Publications by authors named "Daniela Trabattoni"

140 Publications

PFO percutaneous closure: indications, safety issues and prognosis.

Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Sciences, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5683.21.05751-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and infection on in hospital survival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes: A multicenter registry.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 29;332:227-234. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Introduction: The impact of Covid-19 on the survival of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains to be defined.

Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with ACS at 18 Centers in Northern-Italy during the Covid-19 outbreak were included. In-hospital all-cause death was the primary outcome. In-hospital cardiovascular death along with mechanical and electrical complications were the secondary ones. A case period (February 20, 2020-May 3, 2020) was compared vs. same-year (January 1-February 19, 2020) and previous-year control periods (February 20-May 3, 2019). ACS patients with Covid-19 were further compared with those without.

Results: Among 779 ACS patients admitted during the case period, 67 (8.6%) tested positive for Covid-19. In-hospital all-cause mortality was significantly higher during the case period compared to the control periods (6.4% vs. 3.5% vs. 4.4% respectively; p 0.026), but similar after excluding patients with COVID-19 (4.5% vs. 3.5% vs. 4.4%; p 0.73). Cardiovascular mortality was similar between the study groups. After multivariable adjustment, admission for ACS during the COVID-19 outbreak had no impact on in-hospital mortality. In the case period, patients with concomitant ACS and Covid-19 experienced significantly higher in-hospital mortality (25% vs. 5%, p < 0.001) compared to patients without. Moreover, higher rates of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock and sustained ventricular tachycardia were found in Covid-19 patients.

Conclusion: ACS patients presenting during the Covid-19 pandemic experienced increased all-cause mortality, driven by Covid-19 positive status due to higher rates of cardiogenic shock and sustained ventricular tachycardia. No differences in cardiovascular mortality compared to non-pandemic scenarios were reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006512PMC
June 2021

Return towards normality in admissions for myocardial infarction after the lockdown removal for COVID-19 outbreak in Italy.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 22;332:235-237. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Coronary Care Unit and Catheterization Laboratory, A.O.U. Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy; Dipartimento Medicina Traslazionale, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Investigations demonstrated a decrease of admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) during the CoronaVirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak. No study has evaluated the time required to reverse this downward curve of MI admissions.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis on patients (N = 2415) admitted to the Emergency Departments for acute MI in nine Italian centers. Primary endpoint was the incidence rates (IRs) of MI admissions in the post-lockdown COVID-19 period (case-period: from May 4 to July 12, 2020) vs. the following control periods: January 1-February 19, 2020 (pre-lockdown period); February 20-May 3, 2020 (intra-lockdown period); May 4-July 12, 2019 (inter-year non-COVID-19 period).

Results: IR of admissions for MI in the post-lockdown period was higher than the intra-lockdown period (IR ratio, IRR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.42-1.81; p = 0.0001), was lower than the pre-lockdown period (IRR: 0.86, 0.77-0.96; p = 0.009) and similar to the inter-year non-COVID-19 period (IRR: 0.96, 0.87-1.07; p = 0.47). Within the case period, the increase in MI admissions was more pronounced in earlier vs later weeks (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p = 0.024) and, compared to the inter-year control period, was significant for non ST-segment elevation MI (IRR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.46, p = 0.004), but was not observed for ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), where hospitalizations were reduced (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.88, p = 0.0001).

Conclusions: Our study first indicates an increase in the number of admissions for MI after the removal of the national lockdown for COVID-19 in Italy. This increase was prevalent in the first weeks following the lockdown removal, but was under-represented in STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983363PMC
June 2021

Does there exist an obesity paradox in COVID-19? Insights of the international HOPE-COVID-19-registry.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

University Medical Center Mannheim (UMM), University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Obesity has been described as a protective factor in cardiovascular and other diseases being expressed as 'obesity paradox'. However, the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes including mortality in COVID-19 has been poorly systematically investigated until now. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients divided into three groups according to the body mass index (BMI).

Methods: We retrospectively collected data up to May 31, 2020. 3635 patients were divided into three groups of BMI (<25 kg/m; n = 1110, 25-30 kg/m; n = 1464, and >30 kg/m; n = 1061). Demographic, in-hospital complications, and predictors for mortality, respiratory insufficiency, and sepsis were analyzed.

Results: The rate of respiratory insufficiency was more recorded in BMI 25-30 kg/m as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m (22.8% vs. 41.8%; p < 0.001), and in BMI > 30 kg/m than BMI < 25 kg/m, respectively (22.8% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). Sepsis was more observed in BMI 25-30 kg/m and BMI > 30 kg/m as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m, respectively (25.1% vs. 42.5%; p = 0.02) and (25.1% vs. 32.5%; p = 0.006). The mortality rate was higher in BMI 25-30 kg/m and BMI > 30 kg/m as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m, respectively (27.2% vs. 39.2%; p = 0.31) (27.2% vs. 33.5%; p = 0.004). In the Cox multivariate analysis for mortality, BMI < 25 kg/m and BMI > 30 kg/m did not impact the mortality rate (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.889-1.508; p = 0.27) (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.893-1.479; p = 0.27). In multivariate logistic regression analyses for respiratory insufficiency and sepsis, BMI < 25 kg/m is determined as an independent predictor for reduction of respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.538-1.004; p = 0.05).

