Publications by authors named "Daniel Montero"

43 Publications

OpenABM-Covid19-An agent-based model for non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 including contact tracing.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 07 12;17(7):e1009146. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

SARS-CoV-2 has spread across the world, causing high mortality and unprecedented restrictions on social and economic activity. Policymakers are assessing how best to navigate through the ongoing epidemic, with computational models being used to predict the spread of infection and assess the impact of public health measures. Here, we present OpenABM-Covid19: an agent-based simulation of the epidemic including detailed age-stratification and realistic social networks. By default the model is parameterised to UK demographics and calibrated to the UK epidemic, however, it can easily be re-parameterised for other countries. OpenABM-Covid19 can evaluate non-pharmaceutical interventions, including both manual and digital contact tracing, and vaccination programmes. It can simulate a population of 1 million people in seconds per day, allowing parameter sweeps and formal statistical model-based inference. The code is open-source and has been developed by teams both inside and outside academia, with an emphasis on formal testing, documentation, modularity and transparency. A key feature of OpenABM-Covid19 are its Python and R interfaces, which has allowed scientists and policymakers to simulate dynamic packages of interventions and help compare options to suppress the COVID-19 epidemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328312PMC
July 2021

Dietary Phytogenics and Galactomannan Oligosaccharides in Low Fish Meal and Fish Oil-Based Diets for European Sea Bass () Juveniles: Effects on Gill Structure and Health and Implications on Oxidative Stress Status.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:663106. Epub 2021 May 12.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), IU-ECOAQUA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.

An effective replacement for fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) based on plant-based raw materials in the feed of marine fish species is necessary for the sustainability of the aquaculture sector. However, the use of plant-based raw materials to replace FM and FO has been associated with several negative health effects, some of which are related to oxidative stress processes that can induce functional and morphological alterations in mucosal tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary oligosaccharides of plant origin (5,000 ppm; galactomannan oligosaccharides, GMOS) and a phytogenic feed additive (200 ppm; garlic oil and labiatae plant extract mixture, PHYTO) on the oxidative stress status and mucosal health of the gills of juvenile European sea bass (). The experimental diets, low FM and FO diets (10%FM/6%FO) were supplemented with GMOS from plant origin and PHYTO for 63 days. GMOS and PHYTO did not significantly affect feed utilization, fish growth, and survival. GMOS and PHYTO downregulated the expression of , , , , and in the gills of the fish compared with that in fish fed the control diet. The expression of and was upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in the GMOS group compared with that in the control group, whereas the expression of downregulated in the PHYTO group compared with that in the GMOS group. The morphological, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical parameters of the fish gills were mostly unaffected by GMOS and PHYTO. However, the PHYTO group had lower incidence of lamellar fusion than did the control group after 63 days. Although the tissular distribution of goblet cells was unaffected by GMOS and PHYTO, goblet cell size showed a decreasing trend (-11%) in the GMOS group. GMOS and PHYTO significantly reduced the concentration of PCNA+ in the epithelium of the gills. The above findings indicated that GMOS and PHYTO in low FM/FO-based diets protected the gill epithelia of . from oxidative stress by modulating the expression of oxidative enzyme-related genes and reducing the density of PCNA+ cells in the gills of the fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.663106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149968PMC
May 2021

Assessment of captive rearing conditions on loggerhead hatchlings: Effect of handling frequency and stocking density.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Jun 6;335(5):489-498. Epub 2021 May 6.

ECOAQUA UI, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Parque Científico Tecnológico Marino, Las Palmas, Spain.

Frequently, stranded sea turtles require rehabilitation under controlled conditions. Currently, few publications have described the conditions under which rehabilitation is to take place, particularly with respect to the hatchling life stage. To address this paucity of data, we conducted some experiments to assist rehabilitating facilities assess their handling of hatchlings. While in captivity, hatchlings are routinely handled, for example, for data collection and cleaning. Standardization of handling and housing protocols is necessary to define the most adequate rearing conditions to maintain hatchling welfare. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess plasma circulating corticosterone (Cort) concentration and growth, as a biomarker for the stress of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) under controlled conditions. We performed two experiments to analyze handling frequency and stocking density. In both, Cort was measured and correlated with variations in animal weight and length. In handling experiments, Cort exhibited no significant increase when hatchlings were handled once a week, whereas Cort was significantly elevated when hatchlings were handled once every 2 weeks, suggesting that hatchlings have the ability to acclimate to frequent handling. However, hatchlings exhibited similar growth and mortality, regardless of handling regime. In stocking density experiments, hatchling isolation induced a significant elevation of Cort, in comparison with hatchlings placed with conspecifics at increasing densities. Growth increased in singly housed hatchlings, while mortality increased in tanks with three or more hatchlings. The results obtained suggest that Cort, growth, and mortality should be measured to assess hatchling welfare when kept under controlled conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.2469DOI Listing
June 2021

Isolation and Characterization of a Bacillus velezensis D-18 Strain, as a Potential Probiotic in European Seabass Aquaculture.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Oct 3;13(5):1404-1412. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Instituto Ecoaqua, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.

