Publications by authors named "Daniel Sikkema"

10 Publications

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11th GCC Closed Forum: cumulative stability; matrix stability; immunogenicity assays; laboratory manuals; biosimilars; chiral methods; hybrid LBA/LCMS assays; fit-for-purpose validation; China Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation.

Bioanalysis 2018 Apr 27;10(7):433-444. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Worldwide Clinical Trials, Austin, TX, USA.

The 11th Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held in Universal City, CA, USA on 3 April 2017. Representatives from international CRO members offering bioanalytical services were in attendance in order to discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The second CRO-Pharma Scientific Interchange Meeting was held on 7 April 2017, which included Pharma representatives' sharing perspectives on the topics discussed earlier in the week with the CRO members. The issues discussed at the meetings included cumulative stability evaluations, matrix stability evaluations, the 2016 US FDA Immunogenicity Guidance and recent and unexpected FDA Form 483s on immunogenicity assays, the bioanalytical laboratory's role in writing PK sample collection instructions, biosimilars, CRO perspectives on the use of chiral versus achiral methods, hybrid LBA/LCMS assays, applications of fit-for-purpose validation and, at the Global CRO Council Closed Forum only, the status and trend of current regulated bioanalytical practice in China under CFDA's new BMV policy. Conclusions from discussions of these topics at both meetings are included in this report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0014DOI Listing
April 2018

Inhibition of interleukin-5 induced false positive anti-drug antibody responses against mepolizumab through the use of a competitive blocking antibody.

J Immunol Methods 2017 02 24;441:15-23. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Clinical Immunology, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA 19406, United States.

Mepolizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks native homodimeric interleukin-5 (IL-5) from binding to the IL-5 receptor, has recently been approved for treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Our initial immunogenicity assay method for phase I and II studies utilized a bridging electrochemiluminescence format with biotin and ruthenium-labelled mepolizumab linked by anti-drug antibodies (ADA). We discovered that IL-5 significantly increased in dosed subjects from a phase II study and that the increased IL-5 was in the form of a drug-bound complex. We demonstrated that the elevated drug-bound IL-5 produced false-positive response in the in vitro ADA assay, in which drug-bound IL-5 dissociated and then bridged mepolizumab conjugates to yield positive signal. To eliminate the IL-5 interference, we compared two strategies: a solid-phase immunodepletion of IL-5 and an in-solution IL-5 immunocompetition. We identified the best competitive antibody for each purpose. We found both methods demonstrated similar effectiveness in reducing the false positive signal in IL-5 spiked samples; however, the in-solution immunocompetition for IL-5 had fewer false positives in study samples. Additionally, the in-solution immunocompetition method was experimentally simpler to execute. We modified the ADA assay by adding a pre-treatment step with a mepolizumab competitive anti- IL-5 antibody. Using this new method, we retested clinical samples from two phase II studies (MEA112997 and MEA114092). The confirmed ADA positive incidence was reduced from 29% and 61% to 1% and 8% with the modified in-solution immune inhibition method. Target interference is a fairly common problem facing immunogenicity testing, and target-induced false positive cannot be distinguished from true ADA response by the commonly used drug competitive confirmation assay. The approach and method used here for resolving target interference in ADA detection will be useful for differentiating between a true ADA response and target induced false positive as well as similar challenges in other programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2016.11.010DOI Listing
February 2017

False-positive immunogenicity responses are caused by CD20+ B cell membrane fragments in an anti-ofatumumab antibody bridging assay.

J Immunol Methods 2013 Aug 29;394(1-2):22-31. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Clinical Immunology, Biopharm R&D, GlaxoSmithKline, 709 Swedeland Rd., King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA.

An electrochemiluminescent (ECL) bridging assay to detect anti-ofatumumab antibodies (ADA) in human serum samples was developed and validated. Using this assay format, clinical samples were first screened to identify potential ADA positive samples, which were then further tested by adding excess drug, confirming the positive signals as drug specific. However, when the method was implemented into clinical studies for ADA testing, a high positive rate was observed in the pre-dose samples collected from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Since the positive signals were not associated with ofatumumab (Ofa) treatment, and diminished after treatment, it was suspected that matrix interference might be responsible, resulting in false-positive responses. We performed a series of experimental investigations to identify, characterize, minimize or eliminate the possible false-positive responses. One possible source was identified to be CD20 (the target of Ofa) present on cell membrane fragments (CMFs). The false-positive responses caused by CD20(+) CMFs could be reduced by solid-phase immunodepletion, ultracentrifugation, or inhibited by adding another anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab). As a consequence, the ADA method was modified to minimize the matrix interference caused by CD20(+) CMFs and, then, validated for sample testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2013.04.011DOI Listing
August 2013

Development of an enzymatic assay for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against therapeutic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

J Immunol Methods 2013 Mar 5;389(1-2):52-60. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Clinical Immunology, GlaxoSmithKline, King Of Prussia, PA 19406, United States.

