Publications by authors named "Daniel L Davenport"

138 Publications

The Influence of the Opioid Epidemic on Firearm Violence in Kentucky Counties.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 6;264:186-193. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Surgery, Division of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. Electronic address:

Background: The opioid crisis is a major public health emergency. Current data likely underestimate the full impact on mortality due to limitations in reporting and toxicology screening. We explored the relationship between opioid overdose and firearm-associated emergency department visits (ODED & FAED, respectively).

Methods: For the years 2010 to 2017, we analyzed county-level ODED and FAED visits in Kentucky using Office of Health Policy and US Census Bureau data. Firearm death certificate data were analyzed along with high-dose prescriptions from the Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting records. Socioeconomic variables analyzed included health insurance coverage, race, median household earnings, unemployment rate, and high-school graduation rate.

Results: ODED and FAED visits were correlated (Rho = 0.29, P< 0.01) and both increased over the study period, remarkably so after 2013 (P < 0.001). FAED visits were higher in rural compared to metro counties (P < 0.001), while ODED visits were not. In multivariable analysis, FAED visits were associated with ODED visits (Std. B = 0.24, P= 0.001), high-dose prescriptions (0.21, P = 0.008), rural status (0.19, P = 0.012), percentage white race (-0.28, P = 0.012), and percentage high school graduates (-0.68, P < 0.001). Unemployment and earnings were bivariate correlates with FAED visits (Rho = 0.42, P < 0.001 and -0.32, P < 0.001, respectively) but were not significant in the multivariable model.

Conclusions: In addition to recognized nonfatal consequences of the opioid crisis, firearm violence appears to be a corollary impact, particularly in rural counties. Firearm injury prevention efforts should consider the contribution of opioid use and abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.02.011DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of Prehospital Step 1 Vital Sign Criteria and Vital Sign Decline with Increased Emergency Department and Hospital Death.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Apr 19;232(4):572-579. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

University of Kentucky and the Division of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma, and Critical Care, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY. Electronic address:

Background: This study analyzed data from the 2017 American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank to examine the effects of pre-hospital Field Triage Decision Scheme Step 1 vital sign criteria (S1C) and vital sign decline on subsequent emergency department (ED) and hospital death in emergency medical services (EMS) transported trauma victims.

Study Design: Patient and injury characteristics, transport time, and ED and hospital disposition were collected. S1C (respiratory rate [RR]<10, RR>29 breaths/min, systolic blood pressure [SBP]<90 mmHg, Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS]<14) were recorded at the injury scene and hospital arrival. Decline was defined as a change ≥ 1 standard deviation (SD) into or within an S1C range. S1C and decline were analyzed relative to ED and hospital death using logistic regression.

Results: Of 333,213 included patients, 54,849 (16.5%) met Step 1 criteria at the scene, and 21,566 (6.9%) declined en route. The ED death rate was 0.4% (n = 1,188), and the hospital death/hospice rate was 4.0% (11,624 of 287,675). Patients who met S1C at the scene or who declined were more likely to require longer hospital lengths of stay, ICU admission, and surgical intervention. S1C and decline patients had higher odds of death in both the ED (S1C odds ratio [OR] 15.1, decline OR 2.4, p values < 0.001) and hospital (S1C OR 4.8, decline OR 2.0, p values < 0.001) after adjusting for patient demographics, transport time and mode, injury severity, and injury mechanism. Each S1C and decline measure was independently predictive of death.

Conclusions: This study quantifies the mortality risks associated with individual S1C and validates their use as an indicator for injury severity and pre-hospital triage tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.12.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Naloxone Continuous Infusion for Spinal Cord Protection in Endovascular Aortic Surgery Leads to Higher Opioid Administration and More Pain.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Apr 24;35(4):1143-1148. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Lexington, KY.

Objective: Compare total perioperative opioid use in patients receiving naloxone continuousinfusion (NCI) for spinal cord ischemia prophylaxis, versus patients not receiving NCI, in endovascular aortic repair.

Design: Single-center, retrospective cohort review.

Setting: Academic medical center.

Participants: Patients undergoing elective thoracic, thoracoabdominal, or abdominal aortic endovascular repair.

Interventions: Patients were separated based on the use of naloxone continuous infusion as part of a spinal protection protocol. Primary endpoint was opioid requirements, in milligram morphine equivalents (MME), during the first 48 hours or during NCI. Secondary endpoints included: postoperative pain scores during the same interval; opioid requirements during hours 48 to 72; and pain scores during hours 48 to 72.

Measurements And Main Results: Ninety-five procedures were included; 43 received naloxone continuous infusion and 52 patients were in the non-naloxone group. Opioid use from a linear mixed model was elevated across the entire continuum in the naloxone group (18 MMEs, 95% CI 13-24), with the greatest difference seen at the 24-to-48-hour interval (51 MMEs, 95% CI 26-75) after adjustment for age, incisions, and prehospital opioid use. In the naloxone group, pain score estimates were elevated at each postoperative interval of evaluation, with similar adjustment. Across the continuum this was 0.7 higher (95% CI 0.2-1.3); the zero-six-hour and six-to-12-hour intervals were 0.9 (95% CI 0.4-1.4) and 1.2 higher (95% CI 0.7-1.7).

Conclusions: Patients receiving anloxone continuous infusion to prevent spinal cord ischemia required greater quantities of opioids and had higher postoperative pain, compared with patients not requiring naloxone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.11.043DOI Listing
April 2021

Preoperative opioid, sedative, and antidepressant use is associated with increased postoperative hospital costs in colorectal surgery.

Surg Endosc 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Opioid (OPD), sedative (SDT), and antidepressant (ADM) prescribing has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. This study evaluated preoperative OPD, SDT, and ADM use on hospital costs in patients undergoing colorectal resection at a single institution.