Within the food-producing sectors, aquaculture is the one that has developed the greatest growth in recent decades, currently representing almost 50% of the world's edible fish. The diseases can affect the final production in intensive aquaculture; in seabass, aquaculture vibriosis is one of the most important diseases producing huge economical losses in this industry. The usual methodology to solve the problems associated with the bacterial pathology has been the use of antibiotics, with known environmental consequences. This is why probiotic bacteria are proposed as an alternative fight against pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyse a strain of Bacillus velezensis D-18 isolated from a wastewater sample collected from a fish farm, for use as probiotics in aquaculture. The strain was evaluated in vitro through various mechanisms of selection, obtaining as results for growth inhibition by co-culture a reduction of 30%; B. velezensis D-18 was able to survive at 1.5-h exposure to 10% seabass bile, and at pH 4, its survival is 5% and reducing by 60% the adhesion capacity of V. anguillarum 507 to the mucus of seabass and in vivo by performing a challenge. Therefore, in conclusion, we consider B. velezensis D-18 isolate from wastewater samples collected from the farms as a good candidate probiotic in the prevention of the infection by Vibrio anguillarum 507 in European seabass after in vitro and biosafety assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-021-09782-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Proteomic profile and protease activity in the skin mucus of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) infected with the ectoparasite Neobenedenia girellae - An immunological approach.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Mar 11;110:100-115. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario CeiA3, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Severo Ochoa, E-14071, Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address:

Skin mucus is considered the first barrier against diseases in fish. The skin mucus protein profile of the greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) and its changes due to experimental infection with Neobenedenia girellae were studied by combining 2-DE-MS/MS and gel-free LC-MS/MS proteomic approaches. The 2-DE results led to the identification of 69 and 55 proteins in noninfected and infected fish, respectively, and revealed that keratins were specifically cleaved in parasitized fish. Therefore, the skin mucus of the infected fish showed a higher protease activity due to, at least in part, an increase of metal-dependent protease and serine-type protease activities. Additionally, through a gel-free LC-MS/MS analysis, 1377 and 1251 different proteins were identified in the skin mucus of healthy and parasitized fish, respectively. The functional analysis of these proteins demonstrated a statistical overrepresentation of ribosomal proteins (a well-known source of antimicrobial peptides) in N. girellae-infected fish. In contrast, the components of membranes and protein transport GO categories were underrepresented after infection. Immune system process-related proteins constituted 2.5% of the total skin mucosal proteins. Among these skin mucosal proteins, 14 and 15 proteins exclusive to non-parasitized and parasitized fish were found, respectively, including specific serine-type proteases and metalloproteases in the parasitized fish. Moreover, the finding of tryptic peptides exclusive to some bacterial genera, obtained by gel-free LC-MS/MS, allowed us to construct a preliminary map of the microbiota living in the mucus of S. dumerili, with Pseudomonas and Paracoccus the most represented genera in both noninfected and infected fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.01.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of dietary oil from on the growth performance, fillet fatty acid profile and gut microbiome of gilthead Sea bream ().

PeerJ 2020 9;8:e10430. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Background: In the last two decades, research has focused on testing cheaper and sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO), such as vegetable oils (VO), in aquafeeds. However, FO cannot be entirely replaced by VOs due to their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids. The oilseed plant, , may have a higher potential to replace FO since it can contains up to 40% of the omega-3 precursors -linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6).

Methods: A 90-day feeding trial was conducted with 600 gilthead sea bream () of 32.92 ±  0.31 g mean initial weight fed three diets that replaced 20%, 40% and 60% of FO with CO and a control diet of FO. Fish were distributed into triplicate tanks per diet and with 50 fish each in a flow-through open marine system. Growth performance and fatty acid profiles of the fillet were analysed. The Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and Mothur pipeline were used to identify bacteria in the faeces, gut mucosa and diets in addition to metagenomic analysis by PICRUSt.

Results And Conclusions: The feed conversion rate and specific growth rate were not affected by diet, although final weight was significantly lower for fish fed the 60% CO diet. Reduced final weight was attributed to lower levels of EPA and DHA in the CO ingredient. The lipid profile of fillets were similar between the dietary groups in regards to total saturated, monounsaturated, PUFA (n-3 and n-6), and the ratio of n-3/n-6. Levels of EPA and DHA in the fillet reflected the progressive replacement of FO by CO in the diet and the EPA was significantly lower in fish fed the 60% CO diet, while ALA was increased. Alpha and beta-diversities of gut bacteria in both the faeces and mucosa were not affected by any dietary treatment, although a few indicator bacteria, such as and , were associated with the 60% CO diet. However, lower abundance of lactic acid bacteria, specifically , in the gut of fish fed the 60% CO diet may indicate a potential negative effect on gut microbiota. PICRUSt analysis revealed similar predictive functions of bacteria in the faeces and mucosa, although a higher abundance of in the mucosa of fish fed 60% CO diet increased the KEGG pathway of fatty acid synthesis and may act to compensate for the lack of fatty acids in the diet. In summary, this study demonstrated that up to 40% of FO can be replaced with CO without negative effects on growth performance, fillet composition and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733328PMC
December 2020

Short-Term Supplementation of Dietary Arginine and Citrulline Modulates Gilthead Seabream () Immune Status.

