Publications by authors named "Daniela Costantini"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The prevalence and clinical correlates of adverse childhood experiences in a cross-sectional study of primary care patients with cardiometabolic disease or risk factors.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2019 12 19;19(1):304. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Sinai Health System and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with risk of poor adult health, including cardiometabolic diseases. Little is known about the correlates of ACEs for adults who have already developed cardiometabolic diseases, or who are at elevated risk.

Methods: Adult primary care patients with cardiometabolic disease (hypertension, diabetes, stroke, angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, angioplasty) or with a risk factor (obesity, smoking, high cholesterol, family history) were surveyed regarding ACEs, psychological distress, attachment insecurity, quality of life, behavior change goals, stages of change, and attitudes toward potential prevention strategies.

Results: Of 387 eligible patients, 74% completed the ACEs survey. Exposure to ACEs was reported by 174 participants (61%). Controlling for age, gender, relationship status and income, number of ACEs was associated with psychological distress (F = 3.7, p = .01), quality of life (F = 8.9, p = .001), attachment anxiety (F = 3.4, p = .02), drinking alcohol most days (F = 4.0, p = .008) and smoking (F = 2.7, p = .04). Greater ACE exposure was associated with less likelihood of selecting diet or physical activity as a behavior change goal (linear-by-linear association p = .009). Stage of change was not associated with ACEs. ACEs exposure was not related to preferred resources for behavior change.

Conclusions: ACEs are common among patients at cardiometabolic risk and are related to quality of life, psychological factors that influence cardiometabolic outcomes and behavior change goals. ACEs should be taken into account when managing cardiometabolic risk in family medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-019-01277-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933923PMC
December 2019

Overweight and obese patients with nickel allergy have a worse metabolic profile compared to weight matched non-allergic individuals.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(8):e0202683. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: A lack of balance between energy intake and expenditure due to overeating or reduced physical activity does not seem to explain entirely the obesity epidemic we are facing, and further factors are therefore being evaluated. Nickel (Ni) is a ubiquitous heavy metal implied in several health conditions. Regarding this, the European Food Safety Authority has recently released an alert on the possible deleterious effects of dietary Ni on human health given the current levels of Ni dietary intake in some countries. Pre-clinical studies have also suggested its role as an endocrine disruptor and have linked its exposure to energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Ni allergy is common in the general population, but preliminary data suggest it being even more widespread among overweight patients.

Objectives: The aim of this study has been to evaluate the presence of Ni allergy and its association with the metabolic and endocrine profile in overweight and obese individuals.

Methods: We have evaluated 1128 consecutive overweight and obese outpatients. 784 were suspected of being allergic to Ni and 666 were assessed for it. Presence of Ni allergy and correlation with body mass index (BMI), body composition, metabolic parameters and hormonal levels were evaluated.

Results: We report that Ni allergy is more frequent in presence of weight excess and is associated with worse metabolic parameters and impaired Growth Hormone secretion.

Conclusions: We confirm that Ni allergy is more common in obese patients, and we report for the first time its association with worse metabolic parameters and impaired function of the GH-IGF1 axis in human subjects.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202683PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112671PMC
February 2019

Mangosteen Extract Shows a Potent Insulin Sensitizing Effect in Obese Female Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2018 May 9;10(5). Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

There is a widely acknowledged association between insulin resistance and obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and insulin sensitizing treatments have proved effective in preventing diabetes and inducing weight loss. Obesity and T2DM are also associated with increased inflammation. Mangosteen is a tropical tree, whose fruits—known for their antioxidant properties—have been recently suggested having a possible further role in the treatment of obesity and T2DM. The objective of this pilot study has been to evaluate safety and efficacy of treatment with mangosteen extract on insulin resistance, weight management, and inflammatory status in obese female patients with insulin resistance. Twenty-two patients were randomized 1:1 to behavioral therapy alone or behavioral therapy and mangosteen and 20 completed the 26-week study. The mangosteen group reported a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, HOMA-IR −53.22% vs. −15.23%, = 0.004), and no side effect attributable to treatment was reported. Given the positive preliminary results we report and the excellent safety profile, we suggest a possible supplementary role of mangosteen extracts in the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10050586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986466PMC
May 2018

Assessment of trabecular bone score (TBS) in overweight/obese men: effect of metabolic and anthropometric factors.

