Publications by authors named "Daniela Calina"

92 Publications

Erratum to "Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19?" [Toxicol. Rep. 8C (2021) 1665-1684 / 1193].

Toxicol Rep 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.010.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496904PMC
October 2021

Challenges and Scientific Prospects of the Newest Generation of mRNA-Based Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

Life (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Toxicology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, traditional, complex and lengthy methods of vaccine development and production would not have been able to ensure proper management of this global public health crisis. Hence, a number of technologies have been developed for obtaining a vaccine quickly and ensuring a large scale production, such as mRNA-based vaccine platforms. The use of mRNA is not a new concept in vaccine development but has leveraged on previous knowledge and technology. The great number of human resources and capital investements for mRNA vaccine development, along with the experience gained from previous studies on infectious diseases, allowed COVID-19 mRNA vaccines to be developed, conditionally approved and commercialy available in less than one year, thanks to decades of basic research. This review critically presents and discusses the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced immunity, and it summarizes the most common anaphylactic and autoimmune adverse effects that have been identified until now after massive vaccination campaigns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11090907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467884PMC
August 2021

Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19?

Toxicol Rep 2021 14;8:1665-1684. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece.

This article examines issues related to COVID-19 inoculations for children. The bulk of the official COVID-19-attributed deaths per capita occur in the elderly with high comorbidities, and the COVID-19 attributed deaths per capita are negligible in children. The bulk of the normalized post-inoculation deaths also occur in the elderly with high comorbidities, while the normalized post-inoculation deaths are small, but not negligible, in children. Clinical trials for these inoculations were very short-term (a few months), had samples not representative of the total population, and for adolescents/children, had poor predictive power because of their small size. Further, the clinical trials did not address changes in biomarkers that could serve as early warning indicators of elevated predisposition to serious diseases. Most importantly, the clinical trials did not address long-term effects that, if serious, would be borne by children/adolescents for potentially decades. A novel cost-benefit analysis showed that there are five times the number of deaths attributable to each inoculation vs those attributable to COVID-19 in the most vulnerable 65+ demographic. The risk of death from COVID-19 decreases drastically as age decreases, and the longer-term effects of the inoculations on lower age groups will increase their risk-benefit ratio, perhaps substantially.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437699PMC
September 2021

Natural Coumarins: Exploring the Pharmacological Complexity and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 23;2021:6492346. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Coumarins belong to the benzopyrone family commonly found in many medicinal plants. Natural coumarins demonstrated a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anticancer, antibacterial, antimalarial, casein kinase-2 (CK2) inhibitory, antifungal, antiviral, Alzheimer's disease inhibition, neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, phytoalexins, ulcerogenic, and antihypertensive. There are very few studies on the bioavailability of coumarins; therefore, further investigations are necessitated to study the bioavailability of different coumarins which already showed good biological activities in previous studies. On the evidence of varied pharmacological properties, the present work presents an overall review of the derivation, availability, and biological capacities of coumarins with further consideration of the essential mode of their therapeutic actions. In conclusion, a wide variety of coumarins are available, and their pharmacological activities are of current interest thanks to their synthetic accessibility and riches in medicinal plants. Coumarins perform the valuable function as therapeutic agents in a range of medical fields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6492346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440074PMC
August 2021

Reversal of brain aging by targeting telomerase: A nutraceutical approach.

Int J Mol Med 2021 11 13;48(5). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

