverse event [AE]/ intolerance/comorbidity (15.7%), and planned cellular therapies (7.9%). In the Discontinued cohort, approximately half (46.0%) of patients stopped KI therapy because they were terminally ill/died, or were moved to best supportive care - these patients were older, had more severe disease, and high comorbidity burden. The other half (54.0% of patients) stopped due to low/no disease activity (24.0%), AEs/toxicity (12.0%), or patient-requested drug holiday (18.0%). In the Restarted cohort, the most common reasons for stopping KIs were patient request (37.3%), AEs/intolerance (31.4%), and economic reasons (10%). Patients restarted when disease progressed (60.8%) or when they recovered from the AE (33%). Reasons for KI stop and subsequent treatment patterns were varied and multifactorial, suggesting heterogeneous disease management and a need for more evidence around supporting strategies and physician education.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2018.1449616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989798PMC
July 2018

Umbralisib, a novel PI3Kδ and casein kinase-1ε inhibitor, in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphoma: an open-label, phase 1, dose-escalation, first-in-human study.

Lancet Oncol 2018 04 20;19(4):486-496. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Center for Lymphoid Malignancies, Columbia University Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons/New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Umbralisib (TGR-1202) is a novel next-generation inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) isoform p110δ (PI3Kδ), which is structurally distinct from other PI3Kδ inhibitors and shows improved isoform selectivity. Umbralisib also uniquely inhibits casein kinase-1ε, a major regulator of protein translation. The aim of this first-in-human phase 1 study was to establish the safety and preliminary activity profile of umbralisib in patients with haematological malignancies.

Methods: We did an open-label, phase 1, dose-escalation study at seven clinics in the USA. We recruited patients aged at least 18 years with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, B-cell and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Hodgkin's lymphoma, who had received one or more previous lines of therapy, with measurable and assessable disease, and adequate organ system function. Patients self-administered an umbralisib oral tablet once per day in 28-day cycles, with dose escalation done in a traditional 3 + 3 design to establish safety and determine the maximum tolerated dose. In initial cohorts, patients took umbralisib in a fasting state at a starting dose of 50 mg, increasing to 100, 200, 400, 800, 1200, and 1800 mg until the maximum tolerated dose was reached, or the maximal dose cohort was accrued without a dose-limiting toxicity. Subsequent cohorts self-administered a micronised formulation of umbralisib tablet in a fed state at an initial dose of 200 mg, increased in increments to 400, 800, 1200, and 1800 mg until the maximum tolerated dose or the maximal dose level was accrued. In August, 2014, all patients still on study were transitioned to 800 mg of the micronised formulation and dosing of the initial formulation was discontinued. The primary endpoints of the study were investigator-assessed safety in all treated patients (the safety population), the maximum tolerated dose, and the pharmacokinetics of umbralisib. Secondary endpoints included preliminary assessments of anti-cancer activity (objective responses and duration of response). Follow-up stopped for a patient once they discontinued therapy. This study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01767766.

Findings: Between Jan 17, 2013, and Jan 14, 2016, we enrolled and treated 90 patients with umbralisib. The median duration of treatment and follow-up was 4·7 cycles (IQR 2·0-14·0) or 133 days (IQR 55-335). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events irrespective of causality were diarrhoea (in 39 [43%] of 90 patients), nausea (38 [42%]), and fatigue (28 [31%]). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (in 12 [13%] patients), anaemia (eight [9%]) and thrombocytopenia (six [7%]). Serious adverse events considered at least possibly related to umbralisib occurred in seven patients: pneumonia in three (3%) patients, lung infection in one (1%), febrile neutropenia in one (1%), and colitis in two (2%), one of whom also had febrile neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose was 1200 mg of the micronised formulation, with 800 mg of this formulation selected as the recommended phase 2 dose. Both cases of colitis occurred at above the recommended phase 2 dose. 33 (37%) of the 90 patients enrolled had an objective response to treatment with umbralisib.

Interpretation: Umbralisib was well tolerated and showed preliminary signs of activity in patients with relapsed or refractory haematological malignancies. The safety profile of umbralisib in this phase 1 study was distinct from that of other PI3Kδ inhibitors, with fewer occurrences of autoimmune-like toxicities such as colitis. These findings warrant further evaluation of this agent in this setting.