Methods: This study was a retrospective record review. The local ACS-NSQIP database was queried for adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing open/laparoscopic, partial/total colectomy, or proctectomy from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016. Individual patient medical records were reviewed to determine preoperative OPD, SDT, and AD use. Hospital cost data from index admission were captured by the hospital cost accounting system and matched to NSQIP query-identified cases. All ACS-NSQIP categorical patient characteristic, operative risk, and outcome variables were compared in medication groups using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests, and continuous variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests.

Results: A total of 1185 colorectal procedures were performed by 30 different surgeons. Of these, 27.6% patients took OPD, 18.5% SDT, and 27.8% ADM preoperatively. Patients taking OPD, SDT, and ADM were found to have increased mean total hospital costs (MTHC) compared to non-users (30.8 vs 23.6 for OPD, 31.6 vs 24.4 for SDT, and 30.7 vs 23.8 for ADM). OPD and SDT use were identified as independent risk factors for increased MTHC on multivariable analysis.

Conclusion: Preoperative OPD and SDT use can be used to predict increased MTHC in patients undergoing colorectal resections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08062-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545805PMC
October 2020

Is supplemental regional anesthesia associated with more complications and readmissions after ankle fracture surgery in the inpatient and outpatient setting?

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Aug 14. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: There is concern that regional anesthesia is associated with increased risk of complications, including return to the hospital for uncontrolled pain once the regional anesthetic wears off.

Methods: Retrospective database review of patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of a closed ankle fracture from 2014-16 who received general anesthesia alone (GA) or general anesthesia plus regional anesthesia (RA).

Results: 9459 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients in the RA group had significantly longer operative duration in both inpatient (GAI=71min vs RAI=79min, p=0.002) and outpatient setting (GAO=66min vs RAI=72min, p<0.001), lower overall LOS (GA=1.7 days vs RA=1.1 days, p<0.001), and higher readmission rate for pain (RAO=4 [0.3%] vs GAO=1 [0.0%], p=0.007).

Conclusions: Patients who received supplemental regional anesthesia had shorter hospital LOS, increased operative time, and increased readmission rates for rebound pain. However, the small number of patients needing readmission are not clinically significant demonstrating that regional anesthesia is safe, effective and readmission for rebound pain should not be a concern.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2020.07.015DOI Listing
August 2020

Ventral hernia patient outcomes postoperatively housed on surgical vs non-surgical units.

Surg Endosc 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Division of General Surgery, University of Kentucky Department of Surgery, UK HealthCare, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Inpatient hospital units vary in staffing ratios, monitoring, procedural abilities, and experience with unique patients and diagnoses. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of patient cohorting upon ventral hernia repair outcomes.

Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective review of open ventral hernia repairs between August 2013 and July 2017 was performed. The information of all patient locations during hospitalization, time at location, post-anesthesia care unit duration (PACU), and intensive care unit (ICU) duration was collected. Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative details, cost, and patient outcomes were analyzed. Multivariable analysis of log length of stay (LOS) was assessed with adjustment for clinical and operative factors.

Results: 235 patients underwent open ventral hernia repair. 179 patients were admitted to surgical units, 33 non-surgical units, and 23 stayed on both units. Clinical characteristics including patient age, gender, BMI, and medical comorbidities were similar between patients boarded on surgical versus non-surgical units. Hernia, wound, and operative data were also statistically similar. Patients admitted to non-surgical units for any duration experienced longer hospital stay (4 vs. 6 days, p < 0.001). Patients housed on a non-surgical unit were more likely to transfer rooms than patients on surgical units, 42.9% vs. 10.1% (p < 0.001), respectively. Multivariable analysis of natural log-transformed LOS showed any stay on a non-surgical unit increased LOS by 1.0 days (95% Cl 0.9-1.2 days, p = 0.026). There were no differences in ICU or PACU stay, cost, or postoperative complications in patients housed on surgical versus non-surgical units.

Conclusions: Postoperative surgical patients had an increased length of stay when admitted to non-surgical units. More frequent room transfers occurred in patients admitted to non-surgical units. Evaluation of patient outcomes and LOS in open ventral hernia repair patients based on hospital unit is unique to this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07829-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384391PMC
July 2020

Preoperative opioid use and incidence of surgical site infection after repair of ventral and incisional hernias.

Surgery 2020 11 18;168(5):921-925. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

University of Kentucky, Division of General Surgery, Lexington, KY. Electronic address:

Background: Preoperative opioid use is a risk factor for complications after some surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of preoperative opiates on outcomes after ventral hernia repair.

Methods: With institutional review board approval, we conducted a retrospective review of consecutive ventral hernia repair cases during a 4-y period.

Results: A striking 48% of the total 234 patients met criteria for preoperative opioid use. Preoperative characteristics and operative details were similar between patient groups (preoperative opioid use versus no preoperative opioid use). Median duration of hospital stay trended toward an increase for opioid users versus nonopioid users (P = .06). Return of bowel function was delayed in opioid users compared with nonopioid users (P = .018). Incidence of superficial surgical site infection was increased among patients who used opioids preoperatively (27% vs 8.3%; P <.001) and remained so after multivariable logistic regression, (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2-6.7; P = .013).

Conclusion: Among patients undergoing ventral hernia repair, those with preoperative opioid use experienced an increased incidence of superficial surgical site infection compared with patients without preoperative opioid use. Further study is needed to understand the relationship between opioid use and surgical site infection after ventral hernia repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.05.048DOI Listing
November 2020

Trends in the Surgical Management of Lower Extremity Gustilo Type IIIB/IIIC Injuries.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 07;146(1):183-189

From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and the Departments of Biostatistics and Surgery, University of Kentucky.