Conclusions: HOPE COVID-19-Registry revealed no evidence of obesity paradox in patients with COVID-19. However, Obesity was associated with a higher rate of respiratory insufficiency and sepsis but was not determined as an independent predictor for a high mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2021.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927637PMC
March 2021

Platelet and Endothelial Activation as Potential Mechanisms Behind the Thrombotic Complications of COVID-19 Patients.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2021 Mar 24;6(3):202-218. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

The authors hypothesized that the cytokine storm described in COVID-19 patients may lead to consistent cell-based tissue factor (TF)-mediated activation of coagulation, procoagulant microvesicles (MVs) release, and massive platelet activation. COVID-19 patients have higher levels of TF platelets, TF granulocytes, and TF MVs than healthy subjects and coronary artery disease patients. Plasma MV-associated thrombin generation is present in prophylactic anticoagulated patients. A sustained platelet activation in terms of P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation, and altered nitric oxide/prostacyclin synthesis are also observed. COVID-19 plasma, added to the blood of healthy subjects, induces platelet activation similar to that observed in vivo. This effect was blunted by pre-incubation with tocilizumab, aspirin, or a P2Y inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904280PMC
March 2021

Persistent long-term platelet activation and endothelial perturbation in women with Takotsubo syndrome.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 12;136:111259. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino I.R.C.C.S., Milan, Italy.

Background: Takotsubo (TTS) syndrome is an acute cardiac condition characterized by transient and reversible left ventricle dysfunction that mainly affects postmenopausal women. Catecholamine burst is the most accredited mechanism underpinning TTS onset and leading to endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. Even if the use of low dose acetylsalycilic acid (ASA) in this clinical setting is based on both clinical presentation and unfavorable long-term prognosis, its efficacy has been recently challenged.

Aim: This study was designed to assess endothelial function, residual thromboxane formation and platelet aggregation in TTS women on low-dose ASA treatment at long-term follow-up.

Methods: Twenty-eight females with previously diagnosis of TTS syndrome were enrolled. Data were compared to those obtained from 23 coronary artery disease (CAD) women with a history of acute myocardial infarction, and 26 control subjects with no TTS or clinically evident CAD. Psychological and clinical profile were assessed in all study groups at the enrollment. Main metabolites involved in L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway, urinary prostacyclin, serum and urine thromboxane metabolites were measured by LCMS/MS methods. Thrombomodulin levels were quantified using an ELISA kit, and platelet aggregation, carried out on platelet rich-plasma, was induced by ADP or by epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NORE) and TRAP-6, alone or in association with ADP and evaluated by Born's method.

Results: In TTS women an endothelial derangement, characterized by reduced citrulline production and increased thrombomodulin concentration, with no perturbation in prostacyclin levels, was evidenced. In addition, despite ASA treatment, TTS displayed a higher residual thromboxane formation, in parallel with an enhanced platelet response to compared to CAD.

Conclusions: Our study highlighted the presence of endothelial perturbation in TTS patients even at long-term from the index event. The residual thromboxane production and platelet aggregation still leave open the question about the use of low dose ASA in this clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111259DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic Impact of Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia in COVID-19 Pneumonia. A HOPE-COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19) Registry Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 30;11:599255. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid, Spain.

Dysnatremia is associated with increased mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. SARS-COV2 (Severe-acute-respiratory syndrome caused by Coronavirus-type 2) pneumonia can be fatal. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether admittance dysnatremia is associated with mortality, sepsis, or intensive therapy (IT) in patients hospitalized with SARS-COV2 pneumonia. This is a retrospective study of the HOPE-COVID-19 registry, with data collected from January 1 through April 31, 2020. We selected all hospitalized adult patients with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-COV2 pneumonia and a registered admission serum sodium level (SNa). Patients were classified as hyponatremic (SNa <135 mmol/L), eunatremic (SNa 135-145 mmol/L), or hypernatremic (SNa >145 mmol/L). Multivariable analyses were performed to elucidate independent relationships of admission hyponatremia and hypernatremia, with mortality, sepsis, or IT during hospitalization. Four thousand six hundred sixty-four patients were analyzed, median age 66 (52-77), 58% males. Death occurred in 988 (21.2%) patients, sepsis was diagnosed in 551 (12%) and IT in 838 (18.4%). Hyponatremia was present in 957/4,664 (20.5%) patients, and hypernatremia in 174/4,664 (3.7%). Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia were associated with mortality and sepsis. Only hyponatremia was associated with IT. In conclusion, hyponatremia and hypernatremia at admission are factors independently associated with mortality and sepsis in patients hospitalized with SARS-COV2 pneumonia.

Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04334291, NCT04334291.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.599255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734292PMC
January 2021

Downstream or upstream administration of P2Y12 receptor blockers in non-ST elevated acute coronary syndromes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Nov 24;21(1):966. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

ASST Sette Laghi, Varese, Italy.

Background: The optimal timing to administer a P2Y12 inhibitor in patients presenting with a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome remains a topic of debate. Pretreatment with ticagrelor before coronary anatomy is known as a widely adopted strategy. However, there is poor evidence on how this compares with administration of a P2Y12 inhibitor after defining coronary anatomy (i.e., downstream administration). Moreover, there are limited head-to-head comparisons of the two P2Y12 inhibitors-ticagrelor and prasugrel-currently recommended by the guidelines.

Study Design: DUBIUS is a phase 4, multicenter, parallel-group, double randomized study conducted in NSTE-ACS patients designed to compare a pretreatment strategy (including only ticagrelor) versus a downstream strategy (including prasugrel or ticagrelor) and to compare downstream prasugrel with downstream ticagrelor. A total of 2520 patients will be randomly assigned to pretreatment with ticagrelor or to no pretreatment. The PCI group of the downstream arm will be further randomized to receive prasugrel or ticagrelor. The two primary hypotheses are that the downstream strategy is superior to the upstream strategy and that downstream ticagrelor is non-inferior to downstream prasugrel, both measured by the incidence of a composite efficacy and safety endpoint of death from vascular causes, non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 3, 4, and 5 bleedings.

Conclusions: The DUBIUS study will provide important evidence related to the benefits and risks of pretreatment with ticagrelor compared with a strategy of no pretreatment. Moreover, the clinical impact of using downstream ticagrelor compared with downstream prasugrel will be assessed.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02618837 . Registered on 1 December 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04859-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686679PMC
November 2020

Gender differences in acute coronary syndromes patterns during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2020 15;10(4):506-513. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Coronary Care Unit and Catheterization laboratory, A.O.U. Maggiore della Carità Novara, Italy.

Background: Mortality from acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is strictly related to early management. As female patients usually experience longer delays before diagnosis and treatment, we assessed whether women were more affected by the dramatic drop in hospital admissions for ACS during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and angiographic characteristics of consecutive patients who were admitted for ACS at 15 hospitals in Northern Italy comparing men and women data. The study period was defined as the time between the first confirmed case of Covid-19 in Italy (February 20, 2020) and March 31, 2020. We compared hospitalization rates between the study period and two control periods: the corresponding period during the previous year (February 20 to March 31, 2019) and the earlier period during the same year (January 1 to February 19, 2020). Incidence rate ratios comparing the study period with each of the control periods were calculated with the use of Poisson regression.

Results: Of the 547 patients who were hospitalized for ACS during the study period, only 127 (23%) were females, accounting for a mean of 3.1 admissions per day, while ACS hospitalized males were 420, with a mean of 10.2 admissions per day. There was a significant decrease driven by a similar reduction in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) diagnosis in both sexes compared to the control periods. A trend toward a greater reduction in admitted females was shown in the intra-year control period (46% admission reduction in females vs 37% in males, with females accounting for 26% of ACS, P=0.10) and a significant reduction when compared to the previous year control period (40% admission reduction in females vs 23% in males, with females accounting for 28% of ACS, P=0.03), mainly related to Unstable Angina diagnosis.

Conclusion: The Covid-19 pandemic period closed the gap between men and women in ACS, with similar rates of reduction of hospitalized STEMI and NSTEMI and a trend toward greater reduction in UA admission among women. Furthermore, many typical differences between males and females regarding ischemic heart disease presentations and vessel distribution were leveled.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675165PMC
October 2020

A severe right-to-left intracardiac shunt after NobleStitch failure: when a device is needed.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Oct 23;4(5):1-4. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Via Carlo Parea 4, Milan, Italy.

Background: Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been demonstrated to be superior to medical therapy in stroke prevention in selected patients. Beyond traditional permanent metallic devices, NobleStitch EL, a suture-based system, has been developed as a potential alternative.

Case Summary: A 50-year-old man underwent transcatheter closure of PFO with mild interatrial septal bulging and tunnel-like morphology with a NobleStitch device. A transthoracic echocardiography performed immediately after PFO closure showed residual shunt (RS), which persisted unchanged at staged controls, due to the inability of the delivery system to capture both the septum primum and the septum secundum. A second procedure was performed with the implantation of a Figulla Flex II 27/30 mm device, with no RS detectable at control echocardiography.

Discussion: The NobleStitch device is interesting in its concept, but several pitfalls may be encountered during its deployment. Opposite to permanent metallic devices, RSs after the procedure are not expected to decrease over time and should be managed with a different approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649439PMC
October 2020

Mortality risk assessment in Spain and Italy, insights of the HOPE COVID-19 registry.

