Publications by authors named "Danielle A N Chapa"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Measurement invariance of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) in adolescents and adults.

Eat Behav 2021 08 2;42:101538. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Recovery Record, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.

Adolescence is a common period for eating disorder (ED) onset. The availability of psychometrically sound measures of ED psychopathology enables clinicians to accurately assess symptoms and monitor treatment outcomes continuously from adolescence and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess if the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) is invariant across adolescents and adults. Participants (N = 29,821) were adolescent (n = 5250) and adult (n = 24,571) users of the Recovery Record (RR) mobile phone application who provided EPSI responses through the application. Measurement invariance testing was conducted to assess invariance of the EPSI Body Dissatisfaction, Restricting, Excessive Exercise, Purging, Cognitive Restraint, and Binge Eating scales across adolescents (age 13 through 17) and adults (age 18 and older). Findings indicated that all EPSI factors administered in the RR app replicated in both adolescent and adult users. The EPSI factor structure was largely equivalent in adolescents and adults, demonstrating evidence for configural and metric invariance, as well as some evidence for scalar invariance. Our results indicated that EPSI scales measured the same constructs across development. Clinicians and researchers may benefit from utilizing the EPSI to measure ED psychopathology in adolescents and for continued progress monitoring into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518978PMC
August 2021

Validation of the factor structure of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory in an international sample of sexual minority men.

Eat Behav 2021 08 26;42:101511. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

University of Melbourne, Department of Psychology, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Sexual minority individuals are at greater risk for the development of eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology. Despite the importance of understanding ED symptoms in sexual minority men, most ED measures were developed and validated in heterosexual, young adult, white women. The psychometric properties of ED measures in diverse populations remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to test: 1) whether the eight-factor structure of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) replicated in sexual minority men and 2) group-level mean differences between gay and bisexual men on the eight EPSI scales. International participants (N = 722 sexual minority men from 20 countries) were recruited via the Grindr smartphone application. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was completed using a weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimator. Group differences in eating pathology between gay and bisexual men were tested using independent samples t-tests. The CFA model fit was good on all fit indices (CFI/TLI > 0.90, RMSEA < 0.06). Gay and bisexual men only differed on the EPSI Binge Eating scale. The results of this investigation suggest that the EPSI may be a useful tool for understanding eating pathology in this population. Using psychometrically sound assessment tools for sexual minority men is a vital piece of treatment planning and clinical decision making. The current study fills an important gap in the clinical and research literature by testing the validity and psychometric properties of a commonly used ED measure in sexual minority men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101511DOI Listing
August 2021

Eating-disorder psychopathology and driven exercise change models: A latent change score analysis.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 12 3;53(12):2013-2025. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Recovery Record, Inc, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Objective: Approximately 50% of people with eating disorders (EDs) engage in driven exercise to influence their weight or shape and/or to compensate for loss-of-control eating. When present, driven exercise is associated with a lower quality-of-life, longer hospital stays, and faster rates-of-relapse. Despite the seriousness of driven exercise, most treatments for EDs do not target maladaptive exercise behaviors directly. Given the large proportion of patients with an ED who engage in driven exercise and its effect on treatment outcomes, it is critical to understand what predicts change in driven exercise. The purpose of this study was to test whether ED symptoms prospectively predicted change in driven exercise and vice versa.

Method: Participants were Recovery Record (RR) users (N = 4,568; 86.8% female) seeking treatment for an ED. Participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) monthly for 3 months.

Results: In the full sample, dynamic bivariate latent change score analyses indicated that high levels of dietary restraint and restricting prospectively predicted reductions in driven exercise. Among persons with anorexia nervosa (AN), high levels of binge eating predicted increased driven exercise. Among persons with bulimia nervosa (BN), high levels of body dissatisfaction predicted increased driven exercise. Among persons with binge-eating disorder (BED), high levels of binge eating, purging, and restricting predicted reductions in driven exercise.

Discussion: Results highlight changes that may predict increased or decreased driven exercise relative to other ED symptoms for AN, BN, and BED groups. These preliminary findings could inform future research on ED treatment efforts to manage driven exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23392DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of trauma in childhood and adulthood on eating-disorder symptoms.

Eat Behav 2020 12 27;39:101426. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, United States of America.