Front Immunol 2020 5;11:1544. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR), Universidade Do Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros Do Porto de Leixões, Matosinhos, Portugal.

Several amino acids (AA) are known to regulate key metabolic pathways that are crucial for immune responses. In particular, arginine (ARG) appears to have important roles regarding immune modulation since it is required for macrophage responses and lymphocyte development. Moreover, citrulline (CIT) is a precursor of arginine, and it was reported as an alternative to ARG for improving macrophage function in mammals. The present study aimed to explore the effects of dietary ARG and CIT supplementation on the gilthead seabream () immune status. Triplicate groups of fish (23.1 ± 0.4 g) were either fed a control diet (CTRL) with a balanced AA profile, or the CTRL diet supplemented with graded levels of ARG or CIT (i.e., 0.5 and 1% of feed; ARG1, CIT1, ARG2, and CIT2, respectively). After 2 and 4 weeks of feeding, fish were euthanized and blood was collected for blood smears, plasma for humoral immune parameters and shotgun proteomics, and head-kidney tissue for the measurement of health-related transcripts. A total of 94 proteins were identified in the plasma of all treatments. Among them, components of the complement system, apolipoproteins, as well as some glycoproteins were found to be highly abundant. After performing a PLS of the expressed proteins, differences between the two sampling points were observed. In this regard, component 1 (61%) was correlated with the effect of sampling time, whereas component 2 (18%) seemed associated to individual variability within diet. Gilthead seabream fed ARG2 and CIT2 at 4 weeks were more distant than fish fed all dietary treatments at 2 weeks and fish fed the CTRL diet at 4 weeks. Therefore, data suggest that the modulatory effects of AA supplementation at the proteome level were more effective after 4 weeks of feeding and at the higher inclusion level (i.e., 1% of feed). The bactericidal activity increased in fish fed the highest supplementation level of both AAs after 4 weeks. Peripheral monocyte numbers correlated positively with nitric oxide, which showed an increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner. The colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor tended to be up-regulated at the final sampling point regardless of dietary treatments. Data from this study point to an immunostimulatory effect of dietary ARG or CIT supplementation after 4 weeks of feeding in the gilthead seabream, particularly when supplemented at a 1% inclusion level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419597PMC
April 2021

Assessment of dietary supplementation with galactomannan oligosaccharides and phytogenics on gut microbiota of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) fed low fishmeal and fish oil based diet.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(4):e0231494. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

There is an increasing interest from the aquafeed industry in functional feeds containing selected additives that improve fish growth performance and health status. Functional feed additives include probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and phytogenics (substances derived from plants and their extracts). This study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of a mucilage extract rich in galactomannan oligosaccharides (GMOS), a mixture of garlic and labiatae-plants oils (PHYTO), and a combination of them (GMOSPHYTO), on gut microbiota composition of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed with a low fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) diet. Three experimental diets and a control diet (plant-based formulation with 10% FM and 6% FO) were tested in a 63-days feeding trial. To analyze the microbiota associated to feeds and the intestinal autochthonous (mucosa-adhered) and allochthonous (transient) microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME2 pipeline were used. Metabarcoding analysis of feed-associated bacteria showed that the microbial communities of control (CTRL) feed deeply differed from those of experimental diets. The number of reads was significantly lower in CTRL feed than in other feeds. The OTU (operational taxonomic unit) number was instead similar between the feeds, ranging from 42 to 50 OTUs. The variation of resident gut microbiota induced by diet was lower than the variation of transient intestinal microbiota, because feedstuffs are a major source of allochthonous bacteria, which can temporarily integrate into the gut transient microbiome. However, the composition of transient bacterial communities was not simply a mirror of feed-borne bacteria. Indeed, the microbial profile of feeds was different from both faecal and mucosa profiles. Our findings suggest that the dietary inclusion of GMOS (0.5%) and PHYTO (0.02%) in a low FM and FO diet induces changes in gut microbiota composition of European sea bass. However, if on allochthonous microbiota the combined inclusion of GMOS and PHYTO showed an antagonistic effect on bactericidal activity against Vibrionales, at mucosa level, only GMOSPHYTO diet increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidales, Lactobacillales, and Clostridiales resident bacterial orders. The main beneficial effects of GMOS and PHYTO on gut microbiota are the reduction of coliforms and Vibrionales bacteria, which include several potentially pathogenic species for fish, and the enrichment of gut microbiota composition with butyrate producer taxa. Therefore, these functional ingredients have a great potential to be used as health-promoting agents in the farming of European sea bass and other marine fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231494PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162502PMC
July 2020

Cash-Based Stem-Cell Clinics: The Modern Day Snake Oil Salesman? A Report of Two Cases of Patients Harmed by Intra-articular Stem Cell Injections.