Background: Over the past 20 years, innovations in microsurgical technique have coincided with advances in orthoplastic approaches. However, no single algorithm exists to guide management of limb salvage versus amputation. As such, one would expect these procedures to be performed at equal rates given studies showing similar outcomes. Anecdotally, the observation at the authors' institution is that amputations are being performed more frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine trends in lower extremity trauma management.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a Level I trauma center on patients with Gustilo type IIIB/IIIC lower extremity trauma from 2005 to 2014. Overall, 148 patients were included. Patients were subdivided into amputation (n = 69) and reconstruction (n = 79) cohorts. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to compare trends in amputation and reconstruction groups. Plastic surgery consultation data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests and the Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results: Amputation was performed more frequently over the study period (r = 0.292; p < 0.001). Plastic surgeons were consulted in 67.5 percent of cases. A plastic surgery consultation was obtained in only 30 percent of amputation cases (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Although the data show a trend toward amputation and a shift in management of lower extremity trauma, the observed trend may be attributable in part to deviation from an orthoplastic approach to lower extremity trauma. However, lower extremity reconstruction remains a viable option in select patients, and advances in microsurgery can provide excellent outcomes in the face of severe lower extremity trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006912DOI Listing
July 2020

The effect of emergency medical system transport time on in route clinical decline in a rural system.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 06;88(6):734-741

From the Department of General Surgery (T.R.K., M.J.B., D.L.D., A.C.B.), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: The emergency medical system (EMS) Field Triage Decision Scheme (FTDS) exists to direct certain injured patients to high-level care facilities. In rural states, this may require long transport durations, with uncertainty about the effects on clinical decline. We investigate adherence to the FTDS and the effect of transport duration on clinical decline in helicopter emergency medical system (HEMS) and ground emergency medical system (GEMS) transport in the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

Methods: This institutional review board-approved study retrospectively analyzed deidentified data from the 2017 National EMS Information System for Kentucky. Patients were classified using step 1 FTDS criteria (respiratory rate [RR], <10 or >29 breaths per minute; systolic blood pressure (SBP), <90 mm Hg; or Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score, <14 points), by mode of transport (HEMS or GEMS), and by arrival at an appropriate center (levels I-III trauma center). Clinical decline was defined in both groups as an in route decrease in GCS of 2 points or greater, a SBP decrease of 1 SD or greater into or within the low range, an RR increase of 1 SD or greater into or within the high range, or an RR decrease of 1 SD or greater into or within the low range.

Results: Almost half (46.3%) of step 1 patients were transported to an inappropriate center; the most common reason recorded was "closest facility" (57.8%). The percent of step 1 patients who declined in route increased with prehospital time in both HEMS and GEMS (p < 0.001). Overall, 12.2% of step 1 patients declined during transport, most commonly because of decreasing GCS (median change, -5 points; interquartile range, -3 to -9, in GCS declining patients). Helicopter EMS patients were more likely to meet step 1 criteria at the scene (29.9% vs. 5.8% GEMS, p < 0.001) and to decline (27.8% vs. 6.1% GEMS, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in a rural state, injured patients meeting FTDS step 1 criteria reach levels I to III trauma centers only about half the time. The FTDS step 1 criteria identified patients at higher risk of further prehospital clinical decline. Rather than decline after 1 hour, these data show that an increasing proportion of patients experience clinical decline throughout prehospital transport.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002675DOI Listing
June 2020

Detailed perioperative risk among patients with extreme obesity undergoing nonbariatric general surgery.

Surgery 2020 09 15;168(3):462-470. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Surgery-Division of Transplantation, University of Kentucky, College of Medicine, Lexington, KY.

Background: The obesity epidemic has spread rapidly across the United States. Although overweight and obese patients have a paradoxically lower risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality, the risks associated with extreme classes of obesity (morbid obesity, super obesity, and super-super obesity) have not been described.

Methods: We queried the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2012 to 2016. Of 1,815,251 surgical cases, there were 3,946 vascular cases, 237,777 emergency procedures, and 75,177 cases with missing data that were removed. The remaining 1,378,711 cases were included in this analysis. Multivariable linear and logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of body mass index on postoperative outcomes.

Results: Patients within the super obesity and super-super obesity groups had the highest procedure-adjusted mortality risk among all body mass index classes (odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.63, respectively). Morbid obesity and underweight groups had moderate risk (odds ratio = 1.37 and 1.88, respectively), while those in the overweight and obesity class I and II cohorts had improved or equivocal mortality risk compared to normal body mass index class patients. Risk-adjusted and unadjusted multivariable models demonstrated that extreme obesity classes (morbid obesity, super obesity, and super-super obesity) have a graduated escalation of perioperative morbidity, infectious, and critical care complications.

Conclusion: Further detailing extreme obesity-related risk beyond the obesity class III umbrella is necessary for accurate risk prediction, especially with the rising prevalence of elective nonbariatric surgery in this population. Preoperative risk assessment tools should consider subgroup risk adjustment to delineate true postoperative complication risk, facilitate patient education, and address modifiable risk factors before surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.03.016DOI Listing
September 2020

Validation of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading system for acute mesenteric ischemia-More than anatomic severity is needed to determine risk of mortality.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 05;88(5):671-676

From the University of Kentucky, College of Medicine (M.E.S.), and Department of Surgery (D.L.D., P.W., A.C.B.), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a highly morbid disease with a diverse etiology. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) proposed disease-specific grading scales intended to quantify severity based upon clinical, imaging, operative, and pathology findings. This grading scale has not been yet been validated for AMI. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the grading scale and complication severity.

Methods: Patients for this single center retrospective chart review were identified using diagnosis codes for AMI (ICD10-K55.0, ICD9-557.0). Inpatients >17 years old from the years 2008 to 2015 were included. The AAST grades (1-5) were assigned after review of clinical, imaging (computed tomography), operative and pathology findings. Two raters applied the scales independently after dialog with consensus on a learning set of cases. Mortality and Clavien-Dindo complication severity were recorded.

Results: A total of 221 patients were analyzed. Overall grade was only weakly correlated with Clavien-Dindo complication severity (rho = 0.27) and mortality (rho = 0.21). Computed tomography, pathology, and clinical grades did not correlate with mortality or outcome severity. There was poor interrater agreement between overall grade. A mortality prediction model of operative grade, use of vasopressors, preoperative serum creatinine and lactate levels showed excellent discrimination (c-index = 0.93).