Exposure to a traumatic event is concurrently and prospectively associated with disordered-eating behaviors such as binge eating, restricting, and purging. Specifically, purging has been found to be elevated in individuals with trauma histories, suggesting that purging may be a method for coping with trauma-related distress. However, there has been limited research investigating whether the time at which trauma occurs during development is differentially associated with disordered-eating behaviors and internalizing psychopathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of trauma that occurred in childhood, adulthood, or childhood and adulthood on eating disorder (ED) and internalizing psychopathology. Participants were community-recruited adults with a current DSM-5 ED (N = 225) and were subsequently grouped into categories based on the time at which trauma occurred. Groups included: no trauma exposure ED controls (n = 54), child trauma group (n = 53), adult trauma group (n = 53), and child+adult trauma group (n = 65). We compared groups on their level of disordered-eating symptoms. Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI), and the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms-II (IDAS-II). Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher levels of purging symptomatology in the child+adult trauma group compared to the no trauma, child trauma, and adult trauma groups. The current study highlights the importance of assessing the timing of trauma among individuals with EDs. In particular, our study indicates a need for further investigation to explain why individuals with ED and trauma histories engage in greater purging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101426DOI Listing
December 2020

Development and initial validation of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory-Clinician-Rated Version (EPSI-CRV).

Psychol Assess 2020 Oct 27;32(10):943-955. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago.

Proper assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders (EDs) are critical to determine to whom prevention and treatment efforts should be targeted, the extent to which treatment is working, and when an individual has recovered. Although existing ED diagnostic interviews have numerous strengths, they also have certain limitations, including poor internal consistency, low discriminant validity, and poor factor-structure replicability. The purpose of the current study was to address problems of past ED diagnostic interviews through the creation of a new clinician-rated interview-the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory-Clinician-Rated Version (EPSI-CRV). The EPSI-CRV was designed to measure dimensional constructs assessed in the self-report version of the EPSI and generate current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) diagnoses. Participants were community-recruited adults with a DSM-5 ED (N = 257). Participants completed self-report and interview-based measures of eating, mood, and anxiety disorders and self-report measures of psychiatric impairment. The EPSI-CRV demonstrated evidence for interrater reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and a good-fitting factor structure. EPSI-CRV dimensions showed concurrent validity for distinguishing among ED diagnoses. Baseline EPSI-CRV dimensions significantly predicted psychiatric impairment at baseline but not at 1-year follow-up. Although some scales had lower internal consistency than ideal, internal consistency values were similar to those of other established diagnostic measures. The EPSI-CRV appears to represent a promising new interview that can be used across a variety of clinical and research settings. Interested readers can access the EPSI-CRV and relevant training materials here: https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/29616. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000820DOI Listing
October 2020

Longitudinal trajectories of behavior change in a national sample of patients seeking eating-disorder treatment.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 06 10;53(6):917-925. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Recovery Record Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Objective: Rapid response to treatment, indicated by substantial decreases in eating-disorder (ED) symptoms within the first 4-6 weeks of treatment, is the most reliable predictor of treatment outcomes for EDs. However, there is limited research evaluating short-term longitudinal trajectories of ED symptoms during treatment. Thus, it is difficult to know which aspects of ED psychopathology are slow or fast to change. The purpose of this study was to elucidate three-month trajectories of ED psychopathology during treatment and test whether ED diagnosis influenced the direction and rate of change.

Method: Participants were Recovery Record users seeking treatment for an ED (N = 4,568; 86.8% female). Participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory once per month for 3 months.

Results: Latent growth curve models indicated that ED diagnosis influenced the rate of ED behavior change. Anorexia nervosa was associated with faster reductions in cognitive restraint, excessive exercise, restricting, yet slower reductions in body dissatisfaction, and binge eating. Bulimia nervosa was associated with faster reductions in binge eating, cognitive restraint, excessive exercise, and purging. Binge-eating disorder was associated with faster reductions in body dissatisfaction and binge eating, yet slower reductions in restricting.

Conclusions: Our results have implications for future research by providing initial information about the direction and rate of ED change over the course of treatment. If clinicians and researchers know which ED symptoms are slow to change, on average, across diagnostic groups, treatment protocols could be adjusted to target slow changing symptoms more quickly, and therefore improve ED treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23272DOI Listing
June 2020

Do differences between individuals who are healthy weight or overweight on self-report measures of disinhibited eating and restrained eating reflect reality or item "bias"?

Psychol Assess 2020 Jun 19;32(6):553-567. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Internal Medicine.

In light of increasing rates of overweight and obesity worldwide, there is a critical need for accurate self-report measures of disinhibited and restrained eating behaviors across the weight spectrum. Item response theory was used to determine whether differences in disinhibited and restrained eating between healthy weight and overweight or obese individuals were due to item bias (i.e., differential item functioning). Study 1 participants were healthy weight ( = 510) or overweight or obese ( = 304) adults recruited from the community. Study 2 participants were healthy weight ( = 778) or overweight or obese ( = 320) college students. Study 1 participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Eating Disorder Inventory-3, Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire, Restraint Scale, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Study 2 participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI). Items on the Restraint Scale demonstrated the most evidence for bias (60% of items), whereas the majority of other scales demonstrated low to moderate levels of item bias (17-38% of items). However, EDE-Q Restraint and EPSI Binge Eating, Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Muscle Building, and Negative Attitudes Toward Obesity scales did not show any evidence of differential item functioning among weight groups. Participants with the same level of disordered eating responded differently to certain eating disorder self-report items due to weight-bias, rather than true between-groups differences. Nevertheless, EDE-Q Restraint, EPSI Cognitive Restraint, and EPSI Binge Eating did not exhibit any evidence of bias and are ideal for assessing restrained and disinhibited eating across the weight spectrum in both research and clinical settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000810DOI Listing
June 2020

The Athletes' Relationships with Training scale (ART): A self-report measure of unhealthy training behaviors associated with eating disorders.