Telomeres, the protective caps of chromosomes, shorten with age, as telomerase, the enzyme responsible for the compensation of telomere erosion, is inactive in the majority of cells. Telomere shortening and subsequent cell senescence lead to tissue aging and age‑related diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by the progressive loss of neurons among other hallmarks of aged tissue, and poor cognitive function, have been associated with a short telomere length. Thus, telomerase activity has emerged as a therapeutic target, with novel agents being under investigation. The present study aimed to examine the effects of a novel natural telomerase activator, 'Reverse™', containing extract, vitamin C, zinc and vitamin D3 on the brains of 18‑month‑old rats. The administration of the 'Reverse™' supplement for 3 months restored telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression in the brains of rats, as revealed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the findings from PCR‑ELISA demonstrated an enhanced telomerase activity in the cerebellum and cortex cells in the brains of rats treated with the 'Reverse™' supplement. The histopathological findings confirmed a structural reversibility effect close to the differentiation observed in the young control group of rats treated with two capsules/kg body weight of the 'Reverse™' supplement. On the whole, the findings of the present study provide a strong indication that an increased telomerase activity and TERT expression may be achieved not only in the postnatal or embryonic period, but also in the brains of middle‑aged rats through nutraceutical supplementation. The use of the 'Reverse™' supplement may thus contribute to the potential alleviation of a number of central nervous system diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448543PMC
November 2021

Bioactive Compounds as Potential Agents for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Management: A Review to Explore Molecular Mechanisms of Action.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:674682. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are produced by pathogens like bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses, and may generate severe health problems such as cancer, ulcers, and even problems in the newborn. This narrative review aims to present updated information about the use of natural bioactive compounds for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A search of the literature was performed using databases and search engines such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Science Direct. From the pharmacotherapeutic management point of view, any strategies for prevention should contain medical approaches. The bioactive compounds obtained from natural products have shown biological effects against different microorganisms for the treatment of these diseases. The main results showed antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antifungal and antiviral effects such as HIV. Also, the molecular mechanisms, signalling pathways and action targets of natural compounds were highlighted, thus justifying bacterial and antifungal inhibition, apoptosis or reduction of viral replication. From the data of our study, we can conclude that natural compounds may be a significant source for adjuvant drugs / complementary therapies in the treatment of STDs. With all these benefits, the future must conduct extensive clinical trials and the development of pharmaceutical nanotechnologies for a greater therapeutic effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.674682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421529PMC
August 2021

The Study of Airborne Particulate Matter in Dalnegorsk Town.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 1;18(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Far Eastern Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Education, Far Eastern Federal University, 690922 Vladivostok, Russia.

Mines, quarries, dumps, and tailings are the sources of air pollution. In the Dalnegorsk District (Primorsky Krai, Russia), there are 20 polymetallic deposits. This study aimed to evaluate the particle size and material composition of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Dalnegorsk town and verify the influence of mining and chemical industry facilities on the composition of PM. Ambient particulates were analyzed in samples of snow cover and washout from vegetation (conifer tree needles). According to particle size distribution data, the relative content of particles with a diameter up to 10 microns (PM) reaches 40% in three snow samples taken in the central part of the town. Among ore minerals, pyrite and arsenopyrite predominated in the samples. In addition, sphalerite, galena, cassiterite, and iron-chromium-nickel formations of various shapes were found in the studied particles. The presence of these metals in airborne PM can negatively affect the incidence rate of PM-associated diseases and the determination of their levels are very useful for air pollution prevention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431032PMC
September 2021

Erratum to "COVID-19 pandemic and alcohol consumption: Impacts and interconnections" [Toxicol. Rep. 8C (2021) 529 - 535/1078].

Toxicol Rep 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Toxicology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349, Craiova, Romania.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.005.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410228PMC
September 2021

Erratum to "Safety of COVID-19 vaccines administered in the EU: Should we be concerned?" [Toxicol. Rep. 8C (2021) 871-879/1111].

Toxicol Rep 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.04.003.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410220PMC
September 2021

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Strains Isolated from a County Hospital in Romania.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Bacteriology-Virology-Parasitology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

