Publications by authors named "Daniel T Lackland"

219 Publications

Racial Differences in Blood Pressure Control Following Stroke: The REGARDS Study.

Stroke 2021 Sep 2:STROKEAHA120033108. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham. (O.P.A., T.L.M., D.H., V.J.H., P.M.).

Background And Purpose: In the general population, Black adults are less likely than White adults to have controlled blood pressure (BP), and when not controlled, they are at greater risk for stroke compared with White adults. High BP is a major modifiable risk factor for recurrent stroke, but few studies have examined racial differences in BP control among stroke survivors.

Methods: We used data from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) to examine disparities in BP control between Black and White adults, with and without a history of stroke. We studied participants taking antihypertensive medication who did and did not experience an adjudicated stroke (n=306 and 7693 participants, respectively) between baseline (2003-2007) and a second study visit (2013-2016). BP control at the second study visit was defined as systolic BP <130 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg except for low-risk adults ≥65 years of age (ie, those without diabetes, chronic kidney disease, history of cardiovascular disease, and with a 10-year predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk <10%) for whom BP control was defined as systolic BP <130 mm Hg.

Results: Among participants with a history of stroke, 50.3% of White compared with 39.3% of Black participants had controlled BP. Among participants without a history of stroke, 56.0% of White compared with 50.2% of Black participants had controlled BP. After multivariable adjustment, there was a tendency for Black participants to be less likely than White participants to have controlled BP (prevalence ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.59-1.02] for those with a history of stroke and 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88-0.97] for those without a history of stroke).

Conclusions: There was a lower proportion of controlled BP among Black compared with White adults with or without stroke, with no statistically significant differences after multivariable adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033108DOI Listing
September 2021

Incident Heart Failure Within the First and Fifth Year after Delivery Among Women With Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Prepregnancy Hypertension in a Diverse Population.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 25;10(17):e021616. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Public Health Sciences Medical University of South Carolina Charleston SC.

Background Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and pre-pregnancy hypertension are associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the mother. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between HDP and pre-pregnancy hypertension with maternal heart failure (HF) within 1 and 5 years of delivery and to examine racial/ethnic differences. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study in South Carolina (2004-2016) involving 425 649 women aged 12 to 49 years (58.9% non-Hispanic White [NHW], 31.5% non-Hispanic Black [NHB], 9.6% Hispanic) with a live, singleton birth. Incident HF was defined by hospital/emergency department visit and death certificate data. Pre-pregnancy hypertension and HDP (preeclampsia, eclampsia, or gestational hypertension) were based on hospitalization/emergency department visit and birth certificate data (i.e., gestational hypertension for HDP). The 425 649 women had pre-pregnancy hypertension without superimposed HDP (pre-pregnancy hypertension alone; 0.4%), HDP alone (15.7%), pre-pregnancy hypertension with superimposed HDP (both conditions; 2.2%), or neither condition in any pregnancy (81.7%). Incident HF event rates per 1000 person-years were higher in NHB than NHW women with HDP (HDP: 2.28 versus 0.96; both conditions: 4.30 versus 1.22, respectively). After adjustment, compared with women with neither condition, incident HF risk within 5 years of delivery was increased for women with pre-pregnancy hypertension (HR,2.55, 95% CI: 1.31-4.95), HDP (HR,4.20, 95% CI: 3.66-4.81), and both conditions (HR,5.25, 95% CI: 4.24-6.50). Conclusions Women with HDP and pre-pregnancy hypertension were at higher HF risk (highest for superimposed preeclampsia) within 5 years of delivery. NHB women with HDP had higher HF risk than NHW women, regardless of pre-pregnancy hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.021616DOI Listing
September 2021

The World Hypertension League becomes a partner of the Journal of Human Hypertension.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep;35(9):821-822

Professor of Medicine, Downstate Medical Center, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00581-wDOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
July 2021

Treating hypertension: who speaks for the patient?

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Division of Translational Neurosciences and Population Studies, Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00564-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Team Science: American Heart Association's Hypertension Strategically Focused Research Network Experience.