Int J Eat Disord 2018 09 12;51(9):1080-1089. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Objective: Several studies indicate that eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology is elevated in athletes compared to non-athletes. The assessment of excessive exercise among athletes is a challenge because, compared to non-athletes, athletes are required to train at higher intensities and for longer periods of time. However, individuals participating in competitive sports are still susceptible to unhealthy physical-activity patterns. Most ED assessments were developed and normed in non-athlete samples and, therefore, do not capture the nuances of athletes' training experiences. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate a clinically useful, self-report measure of unhealthy training behaviors and beliefs in athletes, the Athletes' Relationships with Training Scale (ART).

Method: The initial item pool was administered to N = 267 women collegiate athletes who were participating in an ED prevention program study and N = 65 women athletes who were in ED treatment.

Results: Factor analyses indicated the ART had a four-factor structure. Factorial and construct validity of the ART were demonstrated. ART scores significantly predicted health care utilization and differed between athletes with an ED versus athletes without an ED. For athletes in ED treatment, ART scores significantly decreased from treatment admission to discharge.

Discussion: The ART showed evidence of strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The ART could be helpful for clinicians and athletic trainers to help gauge whether athletes are engaging in unhealthy training practices that may warrant clinical attention and for tracking clinical outcomes in athletes with EDs who are receiving treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.22960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519369PMC
September 2018

A new approach to eating-disorder classification: Using empirical methods to delineate diagnostic dimensions and inform care.

Int J Eat Disord 2018 07 21;51(7):710-721. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Objective: Despite changes to the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (EDs) in the DSM-5, the current diagnostic system for EDs has limited ability to inform treatment planning and predict outcomes. Our objective was to test the clinical utility of a novel dimensional approach to understanding the structure of ED psychopathology.

Method: Participants (N = 243; 82.2% women) were community-recruited adults with a DSM-5 ED assessed at baseline, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up. Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a joint hierarchical-dimensional structure of eating, mood, and anxiety symptoms. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used to test the ability of the dimensional model to predict outcomes.

Results: At the top of the hierarchy, we identified a broad Internalizing factor that reflected diffuse symptoms of eating, mood, and anxiety disorders. Internalizing branched into three subfactors: distress, fear-avoidance (fears of certain stimuli and behaviors to neutralize fears, including ED behaviors designed to reduce fear of weight gain), and body dissatisfaction, which was nested within distress. The lowest level of the hierarchy was characterized by 15 factors. The hierarchical model predicted 60.1% of the variance in outcomes at 6-month follow-up, whereas all DSM eating, mood, and anxiety disorders combined predicted 35.8% of the variance in outcomes.

Discussion: A dimensional approach to understanding and diagnosing EDs improved the ability to prospectively predict clinical course above-and-beyond the traditional categorical (DSM-based) approach. Our findings have implications for endeavors to improve the prediction of ED prognosis and course, and to develop more effective trans-diagnostic treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.22891DOI Listing
July 2018

Is the diagnostic threshold for bulimia nervosa clinically meaningful?

Eat Behav 2018 01 8;28:16-19. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

University of Kansas, Department of Psychology, 1415 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66045, United States. Electronic address:

The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment. Participants completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment and participated in semi-structured clinical interviews of ED- and non-ED psychopathology. Differences between the sub- and full-threshold BN groups were assessed using MANOVA and Chi-square analyses. ED illness duration, age-of-onset, body mass index (BMI), alcohol and drug misuse, and the presence of current and lifetime mood or anxiety disorders did not differ between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN. Participants with full-threshold BN had higher levels of clinical impairment and weight concern than those with sub-threshold BN. However, minimal clinically important difference analyses suggested that statistically significant differences between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN on clinical impairment and weight concern were not clinically significant. In conclusion, sub-threshold BN did not differ from full-threshold BN in clinically meaningful ways. Future studies are needed to identify an improved frequency criterion for BN that better distinguishes individuals in ways that will more validly inform prognosis and effective treatment planning for BN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2017.12.002DOI Listing
January 2018

New Horizons in Measurement: a Review of Novel and Innovative Approaches to Eating-Disorder Assessment.