Intern Emerg Med 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Recently the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has been declared a pandemic. Despite its aggressive extension and significant morbidity and mortality, risk factors are poorly characterized outside China. We designed a registry, HOPE COVID-19 (NCT04334291), assessing data of 1021 patients discharged (dead or alive) after COVID-19, from 23 hospitals in 4 countries, between 8 February and 1 April. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality aiming to produce a mortality risk score calculator. The median age was 68 years (IQR 52-79), and 59.5% were male. Most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (46.8%) and dyslipidemia (35.8%). A relevant heart or lung disease were depicted in 20%. And renal, neurological, or oncological disease, respectively, were detected in nearly 10%. Most common symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea at admission. 311 patients died and 710 were discharged alive. In the death-multivariate analysis, raised as most relevant: age, hypertension, obesity, renal insufficiency, any immunosuppressive disease, 02 saturation < 92% and an elevated C reactive protein (AUC = 0.87; Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p > 0.999; bootstrap-optimist: 0.0018). We provide a simple clinical score to estimate probability of death, dividing patients in four grades (I-IV) of increasing probability. Hydroxychloroquine (79.2%) and antivirals (67.6%) were the specific drugs most commonly used. After a propensity score adjustment, the results suggested a slight improvement in mortality rates (adjusted-OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.91, p = 0.005; adjusted-OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.01; p = 0.115). COVID-19 produces important mortality, mostly in patients with comorbidities with respiratory symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine could be associated with survival benefit, but this data need to be confirmed with further trials. Trial Registration: NCT04334291/EUPAS34399.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02543-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649104PMC
November 2020

Clinical profile and prognosis in patients on oral anticoagulation before admission for COVID-19.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Jan 7;51(1):e13436. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, University of Murcia, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria (IMIB-Arrixaca), CIBERCV, Murcia, Spain.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows high morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases. Some of these patients are under oral anticoagulation (OAC) at admission, but to date, there are no data on the clinical profile, prognosis and risk factors of such patients during hospitalization for COVID-19.

Design: Subanalysis of the international 'real-world' HOPE COVID-19 registry. All patients with prior OAC at hospital admission for COVID-19 were suitable for the study. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint.

Results: From 1002 patients included, 110 (60.9% male, median age of 81.5 [IQR 75-87] years, median Short-Form Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] of 1 [IQR 1-3]) were on OAC at admission, mainly for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. After propensity score matching, 67.9% of these patients died during hospitalization, which translated into a significantly higher mortality risk compared to patients without prior OAC (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.16). After multivariate Cox regression analysis, respiratory insufficiency during hospitalization (HR 6.02, 95% CI 2.18-16.62), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) during hospitalization (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.34-3.91) and the Short-Form CCI (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49) were the main risk factors for mortality in patients on prior OAC.

Conclusions: Compared to patients without prior OAC, COVID-19 patients on OAC therapy at hospital admission showed lower survival and higher mortality risk. In these patients on OAC therapy, the prevalence of several comorbidities is high. Respiratory insufficiency and SIRS during hospitalization, as well as higher comorbidity, pointed out those anticoagulated patients with increased mortality risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645931PMC
January 2021

Preprocedural anemia in females undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Insights from the WIN-TAVI registry.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr 1;97(5):E704-E715. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Institut Hospitalier Jacques Cartier, Ramsay Générale de Santé, Massy, France.

Objectives: To assess the impact of anemia on clinical outcomes in female patients enrolled in the Women's InterNational transcatheter aortic valve implantation (WIN-TAVI) registry.

Background: Anemia is highly prevalent among females who constitute half of TAVI candidates, yet, its clinical significance remains poorly investigated.

Methods: Patients were divided into three groups according to preprocedural hemoglobin (Hb) level: (1) no anemia (Hb ≥12 g/dl), (2) mild-to-moderate anemia (10 ≤ Hb <12 g/dl), and (3) severe anemia (Hb <10 g/dl). The primary outcome was the occurrence of Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 efficacy endpoint, a composite of mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), hospitalization for valve-related symptoms or heart failure or valve-related dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.

Results: Hemoglobin level was available in 877 (86.1%) patients: 412 (47.0%) had no anemia, 363 (41.4%) had mild-to-moderate anemia, and 102 (11.6%) had severe anemia. The latter group had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with patients without anemia, severe anemia was associated with a greater risk of VARC-2 efficacy endpoint ( HR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.02-2.87, p = .04), all-cause death ( HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.31-4.26, p = .004) and a composite of death, MI or stroke ( HR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.22, p = .02) at 1 year. Moreover, an increased risk of late mortality ( HR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30, p = .03) was observed with every 1 g/dl decrease in hemoglobin level.