Therapeutic proteins have the potential to elicit immune responses in animals and humans (Mire-Sluis et al., 2004; Yu et al., 2006; Shankar et al., 2008). Contributors to the response could include product related factors such as chemical modifications, impurities that co-purify with product, contaminants, formulation, aggregates, and clinical factors such as dose concentration, dosing frequency, route of drug administration, rate of administration, patient underlying disease, concomitant medication, and genetic status among others (Patten and Schellekens, 2003). Further, an immune response triggered by a therapeutic enzyme may neutralize the endogenous counterpart resulting in a decrease or depletion of the therapeutic and endogenous enzymes imposing safety concerns for patients. Therefore, monitoring of anti-drug antibody (ADA) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to both the recombinant therapeutic enzyme and endogenous enzyme is important during early development and subsequent clinical studies. Testing considerations for NAb detection against therapeutic enzymes have been published mostly for lysosomal storage diseases (Wang et al., 2008). NAb cross-reactivity to the endogenous counterpart has also been characterized (Sominanda et al., 2010). Here, we describe an enzymatic NAb assay which detects neutralizing antibodies to both recombinant and endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). NAb assay sensitivity was optimized by selecting the assay incubation time as 20 min with an enzyme concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. Four anti-ACE2 antibodies out of a commercial panel of 18 were found to have neutralizing capabilities based upon their ability to abrogate ACE2 enzymatic activity. We demonstrated assay specificity by small peptide inhibitors specific for ACE or ACE2. DX600, an ACE2 specific inhibitor did not cross-react with ACE. Conversely, captopril, an inhibitor of ACE did not inhibit ACE2. The assay specificity for ACE2 neutralizing antibodies was further demonstrated by the lack of reactivity of two species control antibodies and 14 anti-ACE2 antibodies. Moreover, we demonstrated assay specificity to human endogenous ACE2 from human epithelial cells. Three human cell lines (Calu-3, Caco-2, Huh-7) were evaluated for the cell surface expression of ACE2 by flow cytometry and Western blot. Subsequently, whole cell lysates, cell culture supernatant, and live cells were evaluated in the assay. Results demonstrated that Calu-3 had elevated levels of ACE2 compared to Caco-2 or Huh-7. Calu-3 also demonstrated elevated ACE2 enzymatic activity in all three sources and could be inhibited by the ACE2 specific inhibitor DX600 as well as the neutralizing antibodies for the recombinant ACE2. Thus, we describe here a method to detect NAb against a therapeutic enzyme and assess NAb cross-reactivity to the native endogenous enzyme. The approach of method development described here could be applied for the assessment of NAb responses to other enzymatic therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2012.12.010DOI Listing
March 2013

Optimization and validation of a multiplex, electrochemiluminescence-based detection assay for the quantitation of immunoglobulin G serotype-specific antipneumococcal antibodies in human serum.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2009 Mar 21;16(3):387-96. Epub 2009 Jan 21.

Wayne Clinical Support, Merck Research Laboratories, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA.

Pneumovax 23 consists of a mixture of highly purified capsular polysaccharides (Ps) from 23 of the most prevalent serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Testing of vaccine immunogenicity has been historically performed on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) platform, validated to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to all 23 serotypes included in Pneumovax 23. In order to significantly improve the throughput of this form of testing, we have developed and validated a direct binding electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based multiplex assay that can measure the antibody response in human serum to eight serotypes within a single microtiter well. The pneumococcal (Pn) ECL assay is based on the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) technology which utilizes a Sulfo-Tag-labeled anti-human IgG antibody that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation. The Pn ECL assay exhibits a wide dynamic range and provides the ability to read concentrations down to the minimum reported concentration in the Merck ELISA (0.1 microg/ml). Cross-reactivity assessment using type-specific monoclonal antibodies showed no cross talk between antigen spots within a well. By use of the WHO Pn sample reference panel, the results obtained with the Pn ECL assay were compared to the results obtained with the international Pn ELISA. The results for the Pn ECL assay satisfied the WHO-recommended acceptance criterion for concordance for all seven serotypes with published Pn ELISA values, and the overall correlation (r value) across the seven serotypes was 0.994. The MSD methodology has great potential to be extremely useful for simultaneously quantitating IgG responses to several Pn serotypes while conserving serum volumes and laboratory testing time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00415-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650878PMC
March 2009

Complexities of clinical assay development and optimization prior to first-in-man immunization trials - a description of immunogenicity assay development for the testing of samples from a phase 1 Alzheimer's vaccine trial.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2008 ;29(4):332-47

Vaccine and Biologics Research, Merck Research Labs, Wayne, PA 19087, USA.

