Publications by authors named "Daniel P Zimmer"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of CYR715: A novel carboxylic acid-containing soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 2;40:127886. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Cyclerion Therapeutics, Inc., 301 Binney Street Cambridge, MA 02142, United States. Electronic address:

Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a clinically validated therapeutic target in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Modulators of sGC have the potential to treat diseases that are affected by dysregulation of the NO-sGC-cGMP signal transduction pathway. This letter describes the SAR efforts that led to the discovery of CYR715, a novel carboxylic acid-containing sGC stimulator, with an improved metabolic profile relative to our previously described stimulator, IWP-051. CYR715 addressed potential idiosyncratic drug toxicity (IDT) liabilities associated with the formation of reactive, migrating acyl glucuronides (AG) found in related carboxylic acid-containing analogs and demonstrated high oral bioavailability in rat and dose-dependent hemodynamic pharmacology in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.127886DOI Listing
May 2021

Praliciguat inhibits progression of diabetic nephropathy in ZSF1 rats and suppresses inflammation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular cells.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2020 10 31;319(4):F697-F711. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Cyclerion Therapeutics, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Praliciguat, a clinical-stage soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, increases cGMP via the nitric oxide-sGC pathway. Praliciguat has been shown to be renoprotective in rodent models of hypertensive nephropathy and renal fibrosis. In the present study, praliciguat alone and in combination with enalapril attenuated proteinuria in the obese ZSF1 rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Praliciguat monotherapy did not affect hemodynamics. In contrast, enalapril monotherapy lowered blood pressure but did not attenuate proteinuria. Renal expression of genes in pathways involved in inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and kidney injury was lower in praliciguat-treated obese ZSF1 rats than in obese control rats; fasting glucose and cholesterol were also lower with praliciguat treatment. To gain insight into how tubular mechanisms might contribute to its pharmacological effects on the kidneys, we studied the effects of praliciguat on pathological processes and signaling pathways in cultured human primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTCs). Praliciguat inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in tumor necrosis factor-α-challenged RPTCs. Praliciguat treatment also attenuated transforming growth factor-β-mediated apoptosis, changes to a mesenchyme-like cellular phenotype, and phosphorylation of SMAD3 in RPTCs. In conclusion, praliciguat improved proteinuria in the ZSF1 rat model of diabetic nephropathy, and its actions in human RPTCs suggest that tubular effects may contribute to its renal benefits, building upon strong evidence for the role of cGMP signaling in renal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00003.2020DOI Listing
October 2020

An Impaired Natriuretic Peptide Hormone System May Play a Role in COVID-19 Severity in Vulnerable Populations.

FASEB Bioadv 2020 Aug 14. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Medical University of South Carolina Charleston SC United States.

Advanced age, underlying cardiovascular disease (including hypertension), and obesity are associated with a higher risk of progression to severe hypoxemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and death in COVID-19-infected patients. African Americans have a higher degree of COVID-19 mortality. The incidence of salt-sensitive hypertension is higher in older individuals and African Americans. Lower circulating levels of natriuretic peptides, key regulators of vascular tone and kidney function, have been associated with salt-sensitive hypertension and obesity. Evidence has accumulated that ANP administered to pulmonary endothelial cells, isolated lungs, and patients suffering from ARDS reduces endothelial damage and preserves the endothelial barrier, thereby reducing pulmonary edema and inflammation. Epidemiologic and pharmacologic data suggest that deficiencies in the natriuretic peptide hormone system may contribute to the development of severe lung pathology in COVID-19 patients, and treatments that augment natriuretic peptide signaling may have potential to limit progression to ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fba.2020-00042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436750PMC
August 2020

Olinciguat, an Oral sGC Stimulator, Exhibits Diverse Pharmacology Across Preclinical Models of Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Renal, and Inflammatory Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2020 8;11:419. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Research and Development, Cyclerion Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cyclic 3',5' GMP (cGMP) signaling plays a central role in regulation of diverse processes including smooth muscle relaxation, inflammation, and fibrosis. sGC is activated by the short-lived physiologic mediator NO. sGC stimulators are small-molecule compounds that directly bind to sGC to enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. Olinciguat, (R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(((5-fluoro-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)methyl)-2-hydroxypropanamide, is a new sGC stimulator currently in Phase 2 clinical development. To understand the potential clinical utility of olinciguat, we studied its pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and pharmacologic effects in preclinical models. Olinciguat relaxed human vascular smooth muscle and was a potent inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation . These antiproliferative effects were potentiated by the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor tadalafil, which did not inhibit vascular smooth muscle proliferation on its own. Olinciguat was orally bioavailable and predominantly cleared by the liver in rats. In a rat whole body autoradiography study, olinciguat-derived radioactivity in most tissues was comparable to plasma levels, indicating a balanced distribution between vascular and extravascular compartments. Olinciguat was explored in rodent models to study its effects on the vasculature, the heart, the kidneys, metabolism, and inflammation. Olinciguat reduced blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Olinciguat was cardioprotective in the Dahl rat salt-sensitive hypertensive heart failure model. In the rat ZSF1 model of diabetic nephropathy and metabolic syndrome, olinciguat was renoprotective and associated with lower circulating glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. In a mouse TNFα-induced inflammation model, olinciguat treatment was associated with lower levels of endothelial and leukocyte-derived soluble adhesion molecules. The pharmacological features of olinciguat suggest that it may have broad therapeutic potential and that it may be suited for diseases that have both vascular and extravascular pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156612PMC
April 2020