JBJS Case Connect 2019 Dec;9(4):e0363

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Case: The use of biologics is rapidly expanding. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of cash-based "stem cell"/regenerative medicine clinics in the United States. These clinics provide cash-based services touting stem cell injections to cure a myriad of conditions. Largely, these clinics are unregulated and using injections in a non-Food and Drug Administration-approved manner. We report on 2 patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of septic arthritis following stem cell injections by cash-based local stem cell clinics. Case 1 involved a patient who developed septic arthritis following an injection of umbilical cord blood-derived cellular products (Genentech) and required an antibiotic spacer followed by a total hip arthroplasty. Case 2 involved a patient who developed a likely immune-mediated reaction following an injection of morselized human placental allograft tissue by a local chiropractic office at a cost of approximately $8,000.

Conclusions: We present these cases to bring increased awareness to the issue and call for increased regulation of this practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00363DOI Listing
December 2019

Dietary phytogenics and galactomannan oligosaccharides in low fish meal and fish oil-based diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles: Effects on gut health and implications on in vivo gut bacterial translocation.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(9):e0222063. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), IU-ECOAQUA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Crta. Taliarte s/n, Telde, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain.

European sea bass were fed four low FM/FO (10%/6%) diets containing galactomannan oligosaccharides (GMOS), a mixture of garlic oil and labiatae plants oils (PHYTO), or a combination of both functional products (GMOSPHYTO) for 63 days before exposing the fish to an intestinal Vibrio anguillarum infection combined with crowding stress. In order to evaluate functional diets efficacy in terms of gut health maintenance, structural, cellular, and immune intestinal status were evaluated by optical and electron microscopy and gene expression analyses. A semi-automated software was adapted to determine variations in goblet cell area and mucosal mucus coverage during the challenge test. Feeding with functional diets did not affect growth performance; however, PHYTO and GMOS dietary inclusion reduced European sea bass susceptibility to V. anguillarum after 7 days of challenge testing. Rectum (post-ileorectal valve) showed longer (p = 0.001) folds than posterior gut (pre-ileorectal valve), whereas posterior gut had thicker submucosa (p = 0.001) and higher mucus coverage as a result of an increased cell density than rectum. Functional diets did not affect mucosal fold length or the grade of granulocytes and lymphocytes infiltration in either intestinal segment. However, the posterior gut fold area covered by goblet cells was smaller in fish fed GMOS (F = 14.53; p = 0.001) and PHYTO (F = 5.52; p = 0.019) than for the other diets. PHYTO (F = 3.95; p = 0.049) reduced posterior gut goblet cell size and increased rodlet cell density (F = 3.604; p = 0.068). Dietary GMOS reduced submucosal thickness (F = 51.31; p = 0.001) and increased rodlet cell density (F = 3.604; p = 0.068) in rectum. Structural TEM analyses revealed a normal intestinal morphological pattern, but the use of GMOS increased rectum microvilli length, whereas the use of PHYTO increased (p≤0.10) Ocln, N-Cad and Cad-17 posterior gut gene expression. After bacterial intestinal inoculation, posterior gut of fish fed PHYTO responded in a more controlled and belated way in terms of goblet cell size and mucus coverage in comparison to other treatments. For rectum, the pattern of response was similar for all dietary treatments, however fish fed GMOS maintained goblet cell size along the challenge test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222063PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750610PMC
March 2020

An insight into piscidins: The discovery, modulation and bioactivity of greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, piscidin.

Mol Immunol 2019 10 23;114:378-388. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the innate immune response of vertebrates by creating a hostile environment for any invading pathogens. Piscidins are potent teleost specific AMPs, which have a broad spectrum activity. We have identified a novel piscidin active peptide, in the greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, that consists of 25 aa, which forms an amphipathic helix with distinct hydrophobic and positively charged regions. Following homology and phylogenetic analysis the greater amberjack piscidin was deemed to belong to the group 3 family of piscidins. Piscidin was expressed constitutively at immune sites, with transcript level highest in the spleen and gut, at an intermediate level in the gills and lowest in the head kidney. Following in vivo stimulation with PAMPs (poly I:C, LPS and flagellin) piscidin transcript level increased in gills in response to flagellin, in gut and spleen in response to poly I:C, and in head kidney in response to poly I:C, LPS and flagellin. Head kidney and spleen cells were then isolated from greater amberjack and incubated with each of the PAMPs for 4, 12 and 24 h. Piscidin expression was unchanged at 4 and 12 h post PAMP stimulation in head kidney cells but at 24 h transcript level was markedly upregulated compared to control (unstimulated) cells, especially with the bacterial PAMPs. In contrast, spleen cells upregulated piscidin expression by 4 h post stimulation with poly I:C and flagellin, and remained upregulated to 24 h with flagellin exposure, but had returned to baseline levels by 12 h using poly I:C. To determine if piscidin expression could be modulated by diet, greater amberjack were fed diets supplemented with MOS and cMOS for 30 days when transcript level was determined. It was found that MOS supplemented diets increased expression in the spleen, cMOS supplemented diets upregulated transcript levels in the gills and head kidney, whilst a diet containing both MOS and cMOS upregulated transcript in the gut, when compared to fish fed the control diet. Finally, a synthetic greater amberjack piscidin was produced and showed bacteriostatic activity against a number of bacterial strains, including both Gram positive and Gram negative fish pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2019.08.005DOI Listing
October 2019

Long-chain PUFA profiles in parental diets induce long-term effects on growth, fatty acid profiles, expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 and selected immune system-related genes in the offspring of gilthead seabream.