Immunogenicity is often a critical clinical endpoint in the assessment of vaccines prior to the submission of data to regulatory agencies. As a result, the assays used to measure immunogenicity must be highly characterized, well-controlled, and statistically supported. These goals are not easily attained, however, when the development of the assay must occur prior to the first-in-man studies. Two significant barriers exist in the development of these assays: (1) the lack of experience with the performance of a novel antigen in a clinical assay, and (2) the lack of available proper human clinical samples to create reference standards and assess sample matrices. To help to overcome these obstacles, we employed a screening experimental design to assess assay optimization. Design of experiments (DOE) is a statistical tool that allows for the evaluation of all of the key assay parameters to determine the optimal conditions for the assay, as well as determine if there are any interactions of these parameters on the response of the assay. The multivariate approach that is integral to DOE helps to overcome the lack of experience with the assay reagents by facilitating an understanding of how the variables work together in the performance of the assay. Here, we outline the use of full and fractional factorial DOE in the optimization of a clinical assay on two platforms, Luminex and ELISA, for the measurement of antibodies to the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) for a novel first-in-man vaccine program. Both platforms are evaluated in an attempt to determine the assay best suited to the needs of the program. We also describe the specificity experiments performed to further characterize the utility of each assay platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321810802329518DOI Listing
February 2009

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides for the PNEUMOVAX 23 vaccine: assay operating characteristics and correlation to the WHO international assay.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2006 Aug;13(8):905-12

Vaccine and Biologics Research, Merck Research Laboratories, WYN-1, 466 Devon Park Dr., Wayne, PA 19087-8630, USA.

The Merck pneumococcal (Pn) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for measuring antibodies to 12 serotypes (serotypes 1, 3, 4, 6B, 7F, 8, 9V, 12F, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) were validated in 1999. Merck Laboratories developed the Pn assays using 10 microg/ml C polysaccharide, 100 microg/ml Pn polysaccharide (PnPs) 25, and 100 microg/ml PnPs 72 for preadsorption of samples, standards, and controls in order to improve the specificity to the Pn serotypes in the vaccine. The Pn assays utilize postimmunization sera obtained from subjects immunized with PNEUMOVAX 23 as standards for measuring immunoglobulin G concentrations in sera obtained from vaccine clinical trials with adults and infants. This material was calibrated to the Pn reference standard serum, 89SF, subjected to the Merck Pn ELISA adsorbants. Comparisons were made between the Merck Pn assay and the international Pn assay, showing moderate agreement between the two assay formats. This work describes the test procedures and operating characteristics of the Merck Pn assays and the results of experiments performed to compare the Merck Pn ELISAs to the international Pn ELISAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00014-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1539118PMC
August 2006

Assignment of weight-based immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 units in antipneumococcal reference serum lot 89-S(F) for pneumococcal polysaccharide serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 9V, and 18C.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Jan;12(1):218-23

Wyeth Vaccines Research, 401 N. Middletown Rd., 180/149B, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA.

Weight-based assignments for immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 subclass antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (PnPs) in antipneumococcal standard reference serum lot 89-S (lot 89-S), also known as lot 89-SF, have been determined for serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 9V, and 18C. This extends the usefulness of lot 89-S beyond the IgG1 and IgG2 subclass assignments for serotypes 3, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F made previously (A. Soininen, H. Kayhty, I. Seppala, and T. Wuorimaa, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5:561-566, 1998) to cover 11 major serotypes associated with the highest percentage of pneumococcal disease worldwide. A method of equivalence of absorbances in enzyme immunosorbent assays was used to determine the IgG1 and IgG2 antibody concentrations for the additional serotypes in lot 89-S, based on the subclass values previously assigned for PnPs serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F. This cross-standardization method assures consistency with previous antibody assignments in that reference serum. The newly assigned subclass values for serotype 9V, and previously assigned values for serotype 14, were used to quantitate PnPs antibodies in sera from adult and pediatric subjects immunized with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. There was a predominance of IgG1 anti-PnPs antibodies in pediatric sera and IgG2 anti-PnPs antibodies in the adult sera. The IgG1 and IgG2 subclass assignments for the 11 PnPs serotypes in antipneumococcal standard reference serum lot 89-S are useful for quantitating and characterizing immune responses to pneumococcal infection and vaccination regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CDLI.12.1.218-223.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC540223PMC
January 2005

Effect of antigen coating conditions on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibody to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y and W135 capsular polysaccharide antigens in serum.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2003 Nov;10(6):1136-40

Department of Applied Immunology and Microbiology, Wyeth Vaccines Research, Rochester, New York 14623, USA.

Human sera collected from 28 consenting adult volunteers were used to define assay conditions for meningococcal vaccine clinical trial serology. Immunoassay parameters were optimized with these test sera and the standard reference serum, CDC1992. Coating conditions for serogroup Y and W135 polysaccharide antigens were found to influence the predicted serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody concentrations. Sera that displayed IgG antibody binding profiles most unlike that of CDC1992 were influenced the most by coating conditions. Our results suggest that presentation of specific epitopes is influenced by antigen-coating concentrations for serogroup Y and W135 polysaccharides.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC262445PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/cdli.10.6.1136-1140.2003DOI Listing
November 2003