Publications by authors named "Daniela Cavallotti"

8 Publications

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Functional Human Podocytes Generated in Organoids from Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 05 29;27(5):1400-11. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Centro Anna Maria Astori, Science and Technology Park Kilometro Rosso, Bergamo, Italy; Unit of Nephrology and Dialysis, Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy; and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Generating kidney organoids using human stem cells could offer promising prospects for research and therapeutic purposes. However, no cell-based strategy has generated nephrons displaying an intact three-dimensional epithelial filtering barrier. Here, we generated organoids using murine embryonic kidney cells, and documented that these tissues recapitulated the complex three-dimensional filtering structure of glomerular slits in vivo and accomplished selective glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Exploiting this technology, we mixed human amniotic fluid stem cells with mouse embryonic kidney cells to establish three-dimensional chimeric organoids that engrafted in vivo and grew to form vascularized glomeruli and tubular structures. Human cells contributed to the formation of glomerular structures, differentiated into podocytes with slit diaphragms, and internalized exogenously infused BSA, thus attaining in vivo degrees of specialization and function unprecedented for donor stem cells. In conclusion, human amniotic fluid stem cell chimeric organoids may offer new paths for studying renal development and human podocyte disease, and for facilitating drug discovery and translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015030316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4849826PMC
May 2016

Dopamine receptor subtypes in the human coronary vessels of healthy subjects.

J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2011 Feb 12;31(1):33-8. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

Clinical Science (Policlinico Umberto I), "Sapienza" University, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Dopamine D(1)-D(5) receptors subtypes were studied in human coronary vessels of healthy subjects to assess their localization and their expression.

Methods: Samples of intraparenchymal and extraparenchymal branches of human coronary arteries and veins were harvested from four normal native hearts explanted from four young brain dead heart donors in case of orthoptic transplant, not carried out for technical reasons. In all the samples morphological, biochemical, immunochemical, and morphometrical studies were performed including quantitative analysis of images and evaluation of data.

Results: Microanatomical section showed healthy coronary vessels, which expressed all dopamine receptors (from D(1) to D(5)) with a different pattern of distribution between the different layers, in the intra and in the extraparenchymal branches.D(1) and D(5) (with a prevalence D(1) over D(5)) were distributed in the adventitia and to a lesser extent in the outer media but they were absent in arterioles, capillaries and venules. Endothelial and the middle layer showed D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors, with a greater expression of D(2). Immunoblot analysis of dopamine monoclonal antibodies and dopamine receptors showed a different migration band for each receptor: D(1) (45 KDa); D(2) (43 KDa); D(3) (42‚ÄČkDa); D(4) (40-42 KDa); D(5) (38-40 KDa)

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the presence of all dopamine receptor subtypes in the wall of human coronary vessels of healthy subjects. Dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptor subtypes are the most expressed, suggesting their prominent role in the coronary vasoactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10799893.2010.506878DOI Listing
February 2011

Cholinergic staining of bronchus- associated lymphoid tissue.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2005 ;12(3):141-5

Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, University La Sapienza, Italy.

The cholinergic staining of human bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was studied in humans. Morsels of the human lung (containing BALT) were harvested, after having obtained the appropriate approvals, during autopsies in 24 human subjects. The samples were stained by means of the enzymatic technique of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and/or the monoclonal immunohistochemical method of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). A morphometrical analysis was performed by means of quantitative analysis of images and statistical analyses of the data. AChE and proteins were also measured by biochemical assay. Our results demonstrate that both AChE and ChAT are localized in the BALT of young and old humans. These enzymes undergo age-related changes. The biochemical values of AChE are as follows: 22.3 +/- 2.5 international units in young subjects and 78.5 +/- 1.9 international units in old ones. The morphometrical values of AChE confirm the biochemical ones. The morphometrical data for ChAT are 31.6 +/- 1.4 conventional units in young subjects and 71.2 +/- 1.5 conventional units in old ones. Further results are needed to draw definite conclusions concerning the location and the distribution of these two enzymatic activities in BALT. In our opinion, the presence of AChE and ChAT in BALT can be both 'non-neuronal', with a role in general metabolism, and/or 'neuronal' with a role in neuroimmunomodulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000084845DOI Listing
August 2005

Pathogenesis of some neurological immune ultrastructural and morphometrical observations on rat thymus.

Neurol Res 2005 Jan;27(1):41-6

Department of Neurosurgery University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Numerous studies on neuro-immuno-modulation indicate that the thymus is involved in many neurological diseases, including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty Lewis rats were induced for EAE. At X, XII, XX and XXX days post-inoculation the animals were killed, and the thymus was recovered and harvested. Specimens of thymus were submitted to morphological light microscopy analysis (1% toluidine blue) and ultra-structural analysis (transmission electron microscopy). Significant morphometric data were collected by examining the images quantitatively and by statistically analysing the values. Our results show that the microenvironment of the thymus is severally involved in acute EAE. Thymocytes and reticular epithelial cells show many changes which are closely related to the pathogenesis of EAE. In particular we observed: (1) inside the cell an increase in intra-cytoplasmic vacuoles, and changes in the thickness of the nuclear membrane, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, cellular inter-digitations and cellular electron-density; (2) outside the cell an increase in pericellular translucent halo, intercellular spaces, intercellular contacts and apoptotic and necrotic figures. The evidence of a thymic role in MS may suggest the intriguing therapeutic concept of thymectomy in the management of this neurological disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/016164105X18197DOI Listing
January 2005

Distribution of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters and related receptors in human bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue.