Conclusion: Severe anemia in females undergoing TAVI was independently associated with increased rates of VARC-2 efficacy endpoint and mortality at 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29276DOI Listing
April 2021

Timing of Oral P2Y Inhibitor Administration in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 11 31;76(21):2450-2459. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milano, Italy.

Background: Although oral P2Y inhibitors are key in the management of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, the optimal timing of their administration is not well defined.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare downstream and upstream oral P2Y inhibitors administration strategies in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing invasive treatment.

Methods: We performed a randomized, adaptive, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-treatment with ticagrelor before angiography (upstream group) or no pre-treatment (downstream group). Patients in the downstream group undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were further randomized to receive ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary hypothesis was the superiority of the downstream versus the upstream strategy on the combination of efficacy and safety events (net clinical benefit).

Results: We randomized 1,449 patients to downstream or upstream oral P2Y inhibitor administration. A pre-specified stopping rule for futility at interim analysis led the trial to be stopped. The rate of the primary endpoint, a composite of death due to vascular causes; nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke; and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3, 4, and 5 bleeding through day 30, did not differ significantly between the downstream and upstream groups (percent absolute risk reduction: -0.46; 95% repeated confidence interval: -2.90 to 1.90). These results were confirmed among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (72% of population) and regardless of the timing of coronary angiography (within or after 24 h from enrollment).

Conclusions: Downstream and upstream oral P2Y inhibitor administration strategies were associated with low incidence of ischemic and bleeding events and minimal numeric difference of event rates between treatment groups. These findings led to premature interruption of the trial and suggest the unlikelihood of enhanced efficacy of 1 strategy over the other. (Downstream Versus Upstream Strategy for the Administration of P2Y Receptor Blockers In Non-ST Elevated Acute Coronary Syndromes With Initial Invasive Indication [DUBIUS]; NCT02618837).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.08.053DOI Listing
November 2020

Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of patient prosthesis mismatch in women undergoing TAVI for severe aortic stenosis: Insights from the WIN-TAVI registry.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 31;97(3):516-526. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Center for Interventional Cardiovascular Research and Clinical Trials, The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York, Box 1030, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the incidence, predictors and outcomes of female patients with patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) following transcatheter aortic valve intervention (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS).

Background: Female AS TAVI recipients have a significantly lower mortality than surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) recipients, which could be attributed to the potentially lower PPM rates. TAVI has been associated with lower rates of PPM compared to SAVR. PPM in females post TAVI has not been investigated to date.

Methods: The WIN-TAVI (Women's INternational Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry is a multicenter registry of women undergoing TAVR for severe symptomatic AS. Two hundred and fifty patients with detailed periprocedural and follow-up echocardiographic investigations were included in the WIN-TAVI echocardiographic sub-study. PPM was defined as per European guidelines stratified by the presence of obesity.

Results: The incidence of PPM in our population was 32.8%. Patients with PPM had significantly higher BMI (27.4 ± 6.1 vs. 25.2 ± 5.0, p = .002), smaller sized valves implanted (percentage of TAVI ≤23 mm 61% vs. 29.2%, PPM vs. no PPM, p < .001) and were more often treated with balloon expandable valves (48.3 vs. 32.5%, p < .001) rather than self expanding ones (26.3 vs. 52.8%, <.001). BMI (OR = 1.08; 95%CI 1.02-1.14, p = .011) and valve size ≤23 mm (OR = 3.00 95%CI 1.14-7.94, p = .027) were the only independent predictors of PPM. There was no significant interaction between valve size and valve type (p = .203). No significant differences were observed in 1-year mortality or major adverse cardiovascular events.

Conclusions: PPM in females undergoing TAVI occurs in one third of patients. BMI and valve size ≤23 mm are independent predictors. Larger registries are required to determine the impact of PPM on future clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29227DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of diabetes mellitus on female subjects undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Insights from the WIN-TAVI international registry.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jan 16;322:65-69. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Female subjects constitute half of all transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) candidates, but the association between important comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and clinical outcomes after TAVI remains unclear in this group.

Method: WIN-TAVI is a real-world international registry of exclusively female subjects undergoing TAVI. The study population was stratified into those with (DM) and those without DM (NDM). Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 efficacy (composite of all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for valve-related symptoms or worsening congestive heart failure, or valve-related dysfunction) was the primary endpoint for this analysis.

Results: Of the 1012 subjects included in this study, 264 (26.1%) had DM at baseline. DM patients were younger but had a higher burden of comorbidities. There were no differences in VARC-2 efficacy events between DM and NDM patients at 30 days or 1 year. Conversely, patients with DM had a lower risk of VARC-2 life threatening bleeding at 30 days and 1 year after TAVI compared to NDM patients, which remained significant even after multivariable adjustment (HR, 0.34, 95% CI, 0.12-0.99; p = .047). In the subgroup analysis, insulin-dependent DM was not associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Among female patients undergoing TAVI, more than one-fourth of the subjects presented with DM. At 1-year follow-up, DM was associated with lower bleeding complications and no increase in the risk of other adverse events, including mortality, after TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.08.035DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of stent thickness on clinical outcomes in small vessel and bifurcation lesions: a RAIN-CARDIOGROUP VII sub-study.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Jan;22(1):20-25

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: The clinical impact of stent strut thickness in coronary bifurcation lesions in small vessels has not been assessed in a real-world population.

