Publications by authors named "Daniel Svärd"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cognitive interference processing in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Acta Oncol 2021 Oct 12:1-8. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with cognitive impairment in adulthood. Cognitive interference processing and its correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity in the brain have not yet been studied in this patient group.

Material: Twenty-six adult childhood ALL survivors (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 40.0 [37.0-42.3] years) were investigated at median age (IQR), 35.0 (32.0-37.0) years after treatment with intrathecal and intravenous chemotherapy as well as cranial radiotherapy (24 Gy) and compared with 26 matched controls (median [IQR] age, 37.5 [33.0-41.5] years).

Methods: Cognitive interference processing was investigated in terms of behavioral performance (response times [ms] and accuracy performance [%]) and fMRI activity in the cingulo-fronto-parietal (CFP) attention network as well as other parts of the brain using the multisource interference task (MSIT).

Results: ALL survivors had longer response times and reduced accuracy performance during cognitive interference processing (median [IQR] interference effect, 371.9 [314.7-453.3] ms and 6.7 [4.2-14.7]%, respectively) comparedwith controls (303.7 [275.0-376.7] ms and 2.3 [1.6-4.3]%, respectively), but did not exhibit altered fMRI activity in the CFP attention network or elsewhere in the brain.

Conclusion: Adult childhood ALL survivors demonstrated impaired behavioral performance but no altered fMRI activity when performing cognitive interference processing when compared with controls. The results can be used to better characterize this patient group and to optimize follow-up care and support for these individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1987514DOI Listing
October 2021

Cognitive interference processing in adults with childhood craniopharyngioma using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Endocrine 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Purpose: To assess cognitive interference processing in adults with childhood craniopharyngioma (CP), with and without hypothalamic injury, respectively, in terms of behavioral performance and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity, using the multi-source interference task (MSIT).

Methods: Twenty-eight CP patients (median age 34.5 [29.0-39.5] years) were investigated at median 20.5 (16.3-28.8) years after treatment with surgical resection and in some cases additional radiotherapy (n = 10) and compared to 29 matched controls (median age 37.0 [32.5-42.0] years). The subjects performed the MSIT during fMRI acquisition and behavioral performance in terms of response times (ms) and accuracy performance (%) were recorded.

Results: The MSIT activated the cingulo-fronto-parietal (CFP) attention network in both CP patients and controls. No differences were found in behavioral performance nor fMRI activity between CP patients (interference effect 333.9 [287.3-367.1] ms and 3.1 [1.6-5.6]%, respectively) and controls (309.1 [276.4-361.0] ms and 2.6 [1.6-4.9]%). No differences were found in behavioral performance nor fMRI activity between the two subgroups with (332.0 [283.6-353.4] ms and 4.2 [2.3-5.7]%, respectively) and without hypothalamic injury (355.7 [293.7-388.7] ms and 2.1 [1.0-5.2]%, respectively), respectively, and controls.

Conclusion: Adults with childhood CP performed cognitive interference processing equally well as controls and demonstrated no compensatory fMRI activity in the CFP attention network compared to controls. This was also true for the two subgroups with and without hypothalamic injury. The results can be useful to better characterize this condition, and to optimize treatment and support for these individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02824-9DOI Listing
July 2021

A quick test of cognitive speed can predict development of dementia in Parkinson's disease.

Sci Rep 2019 10 28;9(1):15417. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently develop cognitive impairment. There is a need for brief clinical assessments identifying PD patients at high risk of progressing to dementia. In this study, we look into predicting dementia in PD and underlying structural and functional correlates to cognitive decline in PD. We included 175 patients with PD, 30 with PD dementia, 51 neurologically healthy controls and 121 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from Skane University Hospital, BIOFINDER cohorts. All underwent cognitive tests, including MMSE, 10-word list delayed recall (ADAS-cog), A Quick Test of cognitive speed (AQT), Letter S fluency, Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and pentagon copying. In non-demented patients with PD, abnormal AQT and CDT results predicted an increased risk of subsequent development of dementia (hazard ratio 2.2 for both). When comparing the cognitive profile between PD and AD, decreased performance on AQT, which measures attention and processing speed, was more typical in PD. Lastly, we investigated the underlying structural and functional correlates for the PD-specific test AQT with magnetic resonance imaging. In PD patients, decreased performance on AQT was associated with i) cortical thinning in temporoparietal regions, ii) changes in diffusion MRI, especially in the cingulum tract, and iii) decreased functional connectivity in posterior brain networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51505-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6817840PMC
October 2019

Microstructural white matter alterations associated to neurocognitive deficits in childhood leukemia survivors treated with cranial radiotherapy - a diffusional kurtosis study.

Acta Oncol 2019 Jul 12;58(7):1021-1028. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

e Department of Endocrinology , Skåne University hospital , Lund , Sweden.