Hypertension 2021 Jun 3;77(6):1857-1866. Epub 2021 May 3.

Internal Medicine (T.A.K., S.K.), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

In 2015, the American Heart Association awarded 4-year funding for a Strategically Focused Research Network focused on hypertension composed of 4 Centers: Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Medical College of Wisconsin, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Iowa. Each center proposed 3 integrated (basic, clinical, and population science) projects around a single area of focus relevant to hypertension. Along with scientific progress, the American Heart Association put a significant emphasis on training of next-generation hypertension researchers by sponsoring 3 postdoctoral fellows per center over 4 years. With the center projects being spread across the continuum of basic, clinical, and population sciences, postdoctoral fellows were expected to garner experience in various types of research methodologies. The American Heart Association also provided a number of leadership development opportunities for fellows and investigators in these centers. In addition, collaboration was highly encouraged among the centers (both within and outside the network) with the American Heart Association providing multiple opportunities for meeting and expanding associations. The area of focus for the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Center was hypertension and target organ damage in children utilizing ambulatory blood pressure measurements. The Medical College of Wisconsin Center focused on epigenetic modifications and their role in pathogenesis of hypertension using human and animal studies. The University of Alabama at Birmingham Center's areas of research were diurnal blood pressure patterns and clock genes. The University of Iowa Center evaluated copeptin as a possible early biomarker for preeclampsia and vascular endothelial function during pregnancy. In this review, challenges faced and successes achieved by the investigators of each of the centers are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16296DOI Listing
June 2021

TRANSCENDS: A Career Development Program for Underrepresented in Medicine Scholars in Academic Neurology.

Neurology 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco

Background: The Training in Research for Academic Neurologists to Sustain Careers and Enhance the Numbers of Diverse Scholars (TRANSCENDS) program is a career advancement opportunity for individuals underrepresented in biomedical research, funded by the National Institute and Neurological Disorders and Stroke; and American Academy of Neurology (AAN).

Objective: To report on qualitative and quantitative outcomes in TRANSCENDS.

Design: Early career individuals (neurology fellows and junior faculty) from groups underrepresented in medicine were competitively selected from a national pool of applicants (2016-2019). TRANSCENDS activities comprised an online Clinical Research degree program, monthly webinars, AAN meeting activities, and mentoring. Participants were surveyed during and after completion of TRANSCENDS to evaluate program components.

Outcomes: Of 23 accepted scholars (comprising four successive cohorts), 56% were women; 61% Hispanic/Latinx, 30% Black/African American, 30% assistant professors. To date, 48% have graduated the TRANSCENDS program and participants have published 180 peer-reviewed articles. Mentees' feedback noted that professional skills development (i.e., manuscript and grant writing), networking opportunities, and mentoring were the most beneficial elements of the program. Stated opportunities for improvement included: incorporating a mentor-the-mentor workshop, providing more transitional support for mentees in the next stage of their careers, and requiring mentees to provide quarterly reports.

Conclusions: TRANSCENDS is a feasible program for supporting underrepresented in medicine neurologists towards careers in research and faculty academic appointments attained thus far have been sustained. While longer term outcomes and process enhancements are warranted, programs like this may help increase the numbers of diverse academic neurologists, and further drive neurological innovation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302150PMC
April 2021

[São Paulo call to action for the prevention and control of high blood pressure: 2020Chamado à ação de São Paulo para prevenção e controle da hipertensão arterial: 2020].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2021 26;45:e26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

División de Neurociencias Aplicadas y Estudios de Población, Universidad Médica de Carolina del Sur, Charleston Carolina del Sur Estados Unidos División de Neurociencias Aplicadas y Estudios de Población, Universidad Médica de Carolina del Sur, Charleston, Carolina del Sur, Estados Unidos.