Curr Psychiatry Rep 2017 Sep 11;19(10):76. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Fraser Hall, 1415 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Eating disorders are serious mental-health concerns that will affect over 30 million individuals in the USA at some point in their lives. Eating disorders occur across the lifespan, in a variety of ethnicities and races, in both men and women, and across the socioeconomic spectrum. Given the prevalence and severity of eating disorders, it is important that clinicians and researchers have access to appropriate assessment tools to aid in the early identification and treatment referral, differential diagnosis, treatment planning, and progress monitoring, and to ensure valid research findings. In this review, we describe novel and innovative assessment tools that were developed within the past 5 years for utilization in research and/or clinical practice with individuals with eating disorders.

Recent Findings: We identified six multidimensional assessments for eating disorders, all of which can be administered online (with some also offering paper-and-pencil versions). Strengths of the measures included good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. However, in part, due to problematic scale construction methods, certain scales had poor discriminant validity and most were developed and validated in mostly female samples. There are promising new eating disorder measures from which to choose; however, many measures continue to be limited by poor discriminant validity and need additional validation prior to incorporation into routine research and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-017-0826-2DOI Listing
September 2017

Understanding eating disorders within internalizing psychopathology: A novel transdiagnostic, hierarchical-dimensional model.

Compr Psychiatry 2017 11 28;79:40-52. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Children's Mercy Kansas City, United States.

Background: Several problems with the classification and diagnosis of eating disorders (EDs) have been identified, including proliferation of 'other specified' diagnoses, within-disorder heterogeneity, and frequent diagnostic migration over time. Beyond problems within EDs, past research suggested that EDs fit better in a spectrum of internalizing psychopathology (characterized by mood and anxiety disorders) than in a separate diagnostic class.

Purpose: To develop a transdiagnostic, hierarchical-dimensional model relevant to ED psychopathology that: 1) reduces diagnostic heterogeneity, 2) includes important dimensions of internalizing psychopathology that are often excluded from ED diagnostic models, and 3) predicts clinical impairment.

Procedures: Goldberg's (2006) method and exploratory structural equation modeling were used to identify a hierarchical model of internalizing in community-recruited adults with EDs (N=207).

Findings: The lowest level of the hierarchy was characterized by 15 factors that defined specific aspects of eating, mood, and anxiety disorders. At the two-factor level, Internalizing bifurcated into Distress (low well-being, body dissatisfaction, suicidality, dysphoria, ill temper, traumatic intrusions) and Fear-Avoidance (claustrophobia, social avoidance, panic symptoms, dietary restricting, excessive exercise, and compulsions). Results showed that the lowest level of the hierarchy predicted 67.7% of the variance in clinical impairment. In contrast, DSM eating, mood, and anxiety disorders combined predicted 10.6% of the variance in impairment secondary to an ED.

Conclusions: The current classification model represents an improvement over traditional nosologies for predicting clinically relevant outcomes for EDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.06.009DOI Listing
November 2017

Test-Retest Reliability of Common Measures of Eating Disorder Symptoms in Men Versus Women.

Assessment 2019 04 3;26(3):419-431. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

1 University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Approximately 10% to 30% of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) are male, yet because measures often have not been tested among male participants, it is unclear whether the psychometric properties of ED measures are equivalent between sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of common ED measures in men versus women. Participants ( N = 227; 58.1% female) completed self-report measures of body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, disinhibited eating, bulimic symptoms, and desire-for-muscularity at baseline and 2-to-4 weeks later. Intraclass correlations were used to compute retest correlations. Spearman's rho was used to compute retest correlations for skewed and kurtotic variables. We compared 95% confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients to determine whether measures differed in reliability between sexes. Most ED measures had at least acceptable test-retest reliabilities. However, few measures of disinhibited and binge eating demonstrated good reliability in men. Results highlight the utility of several ED measures for assessing symptom change over time, and the need for additional research to identify and correct for sources of gender unreliability among ED self-report measures in men-particularly for assessing constructs that include binge-eating behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191117700267DOI Listing
April 2019

Do emotion regulation difficulties when upset influence the association between dietary restraint and weight gain among college students?

Appetite 2017 07 22;114:101-109. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students - a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity. We hypothesized that dietary restraint and weight gain would be mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. College students (N = 227) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory, UPPS-P Impulsivity Scale, and self-reported weight and height to calculate body mass index. Results showed that the association between dietary restraint and weight gain was mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. Our findings indicated that negative urgency might represent a mechanism that explains why dietary restraint leads to future binge-eating episodes and weight gain among college students with overweight and obesity. Results suggest that future treatment and prevention programs for overweight and obesity may benefit from incorporating strategies to improve emotion regulation as a way to reduce binge eating and to prevent additional weight gain among 'at-risk' populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.029DOI Listing
July 2017
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