Publications by authors named "Daniel Worth"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CSN1 Somatic Mutations in Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2016 08 20;76(16):4720-4727. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, UCL Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Other than an association with HPV infection, little is known about the genetic alterations determining the development of penile cancer. Although penile cancer is rare in the developed world, it presents a significant burden in developing countries. Here, we report the findings of whole-exome sequencing (WES) to determine the somatic mutational landscape of penile cancer. WES was performed on penile cancer and matched germline DNA from 27 patients undergoing surgical resection. Targeted resequencing of candidate genes was performed in an independent 70 patient cohort. Mutation data were also integrated with DNA methylation and copy-number information from the same patients. We identified an HPV-associated APOBEC mutation signature and an NpCpG signature in HPV-negative disease. We also identified recurrent mutations in the novel penile cancer tumor suppressor genes CSN1(GPS1) and FAT1 Expression of CSN1 mutants in cells resulted in colocalization with AGO2 in cytoplasmic P-bodies, ultimately leading to the loss of miRNA-mediated gene silencing, which may contribute to disease etiology. Our findings represent the first comprehensive analysis of somatic alterations in penile cancer, highlighting the complex landscape of alterations in this malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4720-7. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-3134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302160PMC
August 2016

Safety and Efficacy of Pazopanib Therapy Prior to Planned Nephrectomy in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2016 Oct;2(10):1303-1309

Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, England.

Importance: The role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer in the era of targeted therapy is uncertain.

Objective: To establish the safety and efficacy of upfront pazopanib therapy prior to cytoreductive nephrectomy in previously untreated patients with metastatic clear cell renal cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Single-arm phase 2 study of 104 previously untreated patients with metastatic clear cell renal cancer recruited between June 2008 and October 2012 at cancer treatment centers with access to nephrectomy services. The minimum follow-up was 30 months.

Interventions: Patients received 12 to 14 weeks of preoperative pazopanib therapy prior to planned cytoreductive nephrectomy and continued pazopanib therapy after surgery. Treatment was stopped at disease progression.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was clinical benefit (using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1) prior to surgery (at 12-14 weeks). Secondary end points included surgical complications, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and biomarker analysis.

Results: Of 104 patients recruited, 100 patients were assessable for clinical benefit prior to planned nephrectomy; 80 of 104 (76.9%) were men; median [interquartile range] age, 64 [56-71] years). Overall, 84 of 100 (84% [95% CI, 75%-91%]) gained clinical benefit before planned nephrectomy. The median reduction in the size of the primary tumor was 14.4% (interquartile range, 1.4%-21.1%). No patients were unable to undergo surgery as a result of local progression of disease. Nephrectomy was performed in 63 (61%) of patients; 14 (22%) reported surgical complications. The 2 most common reasons for not undergoing surgery were progression of disease (n = 13) and patient choice (n = 9). There was 1 postoperative surgical death. The median PFS and OS for the whole cohort were 7.1 (95% CI, 6.0-9.2) and 22.7 (95% CI, 14.3-not estimable) months, respectively. Patients with MSKCC poor-risk disease or progressive disease prior to surgery had a poor outcome (median OS, 5.7 [95% CI, 2.6-10.8] and 3.9 [95% CI, 0.5-9.1] months, respectively). Surgical complications were observed in 14 (22%) of the nephrectomies. Biomarker analysis from sequential tissue samples revealed a decrease in CD8 expression (20.00 vs 13.75; P = .05) and significant reduction in expression of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (100 vs 40; P < .001) and C-MET (300 vs 100; P < .001) and increased programmed cell death ligand 1 expression (0 vs 1.5; P < .001) in the immune component. No on-treatment biomarker correlated with response.

Conclusions And Relevance: Nephrectomy after upfront pazopanib therapy could be performed safely and was associated with good outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk metastatic clear cell renal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.1197DOI Listing
October 2016

Drebrin regulates neuroblast migration in the postnatal mammalian brain.

PLoS One 2015 6;10(5):e0126478. Epub 2015 May 6.

Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

After birth, stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). This migration is crucial for the proper integration of newborn neurons in a pre-existing synaptic network and is believed to play a key role in infant human brain development. Many regulators of neuroblast migration have been identified; however, still very little is known about the intracellular molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Here, we have investigated the function of drebrin, an actin-binding protein highly expressed in the RMS of the postnatal mammalian brain. Neuroblast migration was monitored both in culture and in brain slices obtained from electroporated mice by time-lapse spinning disk confocal microscopy. Depletion of drebrin using distinct RNAi approaches in early postnatal mice affects neuroblast morphology and impairs neuroblast migration and orientation in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of drebrin also impairs migration along the RMS and affects the distribution of neuroblasts at their final destination, the OB. Drebrin phosphorylation on Ser142 by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been recently shown to regulate F-actin-microtubule coupling in neuronal growth cones. We also investigated the functional significance of this phosphorylation in RMS neuroblasts using in vivo postnatal electroporation of phosphomimetic (S142D) or non-phosphorylatable (S142A) drebrin in the SVZ of mouse pups. Preventing or mimicking phosphorylation of S142 in vivo caused similar effects on neuroblast dynamics, leading to aberrant neuroblast branching. We conclude that drebrin is necessary for efficient migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts and propose that regulated phosphorylation of drebrin on S142 maintains leading process stability for polarized migration along the RMS, thus ensuring proper neurogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0126478PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4422745PMC
April 2016