About 1/4th of adults have high blood pressure which is the single most important risk for death (including heart disease and stroke).There are effective policies that could facilitate people making healthy choices to prevent raised blood pressure, and if fully implemented, could largely prevent hypertension from occurring.Hypertension is easy to screen and treat for BUT only about 50% of adults with hypertension are aware of their condition and only about 1 in 7 is adequately treated.Preventing and controlling high blood pressure is the major mechanism for NCD prevention and control and a model for other NCD risks.Effective lifestyle and drug treatments could prevent and control hypertension in most individuals if systematically applied to the population, simple interventions are feasible in all settings, and can be used to enhance primary care.Urgent sustained action is needed is needed for effective public policies and health system changes to prevent and control hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2021.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905751PMC
February 2021

[São Paulo call to action for the prevention and control of high blood pressure: 2020Llamado a la acción de San Pablo para la prevención y el control de la hipertensión arterial, 2020].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2021 26;44:e27. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Divisão de Neurociências Translacionais e Estudos Populacionais, Universidade de Medicina da Carolina do Sul Charleston Estados Unidos Divisão de Neurociências Translacionais e Estudos Populacionais, Universidade de Medicina da Carolina do Sul, Charleston, Estados Unidos.

About 1/4th of adults have high blood pressure which is the single most important risk for death (including heart disease and stroke).There are effective policies that could facilitate people making healthy choices to prevent raised blood pressure, and if fully implemented, could largely prevent hypertension from occurring.Hypertension is easy to screen and treat for BUT only about 50% of adults with hypertension are aware of their condition and only about 1 in 7 is adequately treated.Preventing and controlling high blood pressure is the major mechanism for NCD prevention and control and a model for other NCD risks.Effective lifestyle and drug treatments could prevent and control hypertension in most individuals if systematically applied to the population, simple interventions are feasible in all settings, and can be used to enhance primary care.Urgent sustained action is needed is needed for effective public policies and health system changes to prevent and control hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2021.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905737PMC
February 2021

Maternal Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Mortality Within 1, 3, and 5 Years of Delivery Among Women With Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Pre-Pregnancy Hypertension.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 02 23;10(5):e018155. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Public Health Sciences Medical University of South Carolina Charleston SC.

Background Pre-pregnancy hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP; preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational hypertension) are major health risks for maternal morbidity and mortality. However, it is unknown if racial/ethnic differences exist. We aimed to determine the impact of HDP and pre-pregnancy hypertension on maternal coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality risk ≤1, 3, and 5 years post-delivery and by race/ethnicity ≤5 years. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included women aged 12 to 49 years with a live, singleton birth between 2004 to 2016 (n=254 491 non-Hispanic White; n=137 784 non-Hispanic Black; n=41 155 Hispanic). Birth and death certificates and ( and ) diagnosis codes in hospitalization/emergency department visit data defined HDP, pre-pregnancy hypertension, incident coronary heart disease and stroke, and all-cause mortality. During at least 1 pregnancy of the 433 430 women, 2.3% had pre-pregnancy hypertension with superimposed HDP, 15.7% had no pre-pregnancy hypertension with HDP, and 0.4% had pre-pregnancy hypertension without superimposed HDP, whereas 81.6% had neither condition. Maternal deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes totaled 2136. Within 5 years of delivery, pre-pregnancy hypertension, and HDP were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; 95% CI, 1.61-3.03), incident coronary heart disease (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 3.09-4.65), and incident stroke (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.09-4.60). HDP alone was related to all outcomes. Race/ethnic differences were observed for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women, respectively, in the associations of pre-pregnancy hypertension and HDP with all-cause mortality within 5 years of delivery (HR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.58-3.47]; HR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.23-3.65]; interaction=0.001). Conclusions Maternal cardiovascular outcomes including mortality were increased ≤5 years post-delivery in HDP, pre-pregnancy hypertension, or pre-pregnancy hypertension with superimposed HDP. The race/ethnic interaction for all-cause mortality ≤5 years of delivery warrants further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174275PMC
February 2021

Hypertension in Asia 2021: A major contribution to worldwide understanding and management of hypertension.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 03 17;23(3):403-405. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Division of Translational Neurosciences and Population Studies, Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14172DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of Sickle Cell Trait With Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease Among African American Individuals.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 01 4;4(1):e2030435. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson.