Br J Nutr 2019 07 3;122(1):25-38. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Aquaculture Research Group (GIA), University Institute of Aquaculture and Sustainable Marine Ecosystems (IU-ECOAQUA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Crta. Taliarte s/n, 35214 Telde, Spain.

The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile's diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519000977DOI Listing
July 2019

Key nutritional factors and interactions during larval development of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca).

Sci Rep 2019 05 8;9(1):7074. Epub 2019 May 8.

Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), Institute of Life, Earth & Environment (ILEE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles, 61-5000, Namur, Belgium.

The effects of 8 nutritional variables (Ca/P, Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) + Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n - 3) (EPA + DHA), Arachidonic acid (20:4n - 6) (ARA), Se, vitamins E, C, D and A) were investigated to identify their respective importance and interactions in pikeperch larval development. In this respect, two modalities (low and high levels) of each variable were tested through a fractional factorial experimental design allowing a reduction from 256 (2) to 16 (2) experimental units. Survival was significantly higher in larvae fed a high Ca/P diet while larval growth was significantly lower in larvae fed the same diet variant, associated with a higher incidence of kyphosis and pectoral anomalies in these larvae. Lordosis and scoliosis seemed to be mostly affected by dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). A significant interaction was shown between n-3 LC-PUFA and vitamin C on jaw anomalies, while myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (mef2c) gene expression correlated positively with dietary vitamin C increment. Results also demonstrated an effect of the different nutrients and their interactions on the activity levels of digestive enzymatic activities. The results of the present study highlight the importance of the interactions between Ca/P, LC-PUFAs and vitamins C and E, suggesting their essential roles as key nutritional factors influencing pikeperch larval development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43491-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506547PMC
May 2019

Welcome to ISFSI2019.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 07 30;90:274. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Instituto Universitario ECOAQUA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Parque Científico Tecnológico Marino, Muelle de Taliarte s/n, Telde, 35200 Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.068DOI Listing
July 2019

Increased parasite resistance of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili Risso 1810) juveniles fed a cMOS supplemented diet is associated with upregulation of a discrete set of immune genes in mucosal tissues.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Mar 16;86:35-45. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Instituto Universitario Ecoaqua, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Crta. Taliarte s/n, 35214, Telde, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain.

The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of two forms of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS: Bio-Mos and cMOS: Actigen, Alltech Inc, USA) and their combination on greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) growth performance and feed efficiency, immune parameters and resistance against ectoparasite (Neobenedenia girellae) infection. Fish were fed for 90 days with 5 g kg MOS, 2 g kg cMOS or a combination of both prebiotics, in a Seriola commercial base diet (Skretting, Norway). At the end of the feeding period, no differences were found in growth performance or feed efficiency. Inclusion of MOS also had no effect on lysozyme activity in skin mucus and serum, but the supplementation of diets with cMOS induced a significant increase of serum bactericidal activity. Dietary cMOS also reduced significantly greater amberjack skin parasite levels, parasite total length and the number of parasites detected per unit of fish surface following a cohabitation challenge with N. girellae, whereas no effect of MOS was detected on these parameters. Of 17 immune genes studied cMOS dietary inclusion up-regulated hepcidin, defensin, Mx protein, interferon-γ (IFNγ), mucin-2 (MUC-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1B), IL-10 and immunoglobulin-T (IgT) gene expression in gills and/or skin. MOS supplementation had a larger impact on spleen and head kidney gene expression, where piscidin, defensin, iNOS, Mx protein, interferons, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-22 were all upregulated. In posterior gut dietary MOS and cMOS both induced IL-10, IgM and IgT, but with MOS also increasing piscidin, MUC-2, and IL-1β whilst cMOS induced hepcidin, defensin and IFNγ. In general, the combination of MOS and cMOS resulted in fewer or lower increases in all tissues, possibly due to an overstimulation effect. The utilization of cMOS at the dose used here has clear benefits on parasite resistance in greater amberjack, linked to upregulation of a discrete set of immune genes in mucosal tissues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.10.034DOI Listing
March 2019

Reduction of persistent and semi-persistent organic pollutants in fillets of farmed European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed low fish oil diets.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;643:1239-1247. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Spain. Electronic address:

Traditionally, a major part of aquaculture technology requires fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) to produce the aquafeed for farmed species. FO is the main source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish feed. In recent years, the use of vegetable-origin ingredients in fish feeds has been increasingly studied as an alternative to reduce the levels of these lipophilic pollutants in farmed species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of dietary vegetable oils in the farming of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) on the contents in persistent - polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) - and semi persistent pollutants - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) - of their edible parts. A total of 60 seabass muscle pools were obtained from fish farmed employing six experimental diets, which contained different percentages of FO (6 vs. 3%) and FM (20%, 10% and 5%). We did not observe differences in the contamination level of seabass muscle in relation to the percentage of FM in their diet. However, the fish farmed using feed which had lower levels of FO (3%) showed significantly lower muscle levels of ΣPCBs and carcinogenic PAHs (Σc-PAHs), with a reduction of 25.6% and 95.11% (respectively), as compared with those fished raised with feed with higher levels of FO (6%). Also much lower levels were found in OCPs such as sum of DDTs (30.88% of reduction), sum of chlordanes (42.85% of reduction), and sum of BDEs (48.16% of reduction) in those seabass fed with a lower percentage of FO. The results of this study indicate that the use of alternative feed ingredients that allow the employment of low percentage of FO in feeds help to reduce the load of several toxic pollutants in the fillets of European seabass.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.223DOI Listing
December 2018

Snapping Pes Anserinus and the Diagnostic Utility of Dynamic Ultrasound.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2017 17;7:39. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.

Snapping pes anserinus syndrome is an often encountered cause of medial knee snapping. It results from impingement and translation of the gracilis tendon or semitendinosus tendon over the osseous structures of the knee during active flexion and extension. Ultrasonography is often the diagnostic imaging test of choice in cases of mechanical snapping. We report 2 cases of painful snapping pes anserinus and highlight the value of dynamic ultrasound in making an accurate diagnosis so as to direct care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcis.JCIS_45_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5672657PMC
October 2017

Parental nutritional programming and a reminder during juvenile stage affect growth, lipid metabolism and utilisation in later developmental stages of a marine teleost, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

Br J Nutr 2017 Oct 2;118(7):500-512. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Aquaculture Research Group (GIA),Research Institute in Sustainable Aquaculture and Marine Conservation (IU-ECOAQUA),Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,Crta. Taliarte s/n,35214 Telde,Spain.

Nutrition during periconception and early development can modulate metabolic routes to prepare the offspring for adverse conditions through a process known as nutritional programming. In gilthead sea bream, replacement of fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) in broodstock diets improves growth in the 4-month-old offspring challenged with low-FO and low-fishmeal (FM) diets for 1 month. The present study further investigated the effects of broodstock feeding on the same offspring when they were 16 months old and were challenged for a second time with the low-FM and low-FO diet for 2 months. The results showed that replacement of parental moderate-FO feeding with LO, combined with juvenile feeding at 4 months old with low-FM and low-FO diets, significantly (P<0·05) improved offspring growth and feed utilisation of low-FM/FO diets even when they were 16 months old: that is, when they were on the verge of their first reproductive season. Liver fatty acid composition was significantly affected by broodstock or reminder diets as well as by their interaction. Moreover, the reduction of long-chain PUFA and increase in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in broodstock diets lead to a significant down-regulation of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (P<0·001) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 6 (P<0·01). Besides, fatty acid desaturase 2 values were positively correlated to hepatic levels of 18 : 4n-3, 18 : 3n-6, 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and 22 : 5n-6. Thus, this study demonstrated the long-term nutritional programming of gilthead sea bream through broodstock feeding, the effect of feeding a 'reminder' diet during juvenile stages to improve utilisation of low-FM/FO diets and fish growth as well as the regulation of gene expression along the fish's life-cycle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517002434DOI Listing
October 2017

Effects of thermal stress on the expression of glucocorticoid receptor complex linked genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): Acute and adaptive stress responses.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 10 23;252:173-185. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Instituto Ecoaqua, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Parque científico Tecnológico Marino, Carretera de Taliarte s/n. Telde, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain. Electronic address:

The present study examined the short and mid-term effects of a rise in temperature from 18°C to 24°C on the expression of genes related to the stress response regulation in juveniles of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. The animals were exposed to a temperature increase of 6°C, after 1month of acclimation at 18°C. After this process, samples of different tissues were collected from a total of 96 fish at four sampling points: 1h, 24h, 3days and 1week. The transcript levels of a set of genes involved in the stress response such as glucocorticoid receptors 1 and 2, corticotrophin-releasing factor, corticotrophin-releasing factor binding proteins, proopiomelanocortin A and B, and cellular stress defense (heat shock protein 70, 90AA and 90AB) were quantified at these sampling points. Additionally, blood samples were also taken to measure the circulating plasma cortisol concentration. Thermal stress induced by increasing temperature prompted an elevation of plasma cortisol levels in juvenile Senegalese sole after 1h as a short-term response, and a consecutive increase after one week, as a mid-term response. Senegalese sole seemed to respond positively in terms of adaptive mechanisms, with a rapid over-expression of grs and hsps in liver and brain, significantly higher after one hour post stress, denoting the fast and acute response of those tissues to a rapid change on temperature. The ratio hsp90/gr also increased 24h after thermal shock, ratio proposed to be an adaptive mechanism to prevent proteosomal degradation of GR. As a mid-term response, the elevation of brain crfbp gene expression one week after thermal shock could be an adaptive mechanism of negative feedback on HPI axis. Taken together, these data suggested an initial up-regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor complex linked genes in response to a temperature increase in Senegalese sole, with heat shock protein 90 potentially being a regulatory factor for the glucocorticoid receptor in the presence of cortisol.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2017.06.022DOI Listing
October 2017