Funding: TG Therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30082-2DOI Listing
April 2018

Toxicities and outcomes of 616 ibrutinib-treated patients in the United States: a real-world analysis.

Haematologica 2018 05 1;103(5):874-879. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Hematology/Oncology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC, USA.

Clinical trials that led to ibrutinib's approval for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia showed that its side effects differ from those of traditional chemotherapy. Reasons for discontinuation in clinical practice have not been adequately studied. We conducted a retrospective analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with ibrutinib either commercially or on clinical trials. We aimed to compare the type and frequency of toxicities reported in either setting, assess discontinuation rates, and evaluate outcomes. This multicenter, retrospective analysis included ibrutinib-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients at nine United States cancer centers or from the Connect® Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry. We examined demographics, dosing, discontinuation rates and reasons, toxicities, and outcomes. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Six hundred sixteen ibrutinib-treated patients were identified. A total of 546 (88%) patients were treated with the commercial drug. Clinical trial patients were younger (mean age 58 61 years, =0.01) and had a similar time from diagnosis to treatment with ibrutinib (mean 85 87 months, =0.8). With a median follow-up of 17 months, an estimated 41% of patients discontinued ibrutinib (median time to ibrutinib discontinuation was 7 months). Notably, ibrutinib toxicity was the most common reason for discontinuation in all settings. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for the entire cohort were 35 months and not reached (median follow-up 17 months), respectively. In the largest reported series on ibrutinib- treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, we show that 41% of patients discontinued ibrutinib. Intolerance as opposed to chronic lymphocytic leukemia progression was the most common reason for discontinuation. Outcomes remain excellent and were not affected by line of therapy or whether patients were treated on clinical studies or commercially. These data strongly argue in favor of finding strategies to minimize ibrutinib intolerance so that efficacy can be further maximized. Future clinical trials should consider time-limited therapy approaches, particularly in patients achieving a complete response, in order to minimize ibrutinib exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.182907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927982PMC
May 2018

Venetoclax plus rituximab in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 1b study.

Lancet Oncol 2017 Feb 13;18(2):230-240. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Clinical Haematology and BMT, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Division of Cancer and Haematology, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Selective BCL2 inhibition with venetoclax has substantial activity in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Combination therapy with rituximab enhanced activity in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of venetoclax in combination with rituximab.

Methods: Adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (according to the 2008 Modified International Workshop on CLL guidelines) or small lymphocytic lymphoma were eligible for this phase 1b, dose-escalation trial. The primary outcomes were to assess the safety profile, to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and to establish the recommended phase 2 dose of venetoclax when given in combination with rituximab. Secondary outcomes were to assess the pharmacokinetic profile and analyse efficacy, including overall response, duration of response, and time to tumour progression. Minimal residual disease was a protocol-specified exploratory objective. Central review of the endpoints was not done. Venetoclax was dosed daily using a stepwise escalation to target doses (200-600 mg) and then monthly rituximab commenced (375 mg/m in month 1 and 500 mg/m in months 2-6). Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events version 4.0. Protocol-guided drug cessation was allowed for patients who achieved complete response (including complete response with incomplete marrow recovery) or negative bone marrow minimal residual disease. Analyses were done per protocol for all patients who commenced drug and included all patients who received at least one dose of venetoclax. Data were pooled across dose cohorts. Patients are still receiving therapy and follow-up is ongoing. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01682616.