The study evaluated the evolution of the incidence of infections with in the County Clinical Emergency Hospital of Craiova (SCJUC), Romania. Also, we monitored antibiotic resistance over more than two years and detected changes in resistance to various antimicrobial agents. Our study included 2062 patients (823 women and 1239 men) hospitalised in SCJUC during the period 1st of September 2017 to 30 June 2019. In 458 patients (22.21%) from the 2062 total patients, the collected samples (1116) were positive and from those, we isolated 251 strains of spp. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the prevalence of spp. over calendar months, which showed a prevalence in surgical wards that ranged between 5.25% and 19.49% in June 2018, while in medical wards the variation was much wider, between 5.15% and 17.36% in April 2018. spp. strains showed significant resistance to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate, Aztreonam and Cephalosporins such as Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime and Cefepime. We examined the possible link with the consumption of antibiotics in the same month by performing a multiple linear regression analysis. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in was correlated with the variation of resistance in other bacteria, which suggests common resistance mechanisms in the hospital environment. By performing the regression for dependency between antibiotic resistance and antibiotic consumption, we observed some correlations between antibiotic consumption and the development of antibiotic resistance after 1, 2 and even 3 months (e.g., resistance to meropenem was influenced by the consumption in the hospital ward of imipenem 1 month and two months before, but only 1 month before by the consumption of meropenem). The clustering of strains showed filiation between multiresistant spp. strains isolated from specific patients from the ICU. The evolution of prevalence and antibiotic resistance in correlated with the resistance in other bacteria, which suggest common resistance mechanisms in the hospital environment, and also with the consumption of antibiotics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300768PMC
July 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Neoechinulins and Their Derivatives: An Overview of the Molecular Mechanisms Behind Pharmacological Activities.

Front Nutr 2021 16;8:664197. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.

Neoechinulins are diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids that demonstrate radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-neurodegenerative, neurotrophic factor-like, anticancer, pro-apoptotic, and anti-apoptotic properties. An array of neoechinulins such as neoechinulins A-E, isoechinulins A-C, cryptoechunilin have been isolated from various fungal sources like sp., sp., etc. Besides, neoechinulin derivatives or stereoisomers were also obtained from diverse non-fungal sources , and so on. The main purpose of this review is to provide update information on neoechinulins and their analogues about the molecular mechanisms of the pharmacological action and possible future research. The recent data from this review can be used to create a basis for the discovery of new neoechinulin-based drugs and their analogues in the near future. The online databases PubMed, Science and Google scholar were researched for the selection and collection of data from the available literature on neoechinulins, their natural sources and their pharmacological properties. The published books on this topic were also analysed. and assays have established the potential of neoechinulin A as a promising anticancer and anti-neuroinflammatory lead molecule. Neoechinulin B was also identified as a potential antiviral drug against hepatitis C virus. Toxicological and clinical trials are needed in the future to improve the phyto-pharmacological profile of neoquinolines. From the analysis of the literature, we found that neoechinulins and their derivatives have special biological potential. Although some modern pharmacological analyzes have highlighted the molecular mechanisms of action and some signalling pathways, the correlation between these phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities must be validated in the future by preclinical toxicological and clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.664197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322439PMC
July 2021

Genistein: An Integrative Overview of Its Mode of Action, Pharmacological Properties, and Health Benefits.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:3268136. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

Genistein is an isoflavone first isolated from the brooming plant Dyer's L. and is widely distributed in the Fabaceae family. As an isoflavone, mammalian genistein exerts estrogen-like functions. Several biological effects of genistein have been reported in preclinical studies, such as the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities, the effects of angiogenesis and estrogen, and the pharmacological activities on diabetes and lipid metabolism. The purpose of this review is to provide up-to-date evidence of preclinical pharmacological activities with mechanisms of action, bioavailability, and clinical evidence of genistein. The literature was researched using the most important keyword "genistein" from the PubMed, Science, and Google Scholar databases, and the taxonomy was validated using The Plant List. Data were also collected from specialized books and other online resources. The main positive effects of genistein refer to the protection against cardiovascular diseases and to the decrease of the incidence of some types of cancer, especially breast cancer. Although the mechanism of protection against cancer involves several aspects of genistein metabolism, the researchers attribute this effect to the similarity between the structure of soy genistein and that of estrogen. This structural similarity allows genistein to displace estrogen from cellular receptors, thus blocking their hormonal activity. The pharmacological activities resulting from the experimental studies of this review support the traditional uses of genistein, but in the future, further investigations are needed on the efficacy, safety, and use of nanotechnologies to increase bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3268136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315847PMC
July 2021