Comparative analysis of selected semi-persistent and emerging pollutants in wild-caught fish and aquaculture associated fish using Bogue (Boops boops) as sentinel species.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Mar 30;581-582:199-208. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Paseo Blas Cabrera Felipe s/n, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain; Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Paseo Blas Cabrera Felipe s/n, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain. Electronic address:

The marine environment acts as a sink for diverse anthropogenic pollutants, although the environmental contamination may be non-uniformly distributed. In recent decades, the aquaculture sector has experienced a steady growth postulating as a good alternative for seafood production. However, a social debate exits about the differential level of pollutants in wild and farmed species. This study was designed to evaluate the level of pollutants in a sentinel species: Bogue (Boops boops) associated and non-associated to fish-farm cages. A total of 82 chemical substances were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including persistent (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)), semi-persistent (bromodiphenyl ethers (BDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), and emerging pollutants (such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and UV-filters). In general, aquaculture-associated bogues showed lower levels of semi-persistent and emerging pollutants than wild-caught fish, especially when sums were considered. Thus, sum of BDEs was significantly lower in the aquaculture group (p=0.01). A similar trend was also observed for benzo(a)anthracene, the UV-filter 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate and some OPFRs. In the case of persistent pollutants, the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and sum of DDTs were lower in the group of wild-caught bogues (p=0.034 and p=0.003, respectively) than in aquaculture-associated bogues, as previously described for some aquaculture species. Fish feed appear as an important factor in the uptake of such substances suggesting a diet intervention to reduce their levels in the aquaculture products. Another interesting result is that for almost all chemical substances analyzed, bogues captured near sewage outfalls showed the highest levels of pollutants, pointing out the need of stringent measures for wastewater treatment units discharging in coastal areas. On the light of these results, further research in specific farmed and wild fish species in relation to their dietary value and pollutant's levels seems to be mandatory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.107DOI Listing
March 2017

Creation of a 3-dimensional virtual dental patient for computer-guided surgery and CAD-CAM interim complete removable and fixed dental prostheses: A clinical report.

J Prosthet Dent 2017 Feb 22;117(2):197-204. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Associate Professor, Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Health and Rehabilitation, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Louisville, Ky. Electronic address:

This clinical report proposes a digital workflow using 2-dimensional (2D) digital photographs, a 3D extraoral facial scan, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumetric data to create a 3D virtual patient with craniofacial hard tissue, remaining dentition (including surrounding intraoral soft tissue), and the realistic appearance of facial soft tissue at an exaggerated smile under static conditions. The 3D virtual patient was used to assist the virtual diagnostic tooth arrangement process, providing patient with a pleasing preoperative virtual smile design that harmonized with facial features. The 3D virtual patient was also used to gain patient's pretreatment approval (as a communication tool), design a prosthetically driven surgical plan for computer-guided implant surgery, and fabricate the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) interim prostheses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2016.06.012DOI Listing
February 2017

Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2016 Sep 1;88(3):1191-200. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Givaudan do Brasil Ltda, Av. Engenheiro Billings, 2185, Jaguaré, 05321-010 São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.). Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata), geraniol (P. quadrangularis), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis), benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata) and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620150285DOI Listing
September 2016

Co-existent Acquired Haemophilia and Lupus Anticoagulant. A Thorny Issue.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2016 Jun 22;32(Suppl 1):248. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Haemostasis & Thrombosis Centre, St George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-015-0572-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4925514PMC
June 2016

Synthetic hepcidin from fish: Uptake and protection against Vibrio anguillarum in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2016 Aug 29;55:662-70. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Grupo de Marcadores Inmunológicos, Laboratorio de Genética e Inmunología Molecular, Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile. Electronic address:

The generation of a variety of new therapeutic agents to control and reduce the effects of pathogen in aquaculture is urgently needed. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the major components of the innate defenses and typically have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, absorption and distributions of exogenous AMPs for therapeutics application on farmed fish species need to be studied. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown the properties of hepcidin as an effective antimicrobial peptide produced in fish in response to LPS and iron. Therefore, we decided to investigate the antimicrobial activity of four synthetic variants of hepcidin against Vibrio anguillarum in vitro, and using the more effective peptide we demonstrated the pathogen's ability to protect against the infection in European Sea bass. Additionally the uptake of this peptide after ip injection was demonstrated, reaching its distribution organs such as intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The synthetic peptide did not show cytotoxic effects and significantly reduced the accumulated mortalities percentage (23.5%) compared to the European Sea bass control (72.5%) at day 21. In conclusion, synthetic hepcidin shows antimicrobial activity against V. anguillarum and the in vivo experiments suggest that synthetic hepcidin was distributed trough the different organs in the fish. Thus, synthetic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide could have high potential for therapeutic application in farmed fish species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.06.035DOI Listing
August 2016

Osteoporosis: What about men?