Importance: The incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) are substantially higher among African American individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, even after adjusting for traditional factors associated with CHD. The unexplained excess risk might be due to genetic factors related to African ancestry that are associated with a higher risk of CHD, such as the heterozygous state for the sickle cell variant or sickle cell trait (SCT).

Objective: To evaluate whether there is an association between SCT and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) or composite CHD outcomes in African American individuals.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included 5 large, prospective, population-based cohorts of African American individuals in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The follow-up periods included in this study were 1993 and 1998 to 2014 for the WHI study, 2003 to 2014 for the REGARDS study, 2002 to 2016 for the MESA, 2002 to 2015 for the JHS, and 1987 to 2016 for the ARIC study. Data analysis began in October 2013 and was completed in October 2020.

Exposures: Sickle cell trait status was evaluated by either direct genotyping or high-quality imputation of rs334 (the sickle cell variant). Participants with sickle cell disease and those with a history of CHD were excluded from the analyses.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incident MI, defined as adjudicated nonfatal or fatal MI, and incident CHD, defined as adjudicated nonfatal MI, fatal MI, coronary revascularization procedures, or death due to CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for incident MI or CHD comparing SCT carriers with noncarriers. Models were adjusted for age, sex (except for the WHI study), study site or region of residence, hypertension status or systolic blood pressure, type 1 or 2 diabetes, serum high-density lipoprotein level, total cholesterol level, and global ancestry (estimated from principal components analysis).

Results: A total of 23 197 African American men (29.8%) and women (70.2%) were included in the combined sample, of whom 1781 had SCT (7.7% prevalence). Mean (SD) ages at baseline were 61.2 (6.9) years in the WHI study (n = 5904), 64.0 (9.3) years in the REGARDS study (n = 10 714), 62.0 (10.0) years in the MESA (n = 1556), 50.3 (12.0) years in the JHS (n = 2175), and 53.2 (5.8) years in the ARIC study (n = 2848). There were no significant differences in the distribution of traditional factors associated with cardiovascular disease by SCT status within cohorts. A combined total of 1034 participants (76 with SCT) had incident MI, and 1714 (137 with SCT) had the composite CHD outcome. The meta-analyzed crude incidence rate of MI did not differ by SCT status and was 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 3.3-4.5 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 3.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-5.1 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. For the composite CHD outcome, these rates were 7.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 5.5-9.7 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 6.0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 4.9-7.4 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. Meta-analysis of the 5 study results showed that SCT status was not significantly associated with MI (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.32) or the composite CHD outcome (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.92-1.47).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, there was not an association between SCT and increased risk of MI or CHD in African American individuals. These disorders may not be associated with sickle cell trait-related sudden death in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786247PMC
January 2021

The TRANSCENDS program: Rationale and overview.

J Neurol Sci 2021 01 4;420:117218. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, United States. Electronic address:

Early-career academic faculty from underrepresented minority groups are under-represented among medical school faculty, less likely to receive research grants, less likely to be promoted, and report lower career satisfaction. The Training in Research for Academic Neurologists to Sustain Careers and Enhance the Numbers of Diverse Scholars (TRANSCENDS) program was established as a research training and mentoring program to foster careers of diverse early-career individuals in neurology. Early career individuals from underrepresented groups in the biomedical-research workforce were selected from applicants during the initial cycle (2016-2020). An innovative component of TRANSCENDS is the incorporation of multiple training activities including: an online graduate research degree program; monthly webinar conferences; specific interaction sessions at the annual American Academy of Neurology meeting and year-round communications between matched mentors and mentees. The program complements these attributes with the Master of Science in Clinical Research (MSCR) degree that includes the competencies for the clinical and translational research workforce. The TRANSCENDS Scholars are assessed on a regular and ongoing basis to evaluate impact and identify components that need to be enhanced. The assessment of the first cycle indicated high enthusiasm from the scholars, mentors and faculty with identification of specific activities for enhancement. The results of the evaluation clearly identified a high satisfaction with the TRANSCENDS program indicating a significant impact on the clinical neuroscience research workforce of diverse underrepresented clinical neuroscientists equipped to be successful academic researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856027PMC
January 2021

Forty-Year Shifting Distribution of Systolic Blood Pressure With Population Hypertension Treatment and Control.