Conclusion: In contrast to early application of other AAST disease severity scales, the AMI grading scale as published is not well correlated with outcome severity. The AAST operative grade, in conjunction with vasopressor use, creatinine, and lactate were strong predictors of mortality.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic study, III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002592DOI Listing
May 2020

A Retrospective Review: Patient-Reported Preoperative Prescription Opioid, Sedative, or Antidepressant Use Is Associated with Worse Outcomes in Colorectal Surgery.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 07;63(7):965-973

Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Prescription opioid, sedative, and antidepressant use has been on the rise. The effect of these medications on outcomes in colorectal surgery has not been established.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative prescription opioid, sedative, and antidepressant use on postoperative outcomes following colorectal surgery.

Design: This study was a retrospective database and medical record review.

Settings: This study was conducted at University of Kentucky utilizing the local American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database.

Patients: All patients ≥18 years of age who underwent colorectal resection for all indications, excluding trauma, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2016, were included.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes measured were the rates of 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality.

Results: Of 1201 patients, 30.2% used opioids, 18.4% used sedatives, and 28.3% used antidepressants preoperatively. Users of any medication class had higher ASA classification, rates of dyspnea, and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than nonusers. Opioid users also had higher rates of ostomy creation, contaminated wound classification, prolonged operation time, and postoperative transfusion. Postoperatively, patients had higher rates of intra-abdominal infection (opioids: 21.5% vs 15.2%, p = 0.009; sedatives: 23.1% vs 15.7%, p = 0.01; antidepressants: 22.4% vs 15.0%, p = 0.003) and respiratory failure (opioids: 11.0% vs 6.3%, p = 0.007; sedatives: 12.2% vs 6.7%, p = 0.008; antidepressants: 10.9% vs 6.5%, p = 0.02). Reported opioid or sedative users had a prolonged hospital length of stay of 2 days (p < 0.001) compared with nonusers. After adjustment for all predictors of poor outcome, opioid and sedative use was associated with increased 30-day morbidity and mortality following colorectal procedures (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.07-1.91 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.05-2.08).

Limitations: This study was a retrospective review and a single-institution study, and it had unmeasured confounders.

Conclusions: We identified that patient-reported prescription opioid and sedative use is associated with higher 30-day composite adverse outcomes in colorectal resections, highlighting the need for the evaluation of opioid and sedative use as a component of the preoperative risk stratification. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B226. REVISIÓN RETROSPECTIVA: EL USO DE OPIOIDES, SEDANTES O ANTIDEPRESORES EN EL PREOPERATORIO SE ASOCIAN CON MALOS RESULTADOS EN CIRUGÍA COLORECTAL: El uso de opioides, sedantes y antidepresores esta en aumento. No se ha establecido el efecto de estos medicamentos en los resultados de la cirugía colorrectal.Evaluar el impacto del uso preoperatorio de opioides, sedantes y antidepresores en los resultados después de una cirugía colorrectal.Base de datos retrospectiva y revisión de registros médicos.Este estudio se realizó en la Universidad de Kentucky utilizando la base de datos del Proyecto de Mejora de Calidad Quirúrgica Nacional del Colegio Estadounidense de Cirujanos.Todos los pacientes ≥ 18 años que se sometieron a una resección colorrectal por diversas indicaciones, excluyendo los traumas, entre el 1 de Enero de 2013 y el 31 de Diciembre de 2016.Tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad postoperatorias a los 30 días.De 1201 pacientes, 30.2% usaron opioides, 18.4% usaron sedantes y 28.3% usaron antidepresores antes de la cirugía. Los pacientes tratados con cualquiera de los medicamentos mencionados, presentaban un ASA mas elevado, tasas de disnea y EPOC mas graves en comparación con pacientes sin tratamiento previo. Los consumidores de opioides también tuvieron tasas más altas de creación de ostomías, clasificación mas alta de heridas contaminadas, un tiempo de operación prolongado y transfusión postoperatoria mayor. Después de la cirugía los pacientes que tuvieron tasas más altas de infección intraabdominal (opioides: 21.5% vs 15.2%, p = 0.009, sedantes: 23.1% vs 15.7%, p = 0.01, antidepresivos: 22.4% vs 15.0%, p = 0.003) e insuficiencia respiratoria (opioides: 11.0% vs 6.3%, p = 0.007, sedantes: 12.2% vs 6.7%, p = 0.008, antidepresivos: 10.9% vs 6.5%, p = 0.02). Los consumidores de opioides o sedantes tuvieron una estadía hospitalaria prolongada de más de 2 días (p <0.001) en comparación con los consumidores. Después de haber realizado el ajuste de todos los predictores de mal pronóstico, el uso de opioides y sedantes se asoció con una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad a los 30 días después de cirugía colorrectal (OR 1.43 [IC 95% 1.07-1.91] y OR 1.48 [IC 95% 1.05-2.08], respectivamente)Revisión retrospectiva, estudio de una sola institución, factores de confusión no evaluados.Identificamos que el consumo de opiáceos y sedantes recetados a los pacientes se asocian con resultados adversos complejos más allá de 30 días en casos de resección colorrectal, destacando la necesidad de su respectiva evaluación como componentes de la estratificación de riesgo preoperatorio. Consulte Video Resumen http://links.lww.com/DCR/B226. (Traducción-Dr. Xavier Delgadillo).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001655DOI Listing
July 2020

Totally extraperitoneal approach for open complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jan 6;35(1):159-164. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, C 222, Chandler Medical Center, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Ventral hernia repair is typically performed via a transabdominal approach and the peritoneal cavity is opened and explored. Totally extraperitoneal ventral hernia repair (TEVHR) facilitates dissection of the hernia sac without entering the peritoneal cavity. This study evaluates our experience of TEVHR, addressing technique, decision-making, and outcomes.