Neuropharmacological Effects of Quercetin: A Literature-Based Review.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:665031. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Quercetin (QUR) is a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been lately very studied for its beneficial properties in many pathologies. Its neuroprotective effects have been demonstrated in many studies, as well as animal experiments and human trials. QUR protects the organism against neurotoxic chemicals and also can prevent the evolution and development of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The present work aimed to summarize the literature about the neuroprotective effect of QUR using known database sources. Besides, this review focuses on the assessment of the potential utilization of QUR as a complementary or alternative medicine for preventing and treating neurodegenerative diseases. An up-to-date search was conducted in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar for published work dealing with the neuroprotective effects of QUR against neurotoxic chemicals or in neuronal injury, and in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Findings suggest that QUR possess neuropharmacological protective effects in neurodegenerative brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid β peptide, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In summary, this review emphasizes the neuroprotective effects of QUR and its advantages in being used in complementary medicine for the prevention and treatment o of different neurodegenerative diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.665031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248808PMC
June 2021

Chitosan nanoparticles as a promising tool in nanomedicine with particular emphasis on oncological treatment.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jun 24;21(1):318. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349, Craiova, Romania.

The study describes the current state of knowledge on nanotechnology and its utilization in medicine. The focus in this manuscript was on the properties, usage safety, and potentially valuable applications of chitosan-based nanomaterials. Chitosan nanoparticles have high importance in nanomedicine, biomedical engineering, discovery and development of new drugs. The manuscript reviewed the new studies regarding the use of chitosan-based nanoparticles for creating new release systems with improved bioavailability, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity of drugs. Nowadays, effective cancer treatment is a global problem, and recent advances in nanomedicine are of great importance. Special attention was put on the application of chitosan nanoparticles in developing new system for anticancer drug delivery. Pre-clinical and clinical studies support the use of chitosan-based nanoparticles in nanomedicine. This manuscript overviews the last progresses regarding the utilization, stability, and bioavailability of drug nanoencapsulation with chitosan and their safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02025-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223345PMC
June 2021

A Pharmacological Perspective on Plant-derived Bioactive Molecules for Epilepsy.

Neurochem Res 2021 Sep 12;46(9):2205-2225. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349, Craiova, Romania.

Epilepsy is a related chronic neurological condition of a predisposition for recurrent epileptic seizures, with various manifestations and causes. Although there are antiepileptic drugs, complementary natural therapies are widely used. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the antiepileptic/anticonvulsant pharmacological properties of plant-food derived bioactive molecules. In this regard, a systematic review of the PubMed database was made based on the inclusion criteria. Natural compounds/herbs with scientifically proven antiepileptic properties were selected. Experimental pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids may have anticonvulsant mechanisms similar to the new generation antiepileptic drugs. The relationships of structure-anticonvulsant effect, pharmacological models, seizure-inducing factors and response, effective dose were also analyzed and discussed. The results of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies analyzed in this systematic review support the clinical importance of plant-food-derived bioactive molecules for the complementary treatment of epilepsy. Thus, are opened new perspectives to develop new natural anticonvulsant drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03376-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Cannabinoids and Inflammations of the Gut-Lung-Skin Barrier.

J Pers Med 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, "Carol Davila" Central Military Emergency Hospital, 010825 Bucharest, Romania.

Recent studies have identified great similarities and interferences between the epithelial layers of the digestive tract, the airways and the cutaneous layer. The relationship between these structures seems to implicate signaling pathways, cellular components and metabolic features, and has led to the definition of a gut-lung-skin barrier. Inflammation seems to involve common features in these tissues; therefore, analyzing the similarities and differences in the modulation of its biomarkers can yield significant data promoting a better understanding of the particularities of specific signaling pathways and cellular effects. Cannabinoids are well known for a wide array of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. This paper aims to explore the effects of natural and synthetic cannabinoids, including the components of the endocannabinoid system, in relation to the inflammation of the gut-lung-skin barrier epithelia. Recent advancements in the use of cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory substances in various disorders of the gut, lungs and skin are detailed. Some studies have reported mixed or controversial results, and these have also been addressed in our paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227007PMC
May 2021

Species: Bridging Phytochemistry Knowledge, Pharmacological Properties and Toxicological Safety for Health Benefits.