Findings: Between Aug 6, 2012, and May 28, 2014, we enrolled 49 patients. Common grade 1-2 toxicities included upper respiratory tract infections (in 28 [57%] of 49 patients), diarrhoea (27 [55%]), and nausea (25 [51%]). Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 37 (76%) of 49 patients; most common were neutropenia (26 [53%]), thrombocytopenia (eight [16%]), anaemia (seven [14%]), febrile neutropenia (six [12%]), and leucopenia (six [12%]). The most common serious adverse events were pyrexia (six [12%]), febrile neutropenia (five [10%]), lower respiratory tract infection, and pneumonia (each three [6%]). Clinical tumour lysis syndrome occurred in two patients (resulting in one death) who initiated venetoclax at 50 mg. After enhancing tumour lysis syndrome prophylaxis measures and commencing venetoclax at 20 mg, clinical tumour lysis syndrome did not occur. The maximum tolerated dose was not identified; the recommended phase 2 dose of venetoclax in combination with rituximab was 400 mg. Overall, 42 (86%) of 49 patients achieved a response, including a complete response in 25 (51%) of 49 patients. 2 year estimates for progression-free survival and ongoing response were 82% (95% CI 66-91) and 89% (95% CI 72-96), respectively. Negative marrow minimal residual disease was attained in 20 (80%) of 25 complete responders and 28 (57%) of 49 patients overall. 13 responders ceased all therapy; among these all 11 minimal residual disease-negative responders remain progression-free off therapy. Two with minimal residual disease-positive complete response progressed after 24 months off therapy and re-attained response after re-initiation of venetoclax.

Interpretation: A substantial proportion of patients achieved an overall response with the combination of venetoclax and rituximab including 25 (51%) of 49 patients who achieved a complete response and 28 (57%) of 49 patients who achieved negative marrow minimal residual disease with acceptable safety. The depth and durability of responses observed with the combination offers an attractive potential treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and could allow some patients to maintain response after discontinuing therapy, a strategy that warrants further investigation in randomised studies.

Funding: AbbVie Inc and Genentech Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30012-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316338PMC
February 2017

Rationale for combinatory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treatment paradigms in the era of the B-cell receptor pathway and anti-apoptotic inhibitors: how do we mix, match, and move forward?

Br J Haematol 2017 02 16;176(3):337-340. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Division of Hematological Malignancies & Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14446DOI Listing
February 2017

Ofatumumab monotherapy as a consolidation strategy in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2016 Sep 1;3(9):e407-14. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Although several consolidation strategies to prolong treatment-free survival (TFS) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have been investigated, most have proven either ineffective or toxic. Ofatumumab is a human type I anti-CD20 antibody approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as maintenance treatment of patients with recurrent or progressive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who are in complete or partial response after at least two lines of treatment; higher efficacy might be observed if used as consolidation strategy than without consolidation in previously untreated patients.

Methods: We recruited patients with previously untreated progressive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 and adequate renal and hepatic function from centres in the USA. Patients with recent myocardial infarction; class III or IV heart failure; uncontrolled, HIV, or active hepatitis B or C infection; or active haemolytic anaemia were excluded. In the first arm of this study, which has been previously reported, patients were treated with six cycles of induction with pentostatin (2 mg/m(2) on day 1), cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2) on day 1), and ofatumumab (cycle 1: 300 mg on day 1 and 1000 mg/m(2) on day 2; cycles 2-6: 1000 mg/m(2) on day 1) given intravenously every 21 days. Here were report the second arm, where patients received the same regimen as the first arm, with the addition of six cycles of consolidation with ofatumumab (1000 mg once every 4 weeks), also given intravenously. The primary endpoint was TFS at 18 months, assessed in those who began consolidation. We estimated the distribution of TFS using the Kaplan-Meier method, assessing between-group differences with log-rank statistics. The phase 2 trial, which is completed, is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01024010.

Findings: Between Sept 21, 2011, and Nov 7, 2012, 34 patients were recruited to this second arm of the trial. Among the 31 (91%) patients who completed induction treatment and started consolidation, 26 (84%) completed the planned six cycles of ofatumumab consolidation. TFS at 18 months was 94·1% (95% CI 78·5-98·5). Grade 3 or worse adverse events deemed at least possibly related to treatment were neutropenia (14 [41%] patients), infection (2 [6%]), and one (3%) each with anaemia, haemolysis, fatigue, and a neurological, metabolic, respiratory, and vascular complication.

Interpretation: Ofatumumab-based consolidation appears to be a well tolerated and effective consolidation strategy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which could improve survival.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30064-3DOI Listing
September 2016

Perifosine treatment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase II clinical trial and in vitro studies.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 May 31;55(5):1067-75. Epub 2013 Aug 31.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center , Durham, NC , USA.