Methods: This is an IRB-approved retrospective review of open TEVHR performed between January 2012 and December 2016. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, operative details, postoperative outcomes, hospital readmissions, and reoperations.

Results: One hundred sixty-six patients underwent TEVHR (84 males, 82 females) with a mean BMI range of 30-39. Eighty-six percent of patients underwent repair for primary or first-time recurrent hernia, and 89% CDC wound class I. Median hernia defect size was 135 cm. Hernia repair techniques included Rives-Stoppa (34%) or transversus abdominis release (57%). Median operative time was 175 min, median blood loss 100 mL, and median length of stay 4 days. There were no unplanned bowel resections or enterotomies. Four cases required intraperitoneal entry to explant prior mesh. Wound complication rate was 27%: 9% seroma drainage, 18% superficial surgical site infection (SSI), and 2% deep space SSI. Five patients (3%) required reoperation for wound or mesh complications. Over the study, four patients were hospitalized for postoperative small bowel obstruction and managed non-operatively. Of the 166 patients, 96%, 54%, and 44% were seen at 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. Recurrences were observed in 2% of patients at 12-month follow-up. One patient developed an enterocutaneous fistula 28 months postoperatively.

Conclusions: TEVHR is a safe alternative to traditional transabdominal approaches to ventral hernia repair. The extraperitoneal dissection facilitates hernia repair, avoiding peritoneal entry and adhesiolysis, resulting in decreased operative times. In our study, there was low risk for postoperative bowel obstruction and enterotomy. Future prospective studies with long-term follow-up are required to draw definitive conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07374-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair delays recurrence relative to open repair.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jan 6;35(1):415-422. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, C 222, Chandler Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Mesh repair of parastomal hernia is widely accepted as superior to non-mesh repair, yet the most favorable surgical approach is a subject of continued debate. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of open versus laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.

Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective review was conducted comparing laparoscopic (LPHR) or open (OPHR) parastomal hernia repair performed between 2009 and 2017 at our facilities. Patient demographics, preoperative characteristics, operative details, and clinical outcomes were compared by surgical approach. Subgroup analysis was performed by location of mesh placement. Repair longevity was measured using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. Intention to treat analysis was used for this study based on initial approach to the repair.

Results: Sixty-two patients (average age of 61 years) underwent repair (31 LPHR, 31 OPHR). Patient age, gender, BMI, ASA Class, and comorbidity status were similar between OPHR and LPHR. Stoma relocation was more common in OPHR (32% vs 7%, p = .022). Open sublay subgroup was similar to LPHR in terms of wound class and relocation. Open "Other" and Sublay subgroups resulted in more wound complications compared to LPHR (70% and 48% vs 27%, p = .036). Operative duration and hospital length of stay were less with LPHR (p < .001). After adjustment for prior hernia repair, risk of recurrence was higher for OPHR (p = .022) and Open Sublay and Other subgroups compared to LPHR (p = .005 and p = .027, respectively).

Conclusions: Laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias is associated with shorter operative duration, decreased length of stay, fewer short-term wound complications, and increased longevity of repair compared to open repairs. Direct comparison of repair longevity between LPHR and OPHR with mesh using Kaplan-Meier estimate is unique to this study. Further study is warranted to better understand methods of parastomal hernia repair associated with fewer complications and increased durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07377-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Costs and Complications Associated with Infected Mesh for Ventral Hernia Repair.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2020 May 9;21(4):344-349. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Division of General Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Mesh hernia repair is widely accepted because of the associated reduction in hernia recurrence compared with suture-based repair. Despite initiatives to reduce risk, mesh infection and mesh removal are a significant challenge. In an era of healthcare value, it is essential to understand the global cost of care, including the incidence and cost of complications. The purpose of this study was to identify the outcomes and costs of care of patients who required the removal of infected hernia mesh. A review of databases from 2006 through June 2018 identified patients who underwent both ventral hernia repair (VHR) and re-operation for infected mesh removal. Patient demographic and operative details for both procedures, including age, Body Mass Index, mesh type, amount of time between procedures, and information regarding interval procedures were obtained. Clinical outcome measures were the length of the hospital stay, hospital re-admission, incision/non-incision complications, and re-operation. Hospital cost data were obtained from the cost accounting system and were combined with the clinical data for a cost and clinical representation of the cases. Thirty-four patients underwent both VHR and removal of infected mesh material over the 12-year time frame and were included in the analyses; the average age at VHR was 48 years, and 16 patients (47%) were female. Following VHR, 21 patients (62%) experienced incision complications within 90 days post-operatively, the complications ranging from superficial surgical site infection (SSI) to evisceration. A mean of 22.65 months passed between procedures. After mesh removal, 16 patients (47%) experienced further incisional complications; and 22 (65%) patients had at least one re-admission. Eighteen patients (53%) required a minimum of one additional related operative procedure after mesh removal. Median hospital costs nearly doubled (p < 0.001) for the mesh removal ($23,841 [interquartile range {IQR} $13,596-$42,148]) compared with the VHR admission ($13,394 [IQR $8,424-$22,161]) not accounting for re-admission costs. A majority experienced hernia recurrence subsequent to mesh removal. Mesh infection after hernia repair is associated with significant morbidity and costs. Hospital re-admission, re-operations, and recurrences are common among these patients, resulting in greater healthcare resource utilization. Development of strategies to prevent mesh infection, identify patients most likely to experience infectious complications, and define best practices for the care of patients with mesh infection are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2019.183DOI Listing
May 2020

Clinical and Quality of Life Assessment of Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair.