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:600139. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

The genus includes a number of plant species largely used as food, food additives and spices for a long time. Different traditional healing systems have used these plants as herbal remedies to cure diverse ailments. The aim of this comprehensive and updated review is to summarize the biodiversity of the genus , its bioactive compounds, the mechanisms that underlie the pharmacological activities and molecular targets and toxicological safety. All the data in this review have been collected from databases and recent scientific literature including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect etc. The results showed that the bioactive compounds of species possess antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and neuroprotective effects. The preclinical (/) studies provided the possible molecular mechanisms of these action. As a novelty, recent clinical studies and toxicological data described in this paper support and confirm the pharmacological importance of the genus In conclusion, the obtained results from preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as reduced side effects provide insights into future research of new drugs based on extracts and bioactive compounds from plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.600139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144503PMC
May 2021

Flavonoids as potential anti-platelet aggregation agents: from biochemistry to health promoting abilities.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 13:1-14. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.

Cardiovascular ailments are the number one cause of mortalities throughout the globe with 17.9 million deaths per year. Platelet activation and aggregation play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of arterial diseases, including acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular transient ischemia, unstable angina, among others. Flavonoids-rich plant extracts are gaining interest for treating the heart-related problems due to safe nature of these herbal extracts. Consumption of plant-food-derived bioactives, particularly flavonoids, has shown antithrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects due to its anti-platelet activity. Preclinical and clinical trials have proven that flavonoid-rich plant extracts are protective against the cardiac ailments through anti-platelet aggregation activity. This review aims to highlight the anti-platelet aggregation potential of flavonoids with a key emphasis on the therapeutic efficacy in humans. The mechanism of flavonoids in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases is also highlighted based on preclinical and clinical experimental trials. Further studies are the need of time for exploring the exact molecular mechanism of flavonoids as anti-platelet aggregation agents for treating heart-related problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1924612DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety of COVID-19 vaccines administered in the EU: Should we be concerned?

Toxicol Rep 2021 20;8:871-879. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented and devastating impact on public health, society and economics around the world. As a result, the development of vaccines to protect individuals from symptomatic COVID-19 infections has represented the only feasible health tool to combat the spread of the disease. However, at the same time the development and regulatory assessment of different vaccines has challenged pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies as this process has occurred in the shorter time ever though. So far, two mRNA and two adenovirus-vectored vaccines have received a conditional marketing authorisation in the EU and other countries. This review summarized and discusses the assessment reports of the European Medicine Agency (EMA) concerning the safety of the 3 vaccines currently used in the EU (Pfizer, Moderna and Astra-Zeneca). A particular focus has been paid to safety information from pre-clinical (animal) and clinical (phase 3 trials) studies. Overall, the most frequent adverse effects reported after the administration of these vaccines consisted of local reactions at the injection site (sore arm and erythema) followed by non-specific systemic effects (myalgia, chills, fatigue, headache, and fever), which occurred soon after vaccination and resolved shortly. Rare cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia have been reported for Vaxzevria. Data on long-term studies, interaction with other vaccines, use in pregnancy/breast-feeding, use in immunocompromised subjects, and in subjects with comorbidities, autoimmune or inflammatory disorders are still missing for these vaccines. Therefore, careful follow-up and surveillance studies for continued vaccine safety monitoring will be needed to ascertain the potential risks of such adverse events or diseases. In conclusion, the benefits and risks of current COVID-19 vaccines must be weighed against the real possibility of contract the disease and develop complications and long-term sequels; all this on the basis of the available scientific evidence and in the absence of unmotivated biases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055532PMC
April 2021