Pharmacokinetics, mass balance, tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion of praliciguat, a clinical-stage soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator in rats.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 04;8(2):e00579

Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Cyclerion Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The pharmacokinetics (PK), metabolism, excretion, mass balance, and tissue distribution of [ C]praliciguat were evaluated following oral administration of a 3-mg/kg dose in Sprague-Dawley rats and in a quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) study conducted in male Long-Evans rats. Plasma T was 1 hour and the t of total plasma radioactivity was 23.7 hours. Unchanged praliciguat accounted for 87.4%, and a minor metabolite (N-dealkylated-praliciguat) accounted for 7.6% of the total radioactivity in plasma through 48 hours (AUC ). Tissues with the highest exposure ratios relative to plasma were liver, intestines, adrenal gland, and adipose, and those with the lowest values were seminal vesicle, blood, CNS tissues, lens of the eye, and bone. Most of the [ C]praliciguat-derived radioactivity was excreted within 48 hours after oral administration. Mean cumulative recovery of the administered radioactivity in urine and feces over 168 hours was 3.7% and 95.7%, respectively. Unchanged praliciguat was not quantifiable in urine or bile of cannulated rats; however, based on the total radioactivity in these fluids, a minimum of approximately 82% of the orally administered dose was absorbed. [ C]Praliciguat was metabolized via oxidative and glucuronidation pathways and the most abundant metabolites recovered in bile were praliciguat-glucuronide and hydroxy-praliciguat-glucuronide. These results indicate that praliciguat had rapid absorption, high bioavailability, extensive tissue distribution, and elimination primarily via hepatic metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171252PMC
April 2020

An exploratory, randomised, placebo-controlled, 14 day trial of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator praliciguat in participants with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

Diabetologia 2020 04 19;63(4):733-743. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Cyclerion Therapeutics, Inc., 301 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: Praliciguat (IW-1973), a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, amplifies nitric oxide signalling. This exploratory trial investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacodynamic effects of praliciguat in individuals with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

Methods: This Phase IIA, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated praliciguat in 26 participants with type 2 diabetes and hypertension on stable glucose- and BP-lowering therapies. Participants were randomly allocated in a 3:5:5 ratio to three groups: placebo (n = 6), praliciguat 40 mg once daily for days 1-14 (n = 10), or praliciguat 20 mg twice daily for days 1-7 then 40 mg once daily for days 8-14 (n = 10). Assessments were made in clinic and included treatment-emergent adverse events, pharmacokinetics, metabolic variables, 24 h BP and heart rate, platelet function, reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and plasma biomarkers. Participants, the sponsor, the investigator and clinic study staff (except designated pharmacy personnel) were blinded to group assignment.

Results: Participants treated for 14 days with praliciguat had least-square mean change-from-baseline differences vs placebo (95% CI) of -0.7 (-1.8, 0.4) mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose, -0.7 (-1.1, -0.2) mmol/l for total cholesterol, -0.5 (-1.0, -0.1) mmol/l for LDL-cholesterol, -23 (-56, 9) for HOMA-IR in those not being treated with insulin, and -5 (-10, 1) mmHg and 3 (-1, 6) beats/min for average 24 h mean arterial pressure and heart rate, respectively. Apart from one serious adverse event (SAE; upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage), praliciguat was well tolerated. Praliciguat did not affect platelet function or RHI. Among exploratory biomarkers, plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine decreased in praliciguat vs placebo recipients.

Conclusions/interpretation: In participants with type 2 diabetes and hypertension on standard therapies, over 14 days praliciguat was well tolerated, except for a single SAE, and showed positive trends in metabolic and BP variables. These results support further clinical investigation of praliciguat.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03091920.