J Fam Pract 2015 Sep;64(9):542-52

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Men sustain up to 40% of osteoporotic fractures, with potentially fatal results. But because osteoporosis is largely viewed as a women's disease, its presence in men is often missed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2015

Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Front Immunol 2015 5;6:397. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4525062PMC
August 2015

Modulation of the Expression of Components of the Stress Response by Dietary Arachidonic Acid in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Larvae.

Lipids 2015 Oct 2;50(10):1029-41. Epub 2015 Aug 2.

Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Parque Científico Tecnológico Marino de Taliarte, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Muelle de Taliarte s/n, Telde, 35214, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain.

This study reports for the first time on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), larvae, the effect of different levels of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6) on the expression of genes related to the fish stress response. Copies of mRNA from genes related to steroidogenesis [StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), c-Fos, and CYP11β (11β-hydroxylase gene)], glucocorticoid receptor complex [GR (glucocorticoid receptor) and HSP (heat shock proteins) 70 and 90) and antioxidative stress (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase] were quantified. Eighteen day-old larvae were fed for 14 days with three experimental diets with increasing levels of ARA (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2% d.w.) and similar levels of docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) acids (5 and 3%, respectively). The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real time RT-PCR with the standard curve method (absolute quantification). Increase dietary levels of ARA induced a significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulation of genes related to cortisol synthesis, such as StAR and CYP11β and up-regulated genes related to glucocorticoid receptor complex, such as HSP70 and GR. No effects were observed on antioxidant enzymes gene expression. These results revealed the regulatory role of dietary ARA on the expression of stress-related genes in European sea bass larvae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4057-1DOI Listing
October 2015

Modulation of adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH)-induced expression of stress-related genes by PUFA in inter-renal cells from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

J Nutr Sci 2015 4;4:e16. Epub 2015 May 4.

Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC) , Grupo de Investigación en acuicultura (GIA) , Instituto Universitario de Sanidad Animal y Seguridad Alimentaria (IUSA) , c/ Transmontaña , s/n , 35413 , Arucas , Las Palmas , Canary Islands , Spain.

Dietary fatty acids have been shown to exert a clear effect on the stress response, modulating the release of cortisol. The role of fatty acids on the expression of steroidogenic genes has been described in mammals, but little is known in fish. The effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol and expression of stress-related genes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head kidney, induced by a pulse of adenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), was studied. Tissue was maintained in superfusion with 60 min of incubation with EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid (ARA), linoleic acid or α-linolenic acid (ALA) during 490 min. Cortisol was measured by RIA. The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. There was an effect of the type of fatty acid on the ACTH-induced release of cortisol, values from ALA treatment being elevated within all of the experimental period. The expression of some steroidogenic genes, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-fos, were affected by fatty acids, ALA increasing the expression of StAR after 1 h of ACTH stimulation whereas DHA, ARA and ALA increased the expression of c-fos after 20 min. ARA increased expression of the 11β-hydroxylase gene. Expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was increased in all the experimental treatments except for ARA. Results corroborate previous studies of the effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol in marine fish and demonstrate that those effects are mediated by alteration of the expression of steroidogenic genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2015.6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463938PMC
June 2015

Dietary vegetable oils: effects on the expression of immune-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) intestine.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2015 May 2;44(1):100-8. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Junta de Andalucía, Camino Tiro de pichón S/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María, Cádiz, Spain.

The decreased availability of fish oil, traditionally used as oil source in marine aquafeeds, has lead to the search for alternatives oils. Vegetable oils (VO) are being extensively used as lipid sources in marine fish diets, inducing an imbalance on certain dietary fatty acids. Alteration on the dietary ratio of w-6/w-3 has been described to have detrimental effects on fish immunity. Senegalese sole has high susceptibility to stress and diseases, and little is known on the effects of dietary VO on its immunity. In this study, Senegalese sole juveniles were fed diets (56% crude protein, 12% crude lipid) containing linseed (100LO), soybean (100SO) or fish (100FO) oils as unique oil source. Growth, cortisol and intestinal fatty acid composition were determined after 90 days. Moreover, at the final of the experiment a stress test (5 min of net chasing) was carried out. To evaluate the effect of diets and stress on intestine immunology, expression profiles of a set of 53 immune-related genes using RT-qPCR was also performed. The use of VO did not induced changes in fish growth, but affected fatty acid profile of intestine and expression of immune-related genes. The use of SO (rich in n-6 fatty acids) induced an over-expression of those genes related to complement pathway, recognizing pathogen associated to molecular patterns, defensive response against bacteria, defensive response against viruses, antigen differentiation, cytokines and their receptors. This general over-expression could indicate an activation of inflammatory processes in fish gut. When a stress was applied, a decrease of mRNA levels of different immune-related genes with respect to the unstressed control could be observed in fish fed 100FO. However, fish fed 100LO, with a higher ALA/LA ratio, seemed to ameliorate the effects of combined effects of FO substitution plus stressful situation whereas fish fed 100SO did not show this type of response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2015.01.020DOI Listing
May 2015
-->