Detrimental effects of 6 months exposure to very low doses of a mixture of six pesticides associated with chronic vitamin deficiency on rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 6;152:112188. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Toxicology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 200349, Craiova, Romania. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate the long-term low-dose effects of exposure to a mixture of 6 pesticide active substances (diquat, imazamox, imazethapyr, tepraloxydin, bentazone, acifluorfen) and to elucidate if chronic vitamin deficiency can influence their toxicity. Two hundred Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups: a vitamin-sufficiency control group, a vitamin-deficiency control group, a vitamin sufficiency test group and a vitamin-deficiency test group. The test groups were treated with the aforementioned pesticides at doses 100 times lower than the corresponding NOAEL. After 6 months, ten rats from each group were sacrificed and a complete evaluation of blood and urine biochemistry, biomarkers of oxidative stress, xenobiotic detoxification enzymes and lysosomal enzymes and organ histopathology was performed. The pesticides mixture and vitamin deficiency determined an increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary calcium levels, abnormal serum lipid profile, and a decrease of total blood proteins levels, red blood cells, haematocrit and haemoglobin. The combination of the two stressors up-regulated CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1 and GST levels. This study provides a new proof for the need to move forward from single chemical testing to a more complex approach to account for the multitude of stressors that can challenge the setting of real safety levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112188DOI Listing
June 2021

Back to basics in COVID-19: Antigens and antibodies-Completing the puzzle.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 05 18;25(10):4523-4533. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gathered 1 year of scientific/clinical information. This informational asset should be thoroughly and wisely used in the coming year colliding in a global task force to control this infection. Epidemiology of this infection shows that the available estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence largely depended on the availability of molecular testing and the extent of tested population. Within molecular diagnosis, the viability and infectiousness of the virus in the tested samples should be further investigated. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 has a genetic normal evolution that is a dynamic process. The immune system participates to the counterattack of the viral infection by pathogen elimination, cellular homoeostasis, tissue repair and generation of memory cells that would be reactivated upon a second encounter with the same virus. In all these stages, we still have knowledge to be gathered regarding antibody persistence, protective effects and immunological memory. Moreover, information regarding the intense pro-inflammatory action in severe cases still lacks and this is important in stratifying patients for difficult to treat cases. Without being exhaustive, the review will cover these important issues to be acknowledged to further advance in the battle against the current pandemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107083PMC
May 2021

COVID-19 pandemic and alcohol consumption: Impacts and interconnections.

Toxicol Rep 2021 10;8:529-535. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Toxicology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349, Craiova, Romania.

Alcohol consumption is associated with multiple diseases and might contribute to vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It can also catalyze exacerbations of mental and organic illnesses and predispose to behaviors with an increased risk of infection, severity of disease but also independently of sociopathic behavior and violence. Globally, millions of premature deaths from excessive alcohol consumption occur each year. This paper discusses the effects of increased alcohol consumption and the most important consequences on the health of the population during the social isolation and lockdown during current COVID-19 pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944101PMC
March 2021

The Burden of the Serious and Difficult-to-Treat Infections and a New Antibiotic Available: Cefiderocol.

Front Pharmacol 2020 14;11:578823. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.

Infection is a disease that can occur due to the entrance of a virus, bacteria, and other infectious agents. Cefiderocol is innovative cephalosporin drug that belongs to a special class of antibiotics, sideromycins, which are taken up by bacterial cells through active transport. The unique cell entry and stability to β-lactamases allow cefiderocol to overcome the most common resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria. This article aims to highlight the therapeutic efficacy, safety and tolerability of cefiderocol, with a focus on the FDA label. The pharmacological properties of cefiderocol are also summarized. In this review, we conducted literature research on the PubMed database using the following keywords: "antimicrobial treatment", "new antibiotic", "cefiderocol", "siderophore cephalosporin"; "multidrug-resistant", "Gram-negative bacilli", "critically ill patients"; "severe bacterial infections". There were identified the most relevant data about the pathophysiology of serious bacterial infections, antibacterial mechanism of action, microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cefiderocol. The results highlighted there appeared to be clinical benefit from cefiderocol in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative aerobic microorganisms in adult patients with severe infections and limited treatment options.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.578823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898678PMC
January 2021

Thinking outside the Ischemia Box: Advancements in the Use of Multiple Sclerosis Drugs in Ischemic Stroke.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 7;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Larissa, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece.