Funding: This trial was funded by Cyclerion Therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-05062-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054374PMC
April 2020

Correction to: Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators and Activators.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 ;264:425

Bayer AG, Pharmaceuticals R&D, Pharma Research Center, Wuppertal, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2019_249DOI Listing
January 2021

Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators and Activators.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 ;264:355-394

Bayer AG, Pharmaceuticals R&D, Pharma Research Center, Wuppertal, Germany.

When Furchgott, Murad, and Ignarro were honored with the Nobel prize for the identification of nitric oxide (NO) in 1998, the therapeutic implications of this discovery could not be fully anticipated. This was due to the fact that available therapeutics like NO donors did not allow a constant and long-lasting cyclic guanylyl monophosphate (cGMP) stimulation and had a narrow therapeutic window. Now, 20 years later, the stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), riociguat, is on the market and is the only drug approved for the treatment of two forms of pulmonary hypertension (PAH/CTEPH), and a variety of other sGC stimulators and sGC activators are in preclinical and clinical development for additional indications. The discovery of sGC stimulators and sGC activators is a milestone in the field of NO/sGC/cGMP pharmacology. The sGC stimulators and sGC activators bind directly to reduced, heme-containing and oxidized, heme-free sGC, respectively, which results in an increase in cGMP production. The action of sGC stimulators at the heme-containing enzyme is independent of NO but is enhanced in the presence of NO whereas the sGC activators interact with the heme-free form of sGC. These highly innovative pharmacological principles of sGC stimulation and activation seem to have a very broad therapeutic potential. Therefore, in both academia and industry, intensive research and development efforts have been undertaken to fully exploit the therapeutic benefit of these new compound classes. Here we summarize the discovery of sGC stimulators and sGC activators and the current developments in both compound classes, including the mode of action, the chemical structures, and the genesis of the terminology and nomenclature. In addition, preclinical studies exploring multiple aspects of their in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo pharmacology are reviewed, providing an overview of multiple potential applications. Finally, the clinical developments, investigating the treatment potential of these compounds in various diseases like heart failure, diabetic kidney disease, fibrotic diseases, and hypertension, are reported. In summary, sGC stimulators and sGC activators have a unique mode of action with a broad treatment potential in cardiovascular diseases and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_197DOI Listing
February 2021

Pharmacological Characterization of IW-1973, a Novel Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator with Extensive Tissue Distribution, Antihypertensive, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antifibrotic Effects in Preclinical Models of Disease.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 06 11;365(3):664-675. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key signal-transduction enzyme, increases the conversion of guanosine-5'-triphosphate to cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and/or reduced NO signaling have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and complications of diabetes and have been associated with other disease states and aging. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are small-molecule drugs that bind sGC and enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. The pharmacological characterization of IW-1973 [1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(((5-fluoro-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1-pyrazol-3-yl) pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)methyl)propan-2-ol], a novel clinical-stage sGC stimulator under clinical investigation for treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and diabetic nephropathy, is described. In the presence of NO, IW-1973 stimulated sGC in a human purified enzyme assay and a HEK-293 whole cell assay. sGC stimulation by IW-1973 in cells was associated with increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. IW-1973, at doses of 1-10 mg/kg, significantly lowered blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In a Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension model, IW-1973 significantly reduced blood pressure, inflammatory cytokine levels, and renal disease markers, including proteinuria and renal fibrotic gene expression. The results were affirmed in mouse lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and rat unilateral ureteral obstruction renal fibrosis models. A quantitative whole-body autoradiography study of IW-1973 revealed extensive tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies showed a large volume of distribution and a profile consistent with predicted once-a-day dosing in humans. In summary, IW-1973 is a potent, orally available sGC stimulator that exhibits renoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects in nonclinical models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.117.247429DOI Listing
June 2018

Discovery of IWP-051, a Novel Orally Bioavailable sGC Stimulator with Once-Daily Dosing Potential in Humans.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 May 24;7(5):465-9. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 301 Binney Street Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 United States.

In recent years, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC, EC 4.6.1.2) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular diseases and diseases associated with fibrosis and end-organ failure. Herein, we describe our design and synthesis of a series of 4-hydroxypyrimidine sGC stimulators starting with an internally discovered lead. Our efforts have led to the discovery of IWP-051, a molecule that achieves good alignment of potency, stability, selectivity, and pharmacodynamic effects while maintaining favorable pharmacokinetic properties with once-daily dosing potential in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867485PMC
May 2016

The natriuretic peptide uroguanylin elicits physiologic actions through 2 distinct topoisomers.