Circulation 2020 10 5;142(16):1524-1531. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Biostatistics (G.H.), School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Background: Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control programs were initiated in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas blood pressure (BP) control in the population and subsequent reduced hypertension-related disease risks have improved since the implementation of these interventions, it is unclear whether these BP changes can be generalized to diverse and high-risk populations. This report describes the 4-decade change in BP levels for the population in a high disease risk southeastern region of the United States. The objective is to determine the magnitude of the shift in systolic BP (SBP) among Blacks and Whites from the Southeast between 1960 and 2005 with the assessment of the unique population cohorts.

Methods: A multicohort study design compared BPs from the CHS (Charleston Heart Study) and ECHS (Evans County Heart Study) in 1960 and the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) 4 decades later. The analyses included participants ≥45 years of age from CHS (n=1323), ECHS (n=1842), and REGARDS (n=6294) with the main outcome of SBP distribution.

Results: Among Whites 45 to 54 years of age, the median SBP was 18 mm Hg (95% CI, 16-21 mm Hg) lower in 2005 than 1960. The median shift was a 45 mm Hg (95% CI, 37-51 mm Hg) decline for those ≥75 years of age. The shift was larger for Blacks, with median declines of 38 mm Hg (95% CI, 32-40 mm Hg) at 45 to 54 years of age and 50 mm Hg (95% CI, 33-60 mm Hg) for ages ≥75 years. The 95th percentile of SBP decreased 60 mm Hg for Whites and 70 mm Hg for Blacks.

Conclusions: The results of the current analyses of the unique cohorts in the Southeast confirm the improvements in population SBP levels since 1960. This assessment provides new evidence of improvement in SBP, suggesting that strategies and programs implemented to improve hypertension treatment and control have been extraordinarily successful for both Blacks and Whites residing in a high-risk region of the United States. Severe BP elevations commonly observed in the 1960s have been nearly eliminated, with the current 75th percentile of BP generally less than the 25th percentile of BP in 1960.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578084PMC
October 2020

Impact of COVID-19 on Clinical Research and Inclusion of Diverse Populations.

Ethn Dis Summer 2020;30(3):429-432. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Translational Neurosciences and Population Studies, Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

The randomized clinical trial (RCT) has long been recognized as the 'gold standard' for developing evidence for clinical treatments and vaccines; however, the successful implementation and translation of these findings is predicated upon external validity. The generalization of RCT findings are jeopardized by the lack of participation of at-risk groups such as African Americans, with long-recognized disproportional representation. Distinct factors that deter participation in RCTs include distrust, access, recruitment strategies, perceptions of research, and socioeconomic factors. While strategies have been implemented to improve external validity with greater participation among all segments of the population in RCTs, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may exacerbate disparities in RCT participation with the potential impact of delaying treatment development and vaccine interventions that are applicable and generalizable. Thus, it is essential to include diverse populations in such strategies and RCTs. This Perspective aims to direct attention to the additional harm from the pandemic as well as a refocus on the unresolved lack of inclusion of diverse populations in conducting RCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18865/ed.30.3.429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360182PMC
August 2020

Racial Disparities in Stroke Recovery Persistence in the Post-Acute Stroke Recovery Phase: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

Ethn Dis 2020 23;30(2):339-348. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

WISSDOM Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

Background And Purpose: Blacks have a higher burden of post-stroke disability. Factors associated with racial differences in long-term post-stroke disability are not well-understood. Our aim was to assess the long-term racial differences in risk factors associated with stroke recovery.