Drebrin contains a cryptic F-actin-bundling activity regulated by Cdk5 phosphorylation.

J Cell Biol 2013 Sep 26;202(5):793-806. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Medical Research Council MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, England, UK.

Drebrin is an actin filament (F-actin)-binding protein with crucial roles in neuritogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Drebrin couples dynamic microtubules to F-actin in growth cone filopodia via binding to the microtubule-binding +TIP protein EB3 and organizes F-actin in dendritic spines. Precisely how drebrin interacts with F-actin and how this is regulated is unknown. We used cellular and in vitro assays with a library of drebrin deletion constructs to map F-actin binding sites. We discovered two domains in the N-terminal half of drebrin-a coiled-coil domain and a helical domain-that independently bound to F-actin and cooperatively bundled F-actin. However, this activity was repressed by an intramolecular interaction relieved by Cdk5 phosphorylation of serine 142 located in the coiled-coil domain. Phospho-mimetic and phospho-dead mutants of serine 142 interfered with neuritogenesis and coupling of microtubules to F-actin in growth cone filopodia. These findings show that drebrin contains a cryptic F-actin-bundling activity regulated by phosphorylation and provide a mechanistic model for microtubule-F-actin coupling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201303005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760615PMC
September 2013

β1 integrins regulate fibroblast chemotaxis through control of N-WASP stability.

EMBO J 2011 May 22;30(9):1705-18. Epub 2011 Mar 22.

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, New Hunts House, Guys Campus, London, UK.

Chemotactic migration of fibroblasts towards growth factors, such as during development and wound healing, requires precise spatial coordination of receptor signalling. However, the mechanisms regulating this remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that β1 integrins are required both for fibroblast chemotaxis towards platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and growth factor-induced dorsal ruffling. Mechanistically, we show that β1 integrin stabilises and spatially regulates the actin nucleating endocytic protein neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) to facilitate PDGF receptor traffic and directed motility. Furthermore, we show that in intact cells, PDGF binding leads to rapid activation of β1 integrin within newly assembled actin-rich membrane ruffles. Active β1 in turn controls assembly of N-WASP complexes with both Cdc42 and WASP-interacting protein (WIP), the latter of which acts to stabilise the N-WASP. Both of these protein complexes are required for PDGF internalisation and fibroblast chemotaxis downstream of β1 integrins. This represents a novel mechanism by which integrins cooperate with growth factor receptors to promote localised signalling and directed cell motility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2011.82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3101992PMC
May 2011

Advances in imaging cell-matrix adhesions.

J Cell Sci 2010 Nov;123(Pt 21):3629-38

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.

Adhesion is fundamental to the survival and function of many different cell types, and regulates basic events such as mitosis, cell survival and migration, in both embryonic and adult organisms. Cell-matrix adhesion also regulates the dynamic interplay between cells and surrounding tissues during processes such as immune cell recruitment, wound healing and cancer cell metastasis. The study of cell adhesion has gained momentum in recent years, in large part because of the emergence of imaging techniques that have facilitated detailed analysis of the molecular composition and dynamics of the structures involved. In this Commentary, we discuss the recent application of different imaging techniques to study cell-matrix adhesions, emphasising common strategies used for the analysis of adhesion dynamics both in cells in culture and in whole organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.064485DOI Listing
November 2010

Alpha v beta3 integrin spatially regulates VASP and RIAM to control adhesion dynamics and migration.

J Cell Biol 2010 Apr;189(2):369-83

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, England, UK.

Integrins are fundamental to the control of protrusion and motility in adherent cells. However, the mechanisms by which specific members of this receptor family cooperate in signaling to cytoskeletal and adhesion dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we show that the loss of beta3 integrin in fibroblasts results in enhanced focal adhesion turnover and migration speed but impaired directional motility on both 2D and 3D matrices. These motility defects are coupled with an increased rate of actin-based protrusion. Analysis of downstream signaling events reveals that loss of beta3 integrin results in a loss of protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). Dephosphorylated VASP in beta3-null cells is preferentially associated with Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) both in vitro and in vivo, which leads to enhanced formation of a VASP-RIAM complex at focal adhesions and subsequent increased binding of talin to beta1 integrin. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which alphavbeta3 integrin acts to locally suppress beta1 integrin activation and regulate protrusion, adhesion dynamics, and persistent migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200912014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2856911PMC
April 2010

Live cell imaging analysis of receptor function.