Endocrine 2016 Nov 27;54(2):342-347. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Medical Pathophysiology, Food and Science and Endocrinology Section, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The "trabecular bone score" (TBS) indirectly explores bone quality, independently of bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the effects of anthropometric and metabolic parameters on TBS in 87 overweight/obese men. We assessed BMD and TBS by DXA, and some parameters of glucose metabolism, sex-and calciotropic hormone levels. Regression models were adjusted for either age and BMI, or age and waist circumference, or age and waist/hip ratio, also considering BMI >35 (y/n) and metabolic syndrome (MS) (y/n). Correlations between TBS and parameters studied were higher when correcting for waist circumference, although not significant in subjects with BMI >35. The analysis of covariance showed that the same model always had a higher adjusted r-square index. BMD at lumbar spine and total hip, fasting glucose, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin are the only covariates having a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the variations of TBS. The presence of MS negatively affected only the association between TBS and BMD at total hip. We did not find any significant effect of BMI >35 on TBS values or significant interaction terms between each covariate and either BMI >35 or the presence of MS. Obesity negatively affected TBS, despite unchanged BMD. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and sex hormone levels seem to influence this relationship, while calciotropic hormones have no role. The effect of waist circumference on TBS is more pronounced than that of BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-0857-1DOI Listing
November 2016

Severe growth hormone deficiency and empty sella in obesity: a cross-sectional study.

Endocrine 2015 Jun 23;49(2):503-11. Epub 2015 Jan 23.

Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Policlinico Umberto I, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Obesity is associated with blunted growth hormone (GH) secretion. In some individuals, hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) structural lesions may contribute to GH deficiency (GHD). We explored pituitary morphology in obese patients with suspected GHD and its association with cardiovascular risk factors, body composition, and cardiac morphology. One hundred and eighty-four adults obese patients with symptoms and signs of GHD (147 females and 37 males; mean age 46.31 ± 12.11 years), out of 906 consecutive white obese outpatients, were evaluated. The main measures were anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemic parameters, pituitary hormones, and insulin-like growth factor-1 values, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HP region, body composition, and growth hormone-releasing hormone plus arginine test. Seventy patients had GHD (GH peak values <4.2 μg/mL). GHD patients showed significantly higher body mass index and fat mass, lower lumbar bone mineral density, increased left ventricular mass index, and epicardial fat thickness. The MRI of the HP region showed empty sella (ES) in 69 and normal pituitary in one of the 70 GHD patients; the 114 patients with normal GH response had ES (n = 62, 54 %), normal pituitary (n = 37, 32 %), microadenomas (n = 10, 8 %), and other pituitary abnormalities (n = 5, 4 %). ES was a significant independent predictor of GH secretory capacity as determined by multiple regression analysis. The close relationship between ES and GH secretory capacity points out to the possibility of the organic nature of GHD in a portion of obese individuals and opens a new scenario with regard to the potential of GH treatment on metabolic consequences of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-015-0530-0DOI Listing
June 2015

Safety and efficacy of a multiphase dietetic protocol with meal replacements including a step with very low calorie diet.

Endocrine 2015 Apr 26;48(3):863-70. Epub 2014 Jul 26.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome La Sapienza, Policlinico Umberto I, 00161, Rome, Italy.