Am Surg 2019 Nov;85(11):1269-1275

Hiatal hernia repair (HHR) and fundoplication are similarly performed among all hiatal hernia types with similar techniques. This study evaluates the effect of HHR using a standardized technique for cruroplasty with a reinforcing polyglycolic acid and trimethylene carbonate mesh (PGA/TMC) on patient symptoms and outcomes. A retrospective review of patient perioperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes was conducted for cases of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair (LHHR) using a PGA/TMC mesh performed over 21 months. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptom questionnaire responses were compared between preoperative and three postoperative time points. Ninety-six patients underwent LHHR with a PGA/TMC mesh. Postoperatively, the number of overall symptoms reported by patients decreased across all postoperative periods ( < 0.001). Patients reported a significant reduction in antacid use long term ( < 0.001). Laryngeal and regurgitation symptoms decreased at all time points ( < 0.05). There was no difference in dysphagia preoperatively and postoperatively at any time point. Individuals undergoing HHR with PGA/TMC mesh experienced improved regurgitation and laryngeal symptoms, and decreased use of antacid medication.
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November 2019

The contribution of specific enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol elements to reduced length of hospital stay after ventral hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2020 10 8;34(10):4638-4644. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Division of General Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Ventral hernia repair (VHR) is a commonly performed procedure that may be associated with prolonged hospitalization. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are intended to decrease hospital length of stay (LOS) and improve outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of compliance with individual VHR ERAS elements on LOS.

Methods: With IRB approval, a medical record review (perioperative characteristics, clinical outcomes, compliance with ERAS elements) was conducted of open VHR consecutive cases performed in August 2013-July 2017. The ERAS protocol was implemented in August 2015; elements in place prior to implementation were accounted for in compliance review. Clinical predictors of LOS were determined through forward regression of log-transformed LOS. The effects of specific ERAS elements on LOS were assessed by adding them to the model in the presence of the clinical predictors.

Results: Two-hundred and thirty-four patients underwent VHR (109 ERAS, 125 pre-ERAS). Across all patients, the mean LOS was 5.4 days (SD = 3.3). Independent perioperative predictors (P's < 0.05) of increased LOS were CDC Wound Class III/IV (38% increase above the mean), COPD (35%), prior infected mesh (21%), concomitant procedure (14%), mesh size (3% per 100 cm), and age (8% increase per 10 years from mean age). Formal ERAS implementation was associated with a 15% or about 0.7 days (95% CI 6%-24%) reduction in mean LOS after adjustment. Compliance with acceleration of intestinal recovery was low (25.6%) as many patients were not eligible for alvimopan use due to preoperative opioids, yet when achieved, provided the greatest reduction in LOS (- 36%).

Conclusions: Implementation of an ERAS protocol for VHR results in decreased hospital LOS. Evaluation of the impact of specific ERAS element compliance to LOS is unique to this study. Compliance with acceleration of intestinal recovery, early postoperative mobilization, and multimodal pain management standards provided the greatest LOS reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07233-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Enhanced value with implementation of an ERAS protocol for ventral hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2020 09 1;34(9):3949-3955. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, University of Kentucky, C 241, Chandler Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Open ventral hernia repair (VHR) is associated with postoperative complications and hospital readmissions. A comprehensive Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) protocol for VHR contributes to improved clinical outcomes including the rapid return of bowel function and reduced infections. The purpose of this study was to compare hospital costs for patients cared for prior to ERAS implementation with patients cared for with an ERAS protocol.

Methods: With IRB approval, clinical characteristics and postoperative outcomes data were obtained via retrospective review of consecutive VHR patients 2 years prior to and 14 months post ERAS implementation. Hospital cost data were obtained from the cost accounting system inclusive of index hospitalization. Clinical data and hospital costs were compared between groups.

Results: Data for 178 patients (127 pre-ERAS, 51 post-ERAS) were analyzed. Preoperative and operative characteristics including gender, ASA class, comorbidities, and BMI were similar between groups. ERAS patients had faster return of bowel function (p = 0.001) and decreased incidence of superficial surgical site infection (p = 0.003). Hospital length of stay did not vary significantly pre and post ERAS implementation. Inpatient pharmacy costs were increased in ERAS group ($2673 vs. $1176 p < 0.001), but total hospital costs (14,692 vs. 15,151, p = 0.538) were similar between groups.

Conclusions: Standardization of hernia care via ERAS protocol improves clinical outcomes without impacting total costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07166-2DOI Listing
September 2020

Parastomal Hernia Repair Outcomes: A Nine-Year Experience.

Am Surg 2019 Jul;85(7):738-741

Parastomal hernias (PHs) frequently complicate enterostomy creation. Decision for PH repair (PHR) is driven by patient symptoms due to the frequency of complications and recurrences. The European Hernia Society (EHS) PH classification is based on the PH defect size and the presence/absence of concomitant incisional hernia. The aim of this study was to evaluate PHR outcomes based on EHS classification. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of a prospective database between 2009 and 2017 was performed. Patient demographics, enterostomy type, EHS classification, operative technique, and clinical outcomes (postoperative complications, 30-day readmission, and PH recurrence) were obtained. Cases were analyzed by EHS classifications I and II (SmallPH) III and IV (LargePH). Sixty-two patients underwent PHR (35: SmallPH, 27: LargePH). Patient groups (SmallPH LargePH) were similar based on American Society of Anesthesiologists Class III and obesity. Hernia recurrence was seen in 26 per cent of repairs with no difference between groups. The median recurrence-free survival was 3.9 years. There was no difference in superficial SSI, deep SSI, nonwound complications, or readmission between SmallPH and LargePH. Both small and large PHs experience similar outcomes after repair. Strategies to improve outcomes should be developed and implemented universally across all EHS PH classes.
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July 2019

Validation and Extension of the Ventral Hernia Repair Cost Prediction Model.

J Surg Res 2019 12 6;244:153-159. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. Electronic address:

Background: Repair of ventral and incisional hernias remains a costly challenge for health care systems. In a previous study of a single surgeon's elective open ventral hernia repair (VHR) practice, a cost model was developed, which predicted over 70% of hospital cost variation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ventral hernia cost model with multiple surgeons' elective open VHR cases and extending to include nonelective and laparoscopic VHR.