Respiration 2004 Nov-Dec;71(6):635-40

Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Background: The functions of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) are under the control of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers).

Objectives: The relationships between the adrenergic nerve fibers and beta-adrenergic receptors were studied in the human BALT with the aim to demonstrate a probable neuromodulation.

Methods: Morphological observations (staining with hematoxylin-eosin and scanning electron microscopy images) were carried out on samples of human BALT harvested during autopsies. Moreover, histochemical staining for norepinephrine (adrenaline = adrenergic nerve fibers) as well as for other catecholamines was performed. Finally, beta-adrenergic receptors were stained by means of a beta-blocking, radiolabeled drug (pindolol 125I). All our data were submitted to morphometric analysis (quantitative analysis of images and statistical analysis of data).

Results: Our results provide direct evidence of the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerve fibers and related beta-adrenergic receptors in BALT. beta-Adrenergic receptors are present above all in the most richly innervated part of the BALT, and are, therefore, in close relationship with their related adrenergic nerve fibers.

Conclusions: Studies on the distribution of adrenergic neurotransmitters and related beta-adrenergic receptors in the human BALT are the first step for the demonstration of a probable neuromodulation of BALT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000081766DOI Listing
March 2005

Dopamine receptors in the human dura mater.

Neurochem Res 2004 Aug;29(8):1499-504

Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, University of Rome "La Sapienza", V. A. Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Dopamine receptors (Dar) were studied as a component of the nervous dopaminergic system in the human dura mater. Dar were stained in several dural zones (vascular, perivascular, intervascular) in different regions (basal, calvarial, tentorial, occipital, frontal, parietal, temporal) of the cranial meninges. Specimens of human dura mater were harvested from autopsies of 10 elderly male subjects (age range, 60-75 years). Dar were labeled with specific (H3) markers, studied with radiobinding techniques (including liquid scintillation), stained for light microscope autoradiography, and measured by means of quantitative analysis of images. All results were evaluated with statistical analysis to identify significant results. More dural Dar were found in the basal region than in the calvarial one. Moreover, Dar are more abundant in the vascular and perivascular dural zone than in the intervascular one. The vascular distribution of Dar seemed to indicate that Dar play a role in the control of meningeal blood vessels. The location and distribution of D1 and D2 receptors in the human cranial dura mater confirmed the presence of a dopaminergic system, which could play an important role in controlling blood flow and/or other functions of meningeal membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:nere.0000029561.19305.12DOI Listing
August 2004

Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

Immunol Lett 2002 Oct;84(1):69-76

Department of Pharmacology of Natural Molecules and General Physiology, University of Rome 'La Sapienza', P le A. Molo 5, Rome, Italy.

The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-2478(02)00145-1DOI Listing
October 2002

Occurrence of adrenergic nerve fibers in human thymus during immune response.

Neurochem Int 2002 Mar;40(3):211-21

Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

The adrenergic nerve fibers (ANF), the neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive nerve fibers (NPY-NF) and the noradrenaline (NA) amount were studied in the human thymus in subjects previously treated or not treated with interferon therapy with the aim to identify the changes due to the interferon therapy. This therapy has been used in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). Biochemical and morphological methods were used associated with quantitative analysis of images. The whole thymuses were removed during autopsies in young and adult patients not treated with interferon. Moreover, samples of thymus were removed from patients, either young or adult who had previously been treated with interferon therapy, and subjected, for diagnostic reasons, to thymic biopsy. All samples of thymus were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with Eosin-orange for detection of the microanatomical details, or with Bodian's reaction for recognition of nervous structures. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for detection of ANF, and immunofluorescence microscopy for recognition of NPY-like immunoreactive structures. All morphological results were subjected to quantitative analysis of images. Noradrenaline contained in thymic structures was measured by biochemical methods. Our results only concerned the effects of the therapy and suggested that treatment with interferon therapy induces many changes in the thymic structures: (1) The protein content of thymus is significantly increased; (2) the NA content in the thymus is also significantly increased; (3) NPY-like immunoreactive structures in the thymus are significantly increased; (4) occurrence of NPY-like immunoreactivity is particularly and significantly increased both in thymic microenvironment and in structures resembling nerve fibers; (5) ANF are significantly increased in the same thymic structures in which NPY-like immunoreactivity is also increased (i.e. thymic microenvironment and structures resembling nerve fibers). The morphological and biochemical changes observed can also explain the immunological changes induced in the thymus after immunostimulating therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0197-0186(01)00074-2DOI Listing
March 2002
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