Methods: We examined Health and Retirement Study (HRS) longitudinal interview data collected from adults living with stroke who were aged >50 years during 2000-2014. Analysis of 1,002 first-time, non-Hispanic, Black (210) or White (792) stroke survivors with data on activities of daily living (ADL), fine motor skills (FMS) and gross motor skills (GMS) was conducted. Ordinal regression analysis was used to assess the impact of sex, race, household residents, household income, comorbidities, and the time since having a stroke on functional outcomes.

Results: Black stroke survivors were younger compared with Whites (69 ± 10.4 vs 75 ± 11.9). The majority (~65%) of Black stroke survivors were female compared with about 54% White female stroke survivors (P=.007). Black stroke survivors had more household residents (P<.001) and comorbidities (P<.001). Aging, being female, being Black and a longer time since stroke were associated with a higher odds of having increased difficulty in ADL, FMS and/or GMS. Comorbidities were associated with increased difficulty with GMS. Black race increased the impact of comorbidities on ADL and FMS in comparison with Whites.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that the effects of aging, sex and unique factors associated with race should be taken into consideration for future studies of post-stroke recovery and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18865/ed.30.2.339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186057PMC
March 2021

Effect of dose and duration of reduction in dietary sodium on blood pressure levels: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials.

BMJ 2020 Feb 24;368:m315. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK

Objective: To examine the dose-response relation between reduction in dietary sodium and blood pressure change and to explore the impact of intervention duration.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines.

Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE(R), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley) and reference lists of relevant articles up to 21 January 2019.

Inclusion Criteria: Randomised trials comparing different levels of sodium intake undertaken among adult populations with estimates of intake made using 24 hour urinary sodium excretion.

Data Extraction And Analysis: Two of three reviewers screened the records independently for eligibility. One reviewer extracted all data and the other two reviewed the data for accuracy. Reviewers performed random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regression.

Results: 133 studies with 12 197 participants were included. The mean reductions (reduced sodium usual sodium) of 24 hour urinary sodium, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 130 mmol (95% confidence interval 115 to 145, P<0.001), 4.26 mm Hg (3.62 to 4.89, P<0.001), and 2.07 mm Hg (1.67 to 2.48, P<0.001), respectively. Each 50 mmol reduction in 24 hour sodium excretion was associated with a 1.10 mm Hg (0.66 to 1.54; P<0.001) reduction in SBP and a 0.33 mm Hg (0.04 to 0.63; P=0.03) reduction in DBP. Reductions in blood pressure were observed in diverse population subsets examined, including hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. For the same reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium there was greater SBP reduction in older people, non-white populations, and those with higher baseline SBP levels. In trials of less than 15 days' duration, each 50 mmol reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was associated with a 1.05 mm Hg (0.40 to 1.70; P=0.002) SBP fall, less than half the effect observed in studies of longer duration (2.13 mm Hg; 0.85 to 3.40; P=0.002). Otherwise, there was no association between trial duration and SBP reduction.

Conclusions: The magnitude of blood pressure lowering achieved with sodium reduction showed a dose-response relation and was greater for older populations, non-white populations, and those with higher blood pressure. Short term studies underestimate the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42019140812.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190039PMC
February 2020

Strategies for prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with hypertension.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 02 31;22(2):132-134. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Beijing Hypertension Institute, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13797DOI Listing
February 2020

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2020 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association.

Circulation 2020 03 29;141(9):e139-e596. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Background: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports on the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs).

Methods: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2020 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, a focus on the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals.

Results: Each of the 26 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics.

Conclusions: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000757DOI Listing
March 2020

The new wave of Asia: A major step forward in confronting global hypertension.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 03 19;22(3):317-318. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13801DOI Listing
March 2020

Does the Association of Diabetes With Stroke Risk Differ by Age, Race, and Sex? Results From the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Diabetes Care 2019 10 7;42(10):1966-1972. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL

Objective: Given temporal changes in diabetes prevalence and stroke incidence, this study investigated age, race, and sex differences in the diabetes-stroke association in a contemporary prospective cohort, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Research Design And Methods: We included 23,002 non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adults aged ≥45 years without prevalent stroke at baseline (2003-2007). Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, random glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or use of glucose-lowering medication. Incident stroke events were expert adjudicated and available through September 2017.

Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 19.1% at baseline. During follow-up, 1,018 stroke events occurred. Among adults aged <65 years, comparing those with diabetes to those without diabetes, the risk of stroke was increased for white women (hazard ratio [HR] 3.72 [95% CI 2.10-6.57]), black women (HR 1.88 [95% CI 1.22-2.90]), and white men (HR 2.01 [95% CI 1.27-3.27]) but not black men (HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.77-2.10]) after multivariable adjustment. Among those aged ≥65 years, diabetes increased the risk of stroke for white women and black men, but not black women (HR 1.05 [95% CI 0.74-1.48]) or white men (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.62-1.21]).

Conclusions: In this contemporary cohort, the diabetes-stroke association varied by age, race, and sex together, with a more pronounced effect observed among adults aged <65 years. With the recent increase in the burden of diabetes complications at younger ages in the U.S., additional efforts are needed earlier in life for stroke prevention among adults with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc19-0442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011202PMC
October 2019

Fixed-dose combination antihypertensive medications.

Lancet 2019 08 15;394(10199):637-638. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Neuroscience and Preventive Medicine, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31629-0DOI Listing
August 2019

Temporal Trends in Cardiovascular Hospital Discharges Following a Mass Chlorine Exposure Event in Graniteville, South Carolina.

Front Public Health 2019 8;7:112. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

On January 6, 2005, a train derailed in Graniteville, South Carolina, releasing nearly 60,000 kg of toxic chlorine gas. The disaster left nine people dead and was responsible for hundreds of hospitalizations and outpatient visits in the subsequent weeks. While chlorine gas primarily affects the respiratory tract, a growing body of evidence suggests that acute exposure may also cause vascular injury and cardiac toxicity. Here, we describe the incidence of cardiovascular hospitalizations among residents of the zip codes most affected by the chlorine gas plume, and compare the incidence of cardiovascular discharges in the years leading up to the event (2000-2004) to the incidence in the years following the event (2005-2014). De-identified hospital discharge information was collected from the South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office for individuals residing in the selected zip codes for the years 2000 to 2014. A quasi-experimental study design was utilized with a population-level interrupted time series model to examine hospital discharge rates for Graniteville-area residents for three cardiovascular diagnoses: hypertension (HTN), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and coronary heart disease (CHD). We used linear regression with autoregressive error correction to compare slopes for pre- and post-spill time periods. Data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses were used to calculate rates and to provide information on potential demographic shifts over the course of the study. A significant increase in hypertension-related hospital discharge rates was observed for the years following the Graniteville chlorine spill (slope 8.2, < 0.001). Concurrent changes to CHD and AMI hospital discharge rates were in the opposite direction (slopes -3.2 and -0.3, < 0.01 and 0.14, respectively). Importantly, the observed trend cannot be attributed to an aging population. An unusual increase in hypertension-related hospital discharge rates in the area affected by the Graniteville chlorine spill contrasts with national and state-level trends. A number of factors related to the spill may be contributing the observation: disaster-induced hypertension, healthcare services access issues, and, possibly, chlorine-induced susceptibility to vascular pathologies. Due to the limitations of our data, we cannot determine whether the individuals who visited the hospital were the ones exposed to chlorine gas, however, the finding warrants additional research. Future studies are needed to determine the etiology of the increase and whether individuals exposed to chlorine are at a heightened risk for hypertensive heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517492PMC
May 2019

The International Consortium for Quality Research on Dietary Sodium/Salt (TRUE) position statement on the use of 24-hour, spot, and short duration (<24 hours) timed urine collections to assess dietary sodium intake.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2019 06 14;21(6):700-709. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Division of Translational Neuroscience and Population Studies, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