Methods Mol Biol 2010 ;591:311-23

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, Kings College London, London, UK.

Cell surface receptors are crucial in the regulation of a wide variety of signalling responses to extracellular stimuli such as soluble growth factors or matrix proteins. To respond effectively to rapidly changing environmental cues, many receptors are rapidly endo- or exo-cytosed to either subcellular or membrane compartments or they recruit specific intracellular binding partners. Recent advances in microscopy techniques have made it possible to study receptor behaviour in live cells to gain a better understanding of dynamics, binding partners and sub-cellular localisation. Here we describe several common currently used techniques to study receptor behaviour in living cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-404-3_18DOI Listing
February 2010

Adhesion dynamics: mechanisms and measurements.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2008 14;40(11):2397-409. Epub 2008 Apr 14.

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, Kings College London, New Hunts House, Guys Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.

Adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental requirement for survival, differentiation and migration of numerous cell types during both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Different types of adhesion structures have been classified in different cell types or tissue environments. The best studied of these are focal adhesions which are found on a wide variety of cell types and will be the main focus of this review. Many years of research into the control of adhesion has yielded a wealth of information regarding the complexity of protein composition of these critical points of cell:ECM contact. Moreover, it has emerged that adhesions are not only highly ordered, but also dynamic structures under tight spatial control at the subcellular level to enable localised responses to extracellular cues. However, it is only in the last decade that the relative dynamics of these adhesion proteins have been closely studied. Here we provide an overview of the imaging strategies that have been developed and implemented to study the intricacies and hierarchy of protein turnover within focal adhesions. The caveats of employing these imaging techniques, as well as future directions will also be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2008.04.008DOI Listing
October 2008

Rab5 and Rab7 control endocytic sorting along the axonal retrograde transport pathway.

Neuron 2006 Oct;52(2):293-305

Molecular NeuroPathobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom.

Vesicular pathways coupling the neuromuscular junction with the motor neuron soma are essential for neuronal function and survival. To characterize the organelles responsible for this long-distance crosstalk, we developed a purification strategy based on a fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT H(C)) conjugated to paramagnetic beads. This approach enabled us to identify, among other factors, the small GTPase Rab7 as a functional marker of a specific pool of axonal retrograde carriers, which transport neurotrophins and their receptors. Furthermore, Rab5 is essential for an early step in TeNT H(C) sorting but is absent from axonally transported vesicles. Our data demonstrate that TeNT H(C) uses a retrograde transport pathway shared with p75(NTR), TrkB, and BDNF, which is strictly dependent on the activities of both Rab5 and Rab7. Therefore, Rab7 plays an essential role in axonal retrograde transport by controlling a vesicular compartment implicated in neurotrophin traffic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2006.08.018DOI Listing
October 2006

Pak1 phosphorylation on t212 affects microtubules in cells undergoing mitosis.

Curr Biol 2002 Jul;12(14):1233-9

Molecular and Developmental Neurobiology MRC Centre, New Hunt's House, King's College London, Guy's Campus, United Kingdom.

The Pak kinases are targets of the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42, which regulate cell shape and motility. It is increasingly apparent that part of this function is due to the effect Pak kinases have on microtubule organization and dynamics. Recently, overexpression of Xenopus Pak5 was shown to enhance microtubule stabilization, and it was shown that mammalian Pak1 may inhibit a microtubule-destabilizing protein, Op18/Stathmin. We have identified a specific phosphorylation site on mammalian Pak1, T212, which is targeted by the neuronal p35/Cdk5 kinase. Pak1 phosphorylated on T212, Pak1T212(PO(4)), is enriched in axonal growth cones and colocalizes with small peripheral bundles of microtubules. Cortical neurons overexpressing a Pak1A212 mutant display a tangled neurite morphology, which suggests that the microtubule cytoskeleton is affected. Here, we show that cyclin B1/Cdc2 phosphorylates Pak1 in cells undergoing mitosis. In the developing cortex and in cultured fibroblasts, Pak1T212(PO(4)) is enriched in microtubule-organizing centers and along parts of the spindles. In living cells, a peptide mimicking phosphorylated T212 accumulates at the centrosomes and spindles and causes an increased length of astral microtubules during metaphase or following nocodazole washout. Together these results suggest that similar signaling pathways regulate microtubule dynamics in a remodeling axonal growth cone and during cell division.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(02)00956-9DOI Listing
July 2002