Materials And Methods: With the University of Kentucky Institutional Review Board approval, elective and emergent cases of open and laparoscopic VHR performed by multiple surgeons over 3 y were identified. Perioperative variables were obtained from the local American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database and electronic medical record review. Hospital cost data were obtained from the hospital cost accounting system. Forward multivariable regression of log-transformed costs identified independent cost drivers (P for entry < 0.05, and P for exit > 0.10).

Results: Of the 387 VHRs, 74% were open repairs; mean age was 55 y, and 52% of patients were female. For open, elective cases (n = 211; mean cost of $19,145), the previously reported six-factor cost model predicted 45% of the total cost variation. With all VHRs included, additional variables were found to independently drive costs, predicting 59% of the total cost variation from the base cost. The biggest cost drivers were inpatient status (+$1013), use of biologic mesh (+$1131), preoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis (+$894), and preoperative open wound (+$786).

Conclusions: Ventral hernia repair cost variability is predictable. Understanding the independent drivers of cost may be helpful in controlling costs and in negotiating appropriate reimbursement with payers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.06.019DOI Listing
December 2019

Clinical Factors Associated with Longer Hospital Stay Following Ovarian Cancer Surgery.

Healthcare (Basel) 2019 Jul 3;7(3). Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0293, USA.

: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy and is treated with a combination of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Extended length of stay (LOS) after surgery can affect patient morbidity, overall costs, and hospital resource utilization. The primary objective of this study was to identify factors contributing to prolonged LOS for women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer. : The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was queried to identify women from 2012-2016 who underwent hysterectomy for ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer. The primary outcome was LOS >50th percentile. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were examined to determine which were associated with prolonged LOS. : From 2012-2016, 1771 women underwent elective abdominal surgery for OC and were entered in the ACS-NSQIP database. The mean and median LOS was 4.6 and 4.0 days (IQR 0-38), respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with prolonged LOS included: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification III (aOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.13) or IV (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.44-2.46), presence of ascites (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.44-2.46), older age (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.35), platelet count >400,000/mm (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29-2.35), preoperative blood transfusion (aOR 11.00, 95% CI 1.28-94.77), disseminated cancer (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.60), increased length of operation (121-180 min, aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.91; >180 min, aOR 2.78, 95% CI 2.13-3.64), and postoperative blood transfusion within 72 h of incision (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.59-2.62) ( < 0.05 for all). : Longer length of hospital stay following surgery for OC is associated with many patient, disease, and treatment-related factors. The extent of surgery, as evidenced by perioperative blood transfusion and length of surgical procedure, is a factor that can potentially be modified to shorten LOS, improve patient outcomes, and reduce hospital costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7030085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787623PMC
July 2019

Bridging to lung transplantation with double-lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Int J Artif Organs 2019 Nov 31;42(11):621-627. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.

Background: Double-lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used as a bridge to lung transplantation. Predictors of outcome with this strategy have not been well described.

Methods: All patients with irreversible lung disease who developed acute pulmonary failure and required double-lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to decision or lung transplant at our institution were included in this study. Survival of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients was compared with listed patients who did not require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with lung allocation score in the highest 10% for the same period.

Results: Fifteen patients (46 ± 17 years old) received double-lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannula. Mean length of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was 18.2 (1-60) days. Of these, seven patients were bridged to lung transplant, six died on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and two weaned to recovery. Amount of red blood cell transfusion was significantly higher (3.3 vs 18.5 U, p = 0.003) and lowest oxygen saturation was significantly lower in non-survivors (84.5% vs 66.3%, p = 0.002). Of the seven patients who were already listed for lung transplant at the onset of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, five were transplanted. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 60%. Survival of patients with lung allocation score in the highest 10% (average lung allocation score 83.4) in the same period was 80%.

Conclusion: Double-lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannula is a feasible option to bridge patients to decision or lung transplantation. Blood transfusion requirement and low oxygen saturation are markers of poor prognosis. Listing status at the time of cannulation and ambulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support may be important indicators of good outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0391398819851516DOI Listing
November 2019

Escalation of mortality and resource utilization in emergency general surgery transfer patients.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Jul;87(1):43-48

From the College of Medicine (D.D.K); Department of Surgery (D.L.D.), and Department of Surgery, Division of Acute Care Surgery (A.C.B), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Emergency general surgery (EGS) patients require greater resources and have increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Previous work has shown mortality differences in colectomy patients between direct admissions and transfers patients based on source, including emergency department, inpatient, and nursing home transfers. We hypothesize that patient transfer status negatively effects morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization in a mixed population of EGS patients.

Methods: Data were obtained for patients undergoing EGS using public files from the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program for the years 2014 through 2016. We analyzed risk factors and 30-day outcomes by transfer status on frequently performed procedures using χ analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Significance was set at p < 0.001 for the bivariate analyses and p < 0.05 for the multivariable analyses.

Results: A total of 167,636 procedures were identified. Transferred patients had increased clinical risk, operative complexity, and poorer outcomes. Fewer transfers were initiated for less technically sophisticated cases such as laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy, whereas more complex acute open cases were more often transferred. Transfer patients required longer operations and more transfusions and experienced more complications likely to require an intensive care unit stay. Transfer patients returned to the operating room more often, had higher rates of readmission, and greater 30-day mortality. These effects remained after adjusting for procedure group, secondary procedures, age, sex, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates significant increases in mortality, morbidity, and resource utilization in EGS transfer patients who were not attributable to case mix, demographics, and comorbid status alone. These data point to potential financial and quality assessment challenges for tertiary referral centers.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic, level III; therapeutic, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002291DOI Listing
July 2019

Serum bone markers in ROD patients across the spectrum of decreases in GFR: Activin A increases before all other markers
.

Clin Nephrol 2019 Apr;91(4):222-230

Introduction: Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) develops early in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and progresses with loss of kidney function. While intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels are usually considered the primary abnormalities in ROD development, the role of serum activin A elevations in CKD and its relationships to ROD have not been explored. The aims of this study were to evaluate serum activin A at different CKD stages, and to establish the relationships between activin A, bone biomarkers, and bone histomorphometric parameters.