Cranial radiotherapy (CRT) is a known risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) are MRI techniques that quantify microstructural changes in brain white matter (WM) and DKI is regarded as the more sensitive of them. Our aim was to more thoroughly understand the nature of cognitive deficits after cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in adulthood after childhood ALL. Thirty-eight (21 women) ALL survivors, median age 38 (27-46) years, were investigated at median 34 years after diagnosis. All had been treated with a CRT dose of 24 Gy and with 11 years of complete hormone supplementation. DTI and DKI parameters were determined and neurocognitive tests were performed in ALL survivors and 29 matched controls. ALL survivors scored lower than controls in neurocognitive tests of vocabulary, memory, learning capacity, spatial ability, executive functions, and attention ( < .001). The survivors had altered DTI parameters in the fornix, uncinate fasciculus, and ventral cingulum (all  < .05) and altered DKI parameters in the fornix, uncinate fasciculus, and dorsal and ventral cingulum ( < .05). Altered DTI parameters in the fornix were associated with impaired episodic verbal memory ( = -0.40,  < .04). The left and right uncinate fasciculus ( = 0.6,  < .001), ( = -0.5,  < .02) as well as the right ventral cingulum ( = 0.5,  < .007) were associated with impaired episodic visual memory. Altered DKI parameters in the fornix, right uncinate fasciculus ( = 0.3,  = 0.05,  = .02), and ventral cingulum ( = 0.3,  = .02) were associated with impaired results of episodic visual memory. ALL survivors with cognitive deficits demonstrated microstructural damage in several WM tracts that were more extensive with DKI as compared to DTI; this might be a marker of radiation and chemotherapy neurotoxicity underlying cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2019.1571279DOI Listing
July 2019

The effect of white matter hyperintensities on statistical analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in cognitively healthy elderly and prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0185239. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Diagnostic Radiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to study microstructural white matter alterations in a variety of conditions including normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are common in cognitively healthy elderly as well as in AD and exhibit elevated mean diffusivity (MD) and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). However, the effect of WMH on statistical analysis of DTI estimates has not been thoroughly studied. In the present study we address this in two ways. First, we investigate the effect of WMH on MD and FA in the dorsal and ventral cingulum, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the corticospinal tract, by comparing two matched groups of cognitively healthy elderly (n = 21 + 21) with unequal WMH load. Second, we assess the effects of adjusting for WMH load when comparing MD and FA in prodromal AD subjects (n = 83) to cognitively healthy elderly (n = 132) in the abovementioned white matter tracts. Results showed the WMH in cognitively healthy elderly to have a generally large effect on DTI estimates (Cohen's d = 0.63 to 1.27 for significant differences in MD and -1.06 to -0.69 for FA). These effect sizes were comparable to those of various neurological and psychiatric diseases (Cohen's d = 0.57 to 2.20 for differences in MD and -1.76 to -0.61 for FA). Adjusting for WMH when comparing DTI estimates in prodromal AD subjects to cognitively healthy elderly improved the explanatory power as well as the outcome of the analysis, indicating that some of the differences in MD and FA were largely driven by unequal WMH load between the groups rather than alterations in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Thus, our findings suggest that if the purpose of a study is to compare alterations in NAWM between two groups using DTI it may be necessary to adjust the statistical analysis for WMH.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185239PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608410PMC
October 2017

Microstructure alterations in the hypothalamus in cranially radiated childhood leukaemia survivors but not in craniopharyngioma patients unaffected by hypothalamic damage.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Oct 19;87(4):359-366. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Department of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Objective: Metabolic complications are frequent in childhood leukaemia (ALL) survivors treated with cranial radiotherapy (CRT). These complications are potentially mediated by damage to the hypothalamus (HT), as childhood onset (CO) craniopharyngioma (CP) survivors without HT involvement are spared overt obesity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows brain tissue microstructure alterations, by fractional anisotrophy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). We used DTI to determine the integrity of the microstructure of the HT in ALL survivors.

Design: Case-control study.

Patients: Three groups were included: (i) 27 CRT treated ALL survivors on hormone supplementation, (ii) 17 CO-CP survivors on hormone supplementation but without HT involvement and (iii) 27 matched controls.

Measurements: DTI parameters of the HT were measured and body composition.

Results: Microstructural alterations in the HT were more severe in ALL survivors with a BMI ≥25 than with BMI <25. Compared to controls, ALL survivors had reduced FA (P=.04), increased MD (P<.001), AD (P<.001) and RD (P<.001) in the right and left HT. In the right HT, ALL survivors with a BMI ≥25 showed elevated MD (P=.03) and AD (P=.02) compared to ALL survivors with BMI <25. In contrast, DTI parameters did not differ between CP survivors and controls.

Conclusions: Long-term follow-up after CRT for ALL DTI measures were affected in the HT despite complete hormone replacement. The present data suggest that ALL survivors have demyelination and axonal loss in the HT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.13373DOI Listing
October 2017
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