Abstract Because of the importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we evaluated in vitro cytotoxicity induced by perifosine, an AKT inhibitor, in CLL lymphocytes and found that the mean 50% effective dose (ED50) was 313 nM. We then performed a phase II trial of perifosine in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL to assess response, outcomes, toxicity and ex vivo correlative measures. After 3 months of treatment, six of eight patients showed stable disease, one achieved a partial response and one had progressive disease. Median event-free survival and overall survival in all patients treated were 3.9 and 9.7 months. Adverse events included hematologic, infectious/fever, pain, gastrointestinal and constitutional toxicities. Unexpectedly, AKT phosphorylation in CLL lymphocytes from treated patients was not correlated with response. Additionally, perifosine did not inhibit AKT phosphorylation in cultured CLL lymphocytes. Perifosine is cytotoxic to CLL cells in vitro, and largely induces stabilized disease in vivo, with an AKT-independent mechanism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.824080DOI Listing
May 2014

Update on treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: focus on potential of bortezomib.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2012 23;6:239-51. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Follicular lymphoma is predominantly managed as a chronic disease, with intermittent chemo/immunotherapy reserved for symptomatic progression. It is considered incurable with conventional treatments, and current therapeutic options are associated with significant toxicities that are especially limiting in older patients. Bortezomib (PS-341; Velcade(®)), a first-in-class drug targeting the proteolytic core subunit of the 26S proteasome, has emerged as a therapeutic alternative in follicular lymphoma, with promising preclinical data and efficacy in patients with other hematological malignancies. Several clinical trials were conducted with bortezomib for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. As a single agent, overall responses in follicular lymphoma varied greatly (16%-41%), with weekly bortezomib showing less neurotoxicity than twice-weekly regimens, but with concern about decreased responses. Combination with rituximab was projected to improve the efficacy of bortezomib, but this resulted in increased toxicities and questionable added benefit. Although the largest Phase III study in follicular lymphoma of bortezomib plus rituximab versus rituximab alone demonstrated a significant progression-free survival difference, the absolute difference was small (12.8 months versus 11 months). Combining bortezomib with established regimens, such as rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP), or rituximab-bendamustine also did not show definite benefit, and many of these studies did not meet their primary endpoint when bortezomib failed to improve responses or survival to the degree anticipated. In a disease where the goal of treatment is palliative and affected patients often have other medical and treatment-related comorbidities, decisions regarding therapies which carry risks of additional toxicities must be considered carefully. Conclusive evidence of the ability of bortezomib to improve patient outcomes meaningfully and to justify the added toxicity is lacking, but limitations in cross-trial comparisons are recognized. Large randomized trials and investigations of combinations with promising novel targeted agents will aid in determining the role of bortezomib, if any, in the future treatment of follicular lymphoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S23241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3333814PMC
October 2012

Morphologically normal-appearing mammary epithelial cells obtained from high-risk women exhibit methylation silencing of INK4a/ARF.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Nov;13(22 Pt 1):6834-41

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Purpose: p16(INK4a) has been appreciated as a key regulator of cell cycle progression and senescence. Cultured human mammary epithelial cells that lack p16(INK4a) activity have been shown to exhibit premalignant phenotypes, such as telomeric dysfunction, centrosomal dysfunction, a sustained stress response, and, most recently, a dysregulation of chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. These data suggest that cells that lack p16(INK4a) activity would be at high risk for breast cancer development and may exhibit an increased frequency of DNA methylation events in early cancer.

Experimental Design: To test this hypothesis, the frequencies of INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation, as well as four additional selected loci, were tested in the initial random periareolar fine needle aspiration samples from 86 asymptomatic women at high risk for development of breast cancer, stratified using the Masood cytology index.

Results: INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation was observed throughout all early stages of intraepithelial neoplasia and, importantly, in morphologically normal-appearing mammary epithelial cells; 29 of 86 subjects showed INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation in at least one breast. Importantly, INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation was not associated with atypia, and the frequency of hypermethylation did not increase with increasing Masood cytology score. The frequency of INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation was associated with the combined frequency of promoter hypermethylation of retinoic acid receptor-beta2, estrogen receptor-alpha, and breast cancer-associated 1 genes (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Because INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation does not increase with age but increases with the frequency of other methylation events, we predict that INK4a/ARF promoter hypermethylation may serve as a marker of global methylation dysregulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0407DOI Listing
November 2007