The International Consortium for Quality Research on Dietary Sodium/Salt (TRUE) is a coalition of intentional and national health and scientific organizations formed because of concerns low-quality research methods were creating controversy regarding dietary salt reduction. One of the main sources of controversy is believed related to errors in estimating sodium intake with urine studies. The recommendations and positions in this manuscript were generated following a series of systematic reviews and analyses by experts in hypertension, nutrition, statistics, and dietary sodium. To assess the population's current 24-hour dietary sodium ingestion, single complete 24-hour urine samples, collected over a series of days from a representative population sample, were recommended. To accurately estimate usual dietary sodium at the individual level, at least 3 non-consecutive complete 24-hour urine collections obtained over a series of days that reflect the usual short-term variations in dietary pattern were recommended. Multiple 24-hour urine collections over several years were recommended to estimate an individual's usual long-term sodium intake. The role of single spot or short duration timed urine collections in assessing population average sodium intake requires more research. Single or multiple spot or short duration timed urine collections are not recommended for assessing an individual's sodium intake especially in relationship to health outcomes. The recommendations should be applied by scientific review committees, granting agencies, editors and journal reviewers, investigators, policymakers, and those developing and creating dietary sodium recommendations. Low-quality research on dietary sodium/salt should not be funded, conducted, or published.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874851PMC
June 2019

Is the cardiovascular health of South Africans today comparable with African Americans 45 years ago?

J Hypertens 2019 08;37(8):1606-1614

Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Objectives: Hypertension occurs frequently among black populations around the world. In the United States (US) health system, interventions since the 1960s resulted in improvements in hypertension awareness, management and control among African Americans. This is in stark contrast to current health systems in African countries. To objectively assess the current situation in South Africa, we compared the cardiovascular health status of African Americans from 1960 to 1980 to black South Africans from recent years, as there is potential to implement best practices from the US. We also reviewed the recent cardiovascular health changes of a South African population over 10 years.

Methods: Men and women were included from three studies performed in the United States (Evans County Heart Study; Charleston Heart Study; NHANES I and II) and one in South Africa (PURE, North West Province). We compared blood pressure (BP), BMI, cholesterol, diabetes and smoking status.

Results: Age-adjusted SBP and DBP of South African men were lower than US studies conducted from 1960 to 1971 (Evans County; Charleston; NHANES I; all P < 0.001) but similar to NHANES II (P = 0.987) conducted in 1976. South African women had lower SBP than all four of the US studies (all P < 0.001); their DBP was lower than Evans County and Charleston studies, but similar to NHANES I and II. Reviewing South African data, BMI increased steeply over 10 years in women (P < 0.001) but not men (P = 0.451).

Conclusion: Blood pressure of South Africans is lower than African Americans from the 1960s, but comparable for 1970s to 1980s. With obesity of South African women rising sharply, escalating figures for hypertension and diabetes are anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002082DOI Listing
August 2019

Resistant Hypertension: Detection, Evaluation, and Management: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Hypertension 2018 11;72(5):e53-e90

Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as above-goal elevated blood pressure (BP) in a patient despite the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive drug classes, commonly including a long-acting calcium channel blocker, a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker), and a diuretic. The antihypertensive drugs should be administered at maximum or maximally tolerated daily doses. RH also includes patients whose BP achieves target values on ≥4 antihypertensive medications. The diagnosis of RH requires assurance of antihypertensive medication adherence and exclusion of the "white-coat effect" (office BP above goal but out-of-office BP at or below target). The importance of RH is underscored by the associated risk of adverse outcomes compared with non-RH. This article is an updated American Heart Association scientific statement on the detection, evaluation, and management of RH. Once antihypertensive medication adherence is confirmed and out-of-office BP recordings exclude a white-coat effect, evaluation includes identification of contributing lifestyle issues, detection of drugs interfering with antihypertensive medication effectiveness, screening for secondary hypertension, and assessment of target organ damage. Management of RH includes maximization of lifestyle interventions, use of long-acting thiazide-like diuretics (chlorthalidone or indapamide), addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (spironolactone or eplerenone), and, if BP remains elevated, stepwise addition of antihypertensive drugs with complementary mechanisms of action to lower BP. If BP remains uncontrolled, referral to a hypertension specialist is advised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6530990PMC
November 2018
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