Methods: All 506 patients enrolled in the RAIN study, undergoing PCI in a vessel with a diameter 2.5 mm or less were retrospectively evaluated and divided into two groups according to stent strut thickness: 74 μm (n = 206) versus 81 μm (n = 300); 87.1% of the lesions involved bifurcations. TLF [defined as a composite of myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR)] was the primary endpoint, with MACE (a composite of death, MI and TLR), its components and stent thrombosis the secondary endpoint.

Results: After 16 (14-18) months, a lower incidence of TLF (4.3 vs. 9.8%, P = 0.026) and ST (1.0 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.042) was seen in the 74 μm group, whereas MACE occurred in 60 of 506 patients, with no statistical difference between the two groups (9.7 vs. 13.3%, P = 0.070). At multivariate analysis, chronic renal failure increased the risk of TLF while thinner strut was an independent protective factor (hazard ratio 0.51, CI 0.17-0.85, P = 0.005).

Conclusion: In this real-world population, patients being treated for small vessels lesions with thinner strut stents had lower rates of TLF, MI and ST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001037DOI Listing
January 2021

Sequential Strategy Including FFR Plus Stress-CTP Impacts on Management of Patients with Stable Chest Pain: The Stress-CTP RIPCORD Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, 20089 Milan, Italy.

Stress computed tomography perfusion (Stress-CTP) and computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) are functional techniques that can be added to coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) to improve the management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This retrospective analysis from the PERFECTION study aims to assess the impact of their availability on the management of patients with suspected CAD scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and invasive FFR. The management plan was defined as optimal medical therapy (OMT) or revascularization and was recorded for the following strategies: cCTA alone, cCTA+FFR, cCTA+Stress-CTP and cCTA+FFR+Stress-CTP. In 291 prospectively enrolled patients, cCTA+FFR, cCTA+Stress-CTP and cCTA+FFR+Stress-CTP showed a similar rate of reclassification of cCTA findings when FFR and Stress-CTP were added to cCTA. cCTA, cCTA+FFR, cCTA+Stress-CTP and cCTA+FFR+Stress-CTP showed a rate of agreement versus the final therapeutic decision of 63%, 71%, 89%, 84% (cCTA+Stress-CTP and cCTA+FFR+Stress-CTP vs cCTA and cCTA+FFR: < 0.01), respectively, and a rate of agreement in terms of the vessels to be revascularized of 57%, 64%, 74%, 71% (cCTA+Stress-CTP and cCTA+FFR+Stress-CTP vs cCTA and cCTA+FFR: < 0.01), respectively, with an effective radiation dose (ED) of 2.9 ± 1.3 mSv, 2.9 ± 1.3 mSv, 5.9 ± 2.7 mSv, and 3.1 ± 2.1 mSv. The addition of FFR and Stress-CTP improved therapeutic decision-making compared to cCTA alone, and a sequential strategy with cCTA+FFR+Stress-CTP represents the best compromise in terms of clinical impact and radiation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408909PMC
July 2020

Impact of renal function on admission in COVID-19 patients: an analysis of the international HOPE COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID 19) Registry.

J Nephrol 2020 08 29;33(4):737-745. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite its international aggressive extension, with a significant morbidity and mortality, the impact of renal function on its prognosis is uncertain.

Methods: Analysis from the international HOPE-Registry (NCT04334291). The objective was to evaluate the association between kidney failure severity on admission with the mortality of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were categorized in 3 groups according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate on admission (eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m and eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m).

Results: 758 patients were included: mean age was 66 ± 18 years, and 58.6% of patient were male. Only 8.5% of patients had a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, 30% of patients had kidney dysfunction upon admission (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m). These patients received less frequently pharmacological treatment with hydroxychloroquine or antivirals and had a greater number of complications such as sepsis (11.9% vs 26.4% vs 40.8%, p < 0.001) and respiratory failure (35.4% vs 72.2% vs 62.0%, p < 0.001) as well as a higher in-hospital mortality rate (eGFR > 60 vs eGFR 30-60 vs and eGFR < 30, 18.4% vs 56.5% vs 65.5%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis: age, hypertension, renal function, 0 saturation < 92% and lactate dehydrogenase elevation on admission independently predicted all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: Renal failure on admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequent and is associated with a greater number of complications and in-hospital mortality. Our data comes from a multicenter registry and therefore does not allow to have a precise mortality risk assessment. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-020-00790-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322375PMC
August 2020

A Sex-Based Analysis From the RAIN-CARDIOGROUP VII Study (VeRy Thin Stents for Patients With Left MAIn or BifurcatioN in Real Life) on Left Main Stenting.