To investigate safety, compliance, and efficacy, on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors of a multiphasic dietary intervention based on meal replacements, including a period of very low calorie diet (VLCD) in a population of obese patients. Anthropometric parameters, blood tests (including insulin), dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and questionnaires for the assessment of safety and compliance before and after (phase I) a 30-day VLCD, 700 kcal/day, normoproteic, 50 g/day carbohydrate, four meal replacements; (phase II) a 30-day low calorie diet (LCD), 820 kcal/day, three meal replacements plus a protein plate; (phase III) 60-day LCD, 1,100 kcal/day, two meal replacements plus two protein plates and reintroduction of small amounts of carbohydrates; (phase IV) 60-day hypocaloric balanced diet (HBD), 1,200 kcal/day, one meal replacement, two protein plates and the reintroduction of carbohydrates. 24 patients (17 females, 7 males, mean BMI 33.8±3.2 kg/m2, mean age 35.1±10.2 years) completed the study. The average weight loss was 15.4±6.7%, with a significant reduction of fat mass (from 32.8±4.7 to 26.1±6.3% p<0.05) and a relative increase of lean mass (from 61.9±4.8 to 67.1±5.9% p<0.05). An improvement of metabolic parameters and no variations of the liver and kidney functions were found. A high safety profile and an excellent dietary compliance were seen. The VLCD dietary program and the replacement dietary system described here is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for weight control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-014-0355-2DOI Listing
April 2015

Obesity and metabolic comorbidities: environmental diseases?

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013 18;2013:640673. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Endocrinology and Food Science, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Obesity and metabolic comorbidities represent increasing health problems. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous agents that change endocrine function and cause adverse health effects. Most EDCs are synthetic chemicals; some are natural food components as phytoestrogens. People are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals throughout their lives. EDCs impact hormone-dependent metabolic systems and brain function. Laboratory and human studies provide compelling evidence that human chemical contamination can play a role in obesity epidemic. Chemical exposures may increase the risk of obesity by altering the differentiation of adipocytes. EDCs can alter methylation patterns and normal epigenetic programming in cells. Oxidative stress may be induced by many of these chemicals, and accumulating evidence indicates that it plays important roles in the etiology of chronic diseases. The individual sensitivity to chemicals is variable, depending on environment and ability to metabolize hazardous chemicals. A number of genes, especially those representing antioxidant and detoxification pathways, have potential application as biomarkers of risk assessment. The potential health effects of combined exposures make the risk assessment process more complex compared to the assessment of single chemicals. Techniques and methods need to be further developed to fill data gaps and increase the knowledge on harmful exposure combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/640673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613100PMC
August 2013

Relationships between body fat distribution, epicardial fat and obstructive sleep apnea in obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome.

PLoS One 2012 8;7(10):e47059. Epub 2012 Oct 8.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology, Endocrinology and Food Science, University of Rome "Sapienza", Italy.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome, both closely related to obesity, often coexist in affected individuals; however, body mass index is not an accurate indicator of body fat and thus is not a good predictor of OSA and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of OSA could be associated with an altered body fat distribution and a more evident cardio metabolic risk independently from obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Methods And Results: 171 consecutive patients (58 men and 113 women) were included in the study and underwent overnight polysomnography. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycaemic parameters were recorded. Body composition by DXA, two-dimensional echocardiography and carotid intima/media thickness measurement were performed. 67 patients (39.2%) had no OSA and 104 (60.8%) had OSA. The percentage of patients with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among OSA patients (65.4%) that were older, heavier and showed a bigger and fatter heart compared to the control group. Upper body fat deposition index , the ratio between upper body fat (head, arms and trunk fat in kilograms) and lower body fat (legs fat in kilograms), was significantly increased in the OSA patients and significantly related to epicardial fat thickness. In patients with metabolic syndrome, multivariate regression analyses showed that upper body fat deposition index and epicardial fat showed the best association with OSA.

Conclusion: The occurrence of OSA in obese people is more closely related to cardiac adiposity and to abnormal fat distribution rather than to the absolute amount of adipose tissue. In patients with metabolic syndrome the severity of OSA is associated with increase in left ventricular mass and carotid intima/media thickness.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047059PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466221PMC
May 2013
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