Ischemic stroke (IS) is a major cause of death and disability, despite early intervention. Thrombo-inflammation, the inflammatory process triggered by ischemia, is a concept that ties IS with multiple sclerosis (MS), under the wider 'umbrella' of neuroinflammation, i.e., the inflammation of the nervous tissue. Drawing from this, numerous studies have explored the potential of MS disease-modifying drugs in the setting of IS. In this review, we present the available studies and discuss their potential in ameliorating IS outcomes. Based on our search, the vast majority of the studies have been conducted on animals, yielding mostly positive results. Two clinical trials involving natalizumab showed that it does not confer any benefits, but four human studies regarding fingolimod have showcased its potential in improving recovery prospects. However, concerns on safety and other issues are raised, and basic questions still need to be answered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914575PMC
February 2021

A Novel Nutraceutical Formulation Can Improve Motor Activity and Decrease the Stress Level in a Murine Model of Middle-Age Animals.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 6;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

Ageing is a genetically programmed physiological process that is modulated by numerous environmental factors, associated with decreasing physiological function, decreasing reproductive rate and increasing age-related mortality rate. Maintaining mobility performance and physical function in the elderly is the main objective of the successful ageing concept. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of a novel nutraceutical formulation containing L. extract, vitamin C, zinc and vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol) on motor activity and anxiety with the use of a murine model of old animals, as a means of providing proof for clinical use in the elderly, for enhancing physical strength and improving life quality. Eighteen Sprague Dawley 18 months old male rats were divided into three groups and received corn oil (the control group) or 1 capsule/kg bw Reverse supplement (treatment group 1) or 2 capsules/kg bw Reverse supplement (treatment group 2), for a period of 3 months. The Reverse supplement (Natural Doctor S.A, Athens, Greece) contains 9 mg L. extract, vitamin C (200 mg as magnesium ascorbate), zinc (5 mg as zinc citrate), vitamin D3 (50 µg as cholecalciferol) per capsule. Before and after the treatment, the motor function and behavioral changes for anxiety and depression were evaluated using the open-field test, elevated plus-maze test and rotarod test. The supplementation with Reverse (Natural Doctor S.A) supplement can improve the locomotor activity in old rats in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by an increase in the latency to leave from the middle square, in the number of rearings in the open field test, in the time spent in the open arms and time spent in the center in the elevated plus-maze test and the latency to all in all three consecutive trials in the rotarod test. Stress also decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, following the treatment with Reverse supplement, as was demonstrated by the decrease in the number of groomings at the open field test and time spent in the dark and the number of groomings at the elevated plus-maze test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915416PMC
February 2021

Endocrine Disruptors Acting on Estrogen and Androgen Pathways Cause Reproductive Disorders through Multiple Mechanisms: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 4;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece.

Increasing contamination of the environment by toxic compounds such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one of the major causes of reproductive defects in both sexes. Estrogen/androgen pathways are of utmost importance in gonadal development, determination of secondary sex characteristics and gametogenesis. Most of the EDCs mediate their action through respective receptors and/or downstream signaling. The purpose of this review is to highlight the mechanism by which EDCs can trigger antagonistic or agonistic response, acting through estrogen/androgen receptors causing reproductive defects that lead to infertility. In vitro, in vivo and in silico studies focusing on the impact of EDCs on estrogen/androgen pathways and related proteins published in the last decade were considered for the review. PUBMED and PUBCHEM were used for literature search. EDCs can bind to estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) and androgen receptors or activate alternative receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR30, estrogen-related receptor (ERRγ) to activate estrogen signaling via downstream kinases. Bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, polychlorinated biphenyls and phthalates are major toxicants that interfere with the normal estrogen/androgen pathways leading to infertility in both sexes through many ways, including DNA damage in spermatozoids, altered methylation pattern, histone modifications and miRNA expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913912PMC
February 2021

Pharmacological Properties of Chalcones: A Review of Preclinical Including Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence.