J Invasive Cardiol 2020 Sep 22;32(9):342-346. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Invasive Cardiology Unit 3, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Via Parea, 4 - 20138 Milan, Italy.

Introduction: There is a lack of data on clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with ultrathin stents on unprotected left main (ULM) coronary artery comparing women and men.

Methods: All patients treated with ULM-PCI with ultrathin stents (struts ≤81 μm) enrolled in the RAIN-CARDIOGROUP VII study were analyzed according to a sex-assessment evaluation. Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE, a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, target-lesion revascularization [TLR], and stent thrombosis) was the primary endpoint, whereas single components of MACE were the secondary endpoints.

Results: Out of a cohort of 793 patients, a total of 172 women (21.7%) and 621 men (78.3%) were included. Compared with men, women were older and less frequently smokers, had more frequently a history of previous PCI, and presented more frequently with an acute coronary syndrome. Among women, ostial lesions were more prevalent and mean stent diameter was lower compared with men. After 13.4 months (range, 8.4-21.6 months), 32 women (18.6%) and 106 men (17.1%) experienced MACE (P=.64). Censoring follow-up data at 3 years, no differences were observed in MACE (16.9 vs 14.7 per 100•patient-years; log-rank P=.61) and their single components between women and men. At multivariate analysis, chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91: 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to -2.95; P<.01) and acute coronary syndrome presentation (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.22-2.77; P=.01) were independent predictors of MACE overall. Larger stent size (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.89; P<.01) and longer dual-antiplatelet therapy duration (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P=.03) were associated with a reduced risk of MACE during the subsequent follow-up.

Conclusion: Ultrathin stents offer low rates of MACE and TLR in the overall population without significant differences between sexes.
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September 2020

Acute Anterior STEMI in Multivessel Spontaneous Coronary Dissections.

J Invasive Cardiol 2020 Jun;32(6):E176

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Via Carlo Parea 4-20138 Milan, Italy.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has a prevalence between 0.2%-4% of all acute coronary syndromes. Multivessel SCAD is unusual. Coronary revascularization remains appropriate for unstable patients or with compromised coronary blood flow. Additionally, IVUS probe advancement and its retrieval could precipitate a dramatic progression of SCAD both distally and proximally to its original site.
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June 2020

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Oral P2Y Inhibitors in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Network Meta-Analysis of 52 816 Patients From 12 Randomized Trials.

Circulation 2020 Jul 29;142(2):150-160. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden (S.B., L.W., S.J.).

Background: New randomized, controlled trials have become available on oral P2Y inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to evaluate current evidence comparing the efficacy and safety profile of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Methods: We performed a network meta-analysis and direct pairwise comparison analysis of efficacy and safety outcomes from 12 randomized controlled trials including a total of 52 816 patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Results: In comparison with clopidogrel, ticagrelor significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.72-0.92]) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.92]), whereas there was no statistically significant mortality reduction with prasugrel (HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.80-1.01] and HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.84-1.02], respectively). In comparison with each other, there were no significant differences in mortality (HR prasugrel versus ticagrelor, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.94-1.29] and 1.12 [95% CI, 0.98-1.28]). In comparison with clopidogrel, prasugrel reduced myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]), whereas ticagrelor showed no risk reduction (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.22]). Differences between prasugrel and ticagrelor were not statistically significant. Stent thrombosis risk was significantly reduced by both ticagrelor and prasugrel versus clopidogrel (28%-50% range of reduction). In comparison with clopidogrel, both prasugrel (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]) and ticagrelor (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.04-1.55]) significantly increased major bleeding. There were no significant differences between prasugrel and ticagrelor for all outcomes explored.

Conclusions: Prasugrel and ticagrelor reduced ischemic events and increased bleeding in comparison with clopidogrel. A significant mortality reduction was observed with ticagrelor only. There was no efficacy and safety difference between prasugrel and ticagrelor. Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42019155648.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489363PMC
July 2020

Accuracy of the PARIS score and PCI complexity to predict ischemic events in patients treated with very thin stents in unprotected left main or coronary bifurcations.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 21;97(2):E227-E236. Epub 2020 May 21.

Interventional Cardiology Unit, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Milan, Italy.

Background: The PARIS risk score (PARIS-rs) and percutaneous coronary intervention complexity (PCI-c) predict clinical and procedural residual ischemic risk following PCI. Their accuracy in patients undergoing unprotected left main (ULM) or bifurcation PCI has not been assessed.

Methods: The predictive performances of the PARIS-rs (categorized as low, intermediate, and high) and PCI-c (according to guideline-endorsed criteria) were evaluated in 3,002 patients undergoing ULM/bifurcation PCI with very thin strut stents.