Hypertension 2009 May 16;53(5):867-76. Epub 2009 Mar 16.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 111 Mason Farm Rd, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The peptide uroguanylin regulates electrolyte transport in the intestine and kidney. Human uroguanylin has 2 conformations that can be stably isolated because of their slow interconversion rate. The A isomer potently activates the guanylate cyclase C receptor found primarily in the intestine. The B isomer, by contrast, is a very weak agonist of this receptor, leading to a widely held assumption that it is physiologically irrelevant. We show here, however, that human uroguanylin B has potent natriuretic activity in the kidney. Interestingly, uroguanylin A and B both induce saluretic responses, but the activity profiles for the 2 peptides differ markedly. The uroguanylin B dose-response curve is sigmoidal with a threshold dose of approximately 10 nmol/kg of body weight, whereas uroguanylin A has a comparable threshold but a bell-shaped dose-response curve. In addition, our study indicates a unique interplay between the A and B isoforms, such that the A form at high concentrations antagonizes the natriuretic action of the B form. These data show that the kidney contains a uroguanylin receptor of which the pharmacological profile does not match that of the well-defined intestinal uroguanylin receptor (guanylate cyclase C), an observation consistent with previous studies showing that the kidney of the guanylate cyclase C knockout mouse remains responsive to uroguanylin. The results presented here also support the unconventional notion that distinct conformations of a single endocrine peptide can elicit different responses in different tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.128264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729689PMC
May 2009

Genome image programs: visualization and interpretation of Escherichia coli microarray experiments.

Genetics 2004 Aug;167(4):2111-9

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

We have developed programs to facilitate analysis of microarray data in Escherichia coli. They fall into two categories: manipulation of microarray images and identification of known biological relationships among lists of genes. A program in the first category arranges spots from glass-slide DNA microarrays according to their position in the E. coli genome and displays them compactly in genome order. The resulting genome image is presented in a web browser with an image map that allows the user to identify genes in the reordered image. Another program in the first category aligns genome images from two or more experiments. These images assist in visualizing regions of the genome with common transcriptional control. Such regions include multigene operons and clusters of operons, which are easily identified as strings of adjacent, similarly colored spots. The images are also useful for assessing the overall quality of experiments. The second category of programs includes a database and a number of tools for displaying biological information about many E. coli genes simultaneously rather than one gene at a time, which facilitates identifying relationships among them. These programs have accelerated and enhanced our interpretation of results from E. coli DNA microarray experiments. Examples are given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.104.027532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1471004PMC
August 2004

Escherichia coli spotted double-strand DNA microarrays: RNA extraction, labeling, hybridization, quality control, and data management.

Methods Mol Biol 2003 ;224:61-78

Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-364-X:61DOI Listing
January 2004

Structural origins of adenine-tract bending.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Mar 13;100(5):2369-73. Epub 2003 Feb 13.

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

DNA sequences containing short adenine tracts are intrinsically curved and play a role in transcriptional regulation. Despite many high-resolution NMR and x-ray studies, the origins of curvature remain disputed. Long-range restraints provided by 85 residual dipolar couplings were measured for a DNA decamer containing an adenine (A)(4)-tract and used to refine the structure. The overall bend in the molecule is a result of in-phase negative roll in the A-tract and positive roll at its 5' junction, as well as positive and negative tilt inside the A-tract and near its junctions. The bend magnitude and direction obtained from NMR structures is 9.0 degrees into the minor groove in a coordinate frame located at the third AT base pair. We evaluated long-range and wedge models for DNA curvature and concluded that our data for A-tract curvature are best explained by a "delocalized bend" model. The global bend magnitude and direction of the NMR structure are in excellent agreement with the junction model parameters used to rationalize gel electrophoretic data and with preliminary results of a cyclization kinetics assay from our laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0437877100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151347PMC
March 2003

Integrating transcriptional and metabolite profiles to direct the engineering of lovastatin-producing fungal strains.

Nat Biotechnol 2003 Feb 21;21(2):150-6. Epub 2003 Jan 21.

Microbia, Inc., 320 Bent Street, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA.

We describe a method to decipher the complex inter-relationships between metabolite production trends and gene expression events, and show how information gleaned from such studies can be applied to yield improved production strains. Genomic fragment microarrays were constructed for the Aspergillus terreus genome, and transcriptional profiles were generated from strains engineered to produce varying amounts of the medically significant natural product lovastatin. Metabolite detection methods were employed to quantify the polyketide-derived secondary metabolites lovastatin and (+)-geodin in broths from fermentations of the same strains. Association analysis of the resulting transcriptional and metabolic data sets provides mechanistic insight into the genetic and physiological control of lovastatin and (+)-geodin biosynthesis, and identifies novel components involved in the production of (+)-geodin, as well as other secondary metabolites. Furthermore, this analysis identifies specific tools, including promoters for reporter-based selection systems, that we employed to improve lovastatin production by A. terreus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt781DOI Listing
February 2003