Front Pharmacol 2020 18;11:592654. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.

Chalcones are among the leading bioactive flavonoids with a therapeutic potential implicated to an array of bioactivities investigated by a series of preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, different scientific databases were searched to retrieve studies depicting the biological activities of chalcones and their derivatives. This review comprehensively describes preclinical studies on chalcones and their derivatives describing their immense significance as antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, psychoactive, and neuroprotective agents. Besides, clinical trials revealed their use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, skin conditions, and cancer. Bioavailability studies on chalcones and derivatives indicate possible hindrance and improvement in relation to its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Multifaceted and complex underlying mechanisms of chalcone actions demonstrated their ability to modulate a number of cancer cell lines, to inhibit a number of pathological microorganisms and parasites, and to control a number of signaling molecules and cascades related to disease modification. Clinical studies on chalcones revealed general absence of adverse effects besides reducing the clinical signs and symptoms with decent bioavailability. Further studies are needed to elucidate their structure activity, toxicity concerns, cellular basis of mode of action, and interactions with other molecules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.592654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849684PMC
January 2021

and Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for Parkinson's Disease.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 20;10(3). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Larissa, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second commonest neurodegenerative disease. The genetic basis of PD is indisputable. Both and have been linked to PD, to some extent, but the exact role of those polymorphisms in PD remains controversial.

Objective: We assessed the role of and on PD risk.

Methods: We genotyped 358 patients with PD and 358 healthy controls for and . We also merged and meta-analyzed our data with data from previous studies, regarding these two polymorphisms and PD.

Results: No significant association with PD was revealed ( > 0.05), for either or , in any of the examined genetic model of inheritance. In addition, results from meta-analyses yield negative results.

Conclusions: Based on our analyses, it appears rather unlikely that or is among the major risk factors for PD, at least in Greek patients with PD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864159PMC
January 2021

Dietary supplements, vitamins and minerals as potential interventions against viruses: Perspectives for COVID-19.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Jan 13:1-18. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 disease pandemic has infected millions of people and caused more than thousands of deaths in many countries across the world. The number of infected cases is increasing day by day. Unfortunately, we do not have a vaccine and specific treatment for it. Along with the protective measures, respiratory and/or circulatory supports and some antiviral and retroviral drugs have been used against SARS-CoV-2, but there are no more extensive studies proving their efficacy. In this study, the latest publications in the field have been reviewed, focusing on the modulatory effects on the immunity of some natural antiviral dietary supplements, vitamins and minerals. Findings suggest that several dietary supplements, including black seeds, garlic, ginger, cranberry, orange, omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (e.g., A, B vitamins, C, D, E), and minerals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Zn) have anti-viral effects. Many of them act against various species of respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses. Therefore, dietary supplements, including vitamins and minerals, probiotics as well as individual nutritional behaviour can be used as adjuvant therapy together with antiviral medicines in the management of COVID-19 disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000694DOI Listing
January 2021

Unraveling the roles of vitamin D status and melanin during Covid‑19 (Review).

Int J Mol Med 2021 01 30;47(1):92-100. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Research Group of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15771 Athens, Greece.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) continues to spread worldwide, it has become evident that the morbidity and mortality rates clearly vary across nations. Although several factors may account for this disparity, striking differences within and between populations indicate that ethnicity might impact COVID‑19 clinical outcomes, reflecting the 'color of disease'. Therefore, the role of key biological variables that could interplay with viral spreading and severity indices has attracted increasing attention, particularly among non‑Caucasian populations. Although the links between vitamin D status and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 remain elusive, several lines of emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D signaling, targeting several immune‑mediated pathways, may offer potential benefits at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID‑19 outcomes among diverse population settings. Moreover, apart from the well‑known limiting effects of melanin on the endogenous production of vitamin D, the potential crosstalk between the pigmentary and immune system may also require special attention concerning the current pandemic. The present review article aimed to shed light on a range of mostly overlooked host factors, such as vitamin D status and melanin pigments, that may influence the course and outcome of COVID‑19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723676PMC
January 2021
-->