Results: After 16 (12-22) months, increasing PARIS-rs (8.8% vs. 14.1% vs. 27.4%, p < .001) and PCI-c (15.2% vs. 11%, p = .025) were associated with higher rates of major adverse cardiac events ([MACE], a composite of death, myocardial infarction [MI], and target vessel revascularization), driven by MI/death for PARIS-rs and target lesion revascularization/stent thrombosis for PCI-c (area under the curves for MACE: PARIS-rs 0.60 vs. PCI-c 0.52, p-for-difference < .001). PCI-c accuracy for MACE was higher in low-clinical-risk patients; while PARIS-rs was more accurate in low-procedural-risk patients. ≥12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was associated with a lower MACE rate in high PARIS-rs patients, (adjusted-hazard ratio 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.83], p = .012), with no benefit in low to intermediate PARIS-rs patients. No incremental benefit with longer DAPT was observed in complex PCI.

Conclusions: In the setting of ULM/bifurcation PCI, the residual ischemic risk is better predicted by a clinical risk estimator than by PCI complexity, which rather appears to reflect stent/procedure-related events. Careful procedural risk estimation is warranted in patients at low clinical risk, where PCI complexity may substantially contribute to the overall residual ischemic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28972DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of bioresorbable vs durable polymer drug-eluting stents in unprotected left main (from the RAIN-CARDIOGROUP VII Study).

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 05 15;20(1):225. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Cardiology, Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria "Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele,", Catania, Italy.

Background: There are limited data regarding the impact of bioresorbable polymer drug eluting stent (BP-DES) compared to durable polymer drug eluting stent (DP-DES) in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention using ultrathin stents in left main or bifurcations.

Methods: In the RAIN registry (ClinicalTrials NCT03544294, june 2018 retrospectively registered) patients with a ULM or bifurcation stenosis treated with PCI using ultrathin stents (struts thinner than 81 μm) were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR); major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, TLR and stent thrombosis) and its components, along with target vessel revascularization (TVR) were the secondary ones. A propensity score with matching analysis to compare patients treated with BP-DES versus DP-DES was also assessed.

Results: From 3001 enrolled patients, after propensity score analysis 1400 patients (700 for each group) were selected. Among them, 352 had ULM disease and 1048 had non-LM bifurcations. At 16 months (12-22), rates of TLR (3.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.22) and MACE were similar (12.3% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.74) as well as for the other endpoints. Sensitivity analysis of outcomes after a two-stents strategy, showed better outcome in term of MACE (20.4% vs 10%, p = 0.03) and TVR (12% vs 4.6%, p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower TLR in patients treated with BP-DES.

Conclusion: In patients with bifurcations or ULM treated with ultrathin stents BP-DES seems to perform similarly to DP-DES: the trends toward improved clinical outcomes in patients treated with the BP-DES might potentially be of value for speculating the stent choice in selected high-risk subgroups of patients at increased risk of ischemic events.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03544294. Retrospectively registered June 1, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01420-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227223PMC
May 2020

Follow-up strategies and individual risk profile after percutaneous coronary intervention: The prospective post percutaneous coronary intervention registry.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 8;97(2):E209-E218. Epub 2020 May 8.

Dipartimento Emergenze e Aree Critiche, Ospedale Santa Croce e Carle, Cuneo, Italy.

Background: A multidisciplinary consensus document (MCD) provided a follow-up strategy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) based on individual risk profiles: A, high; B, intermediate; and C, low.

Aim: To assess patterns of follow-up after PCI and to evaluate the potential reduction of cardiologic examinations with the application of the MCD.

Methods: The post-PCI registry was carried out at 31 Italian Hospitals and included consecutive patients undergoing PCI. We collected cardiologic consults (CC), noninvasive stress tests (ST), and echocardiograms (EC) actually performed at 12 months and we compared them with the expected by the MCD.

Results: We included 1,113 patients (58% with acute coronary syndrome) that underwent 1,567 CC, 398 ST, and 612 EC. The performed CC and ST were significantly lower compared to the expected, respectively [1.6 (95% CI, 1.5-1.7) vs. 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8-2.0), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.4-0.5) vs. 0.61 (95% CI, 0.6-0.7), p < .001]; the performed EC were significantly higher [0.6 (95% CI, 0.6-0.7) vs. 0.3 (95% CI, 0.3-0.37), p < .001]. Patients at moderate low risk had an excess of noninvasive tests whereas patients at higher risk received less examinations than the expected. The individual risk profile was an independent predictor of increased number of cardiac examination in patients at intermediate and low risk [profile B, OR 2.56 (95%CI 1.38-4.75); profile C, OR 27.00 (95%CI 8.13-89.62), p < .001].

Conclusion: In real world patients undergoing PCI, the intensity of follow-up at 12 months appeared not based on individual risk profile, with a higher numbers of examinations, particularly EC, performed in low risk subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28964DOI Listing
February 2021