Materials And Methods: 104 patients with CKD stages 2 - 5D underwent bone biopsies. We measured in the serum activin A, BSAP, DKK1, FGF-23, α-Klotho, intact PTH, sclerostin, TRAP-5b, and 1,25D. Biochemical results were compared across CKD stages and with 19 age-matched controls with normal kidney function.

Results: Median activin A levels were increased in all stages of CKD compared to controls from 544 pg/mL in CKD 2 (431 - 628) to 1,135 pg/mL in CKD 5D (816 - 1,456), compared to 369 pg/mL in controls (316 - 453, p < 0.01). The increase of activin A in CKD 2 (p = 0.016) occurred before changes in the other measured biomarkers. Activin A correlated with intact PTH and FGF-23 (r = 0.65 and 0.61; p < 0.01) and with histomorphometric parameters of bone turnover (BFR/BS, Acf, ObS/BS and OcS/BS; r = 0.47 - 0.52; p < 0.01). These correlations were comparable to those found with intact PTH and FGF-23.

Conclusion: Serum activin A levels increase starting at CKD 2 before elevations in intact PTH and FGF-23. Activin A correlates with bone turnover similar to intact PTH and FGF-23. These findings suggest a role for activin A in early development of ROD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CN109650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595397PMC
April 2019

Perioperative factors associated with pain following open ventral hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2019 12 25;33(12):4102-4108. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, C 225, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Effective pain control following open ventral and incisional hernia repair (VHR) impacts all aspects of patient recovery. To reduce opioid use and enhance pain management, multimodal therapy is thought to be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to identify patient characteristics associated with perioperative patient-reported pain scores.

Methods: With IRB approval, surgical databases were searched for cases of open VHR performed over 3 years. Based on a retrospective chart review, modes of pain management and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores were recorded in 12-h intervals to hospital discharge or to 8 days post-operation. Forward stepwise multivariable regression assessed the independent contribution of the perioperative factors to VAS pain scores.

Results: Included in the analyses were 175 patients that underwent VHR. Average age was 55 years (+/- 12.8), and half were female (50.9%). Factors independently associated with increased preoperative VAS pain scores included preoperative opioid use, preoperative open wound, CDC Wound Class II, and prior hernia repair(s). Patients with epidural for postoperative pain had significantly decreased VAS pain scores across the time continuum. Operative factors significantly associated with increased preoperative VAS pain score included median hernia defect size, concomitantly performed procedure(s), duration of operation, and estimated blood loss. Greater preoperative VAS pain score predicted increased pain at each postoperative time point (all p < .05).

Conclusions: Preoperative pain and opioid use are associated with increased pain postoperatively. Epidural analgesia effectively results in decreased patient-reported pain. Increased operative complexity is associated with increased preoperative pain scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06713-1DOI Listing
December 2019

Time is money: quantifying savings in outpatient appendectomy.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2018 30;3(1):e000222. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Department of Surgery, Acute Care Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Background: Laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed on a fast-track, short-stay, or outpatient basis with high success rates, low morbidity, low readmission rates, and shorter length of hospital stay. Cost savings from outpatient appendectomy have not been well described. We hypothesize that outpatient laparoscopic appendectomy is associated with cost savings.

Methods: We performed an original retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy between June 2013 and April 2017 at our academic medical center before and after implementation of an outpatient protocol which began on January 1, 2016. We assessed appendicitis grade, length of stay (LOS), cost, net revenue, and profit margin.

Results: After protocol implementation, the percentage of patients discharged from the the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) increased from 3.7% to 29.7% (χ p<0.001). The proportion of inpatient admissions and admissions to observation decreased by 5.7% and 20.3%, respectively. On average, PACU-to-home patients had a total hospital cost of $4734 compared with $5781 in patients admitted to observation, for an estimated savings of $1047 per patient (p<0.001). Comparing the time periods, the mean LOS decreased for all groups (p<0.001). Appendicitis grade was higher in those who required inpatient admission, but could not distinguish which patients required an observation bed.

Discussion: Outpatient appendectomy saves approximately $1000 per patient. Adoption of an outpatient appendectomy pathway is likely to be gradual, but will result in incremental improvement in resource utilization immediately. Grade does not predict which patients should be observed. Considering established safety, our data support widespread implementation of this protocol.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tsaco-2018-000222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326335PMC
December 2018

Characteristics Associated with Prolonged Length of Stay after Myomectomy for Uterine Myomas.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2019 Nov - Dec;26(7):1303-1310. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Drs. Smith and Hoffman); Division of Gynecologic Subspecialties (Dr. Hoffman), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Study Objective: To identify factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization for women undergoing myomectomy for uterine myomas.

Patients: Women undergoing myomectomy for uterine myomas during 2014 to 2016 were identified by the Current Procedural Terminology code.

Design: Retrospective population-based analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database.

Setting: Data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The primary outcome was length of stay longer than the median (1 day). Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined to determine predictors for prolonged length of stay (LOS). Seven thousand five hundred thirty-one women underwent abdominal or laparoscopic myomectomy for uterine myomas. Nonwhite race (black: odds ratio [OR] = 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-2.51; Asian: OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.27-1.85; other/unknown: OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 2.43-3.27), preoperative hematocrit <38% (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.26-1.52), body mass index ≥30.1 kg/m (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.21-1.53), preoperative blood transfusion (OR = 3.70; 95% CI, 2.03-6.74), perioperative blood transfusion (OR = 6.64; 95% CI, 4.76-9.27), removal of ≥5 myomas (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.28-1.70), and operative time >120 minutes (121-150 minutes: OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.77; 151-180 minutes: OR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.03; ≥181 minutes: OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.69) predicted prolonged LOS. Laparoscopy protected against prolonged LOS (OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.09-0.13).

Conclusions: Limited potentially modifiable perioperative factors contributing to prolonged LOS for abdominal or laparoscopic myomectomy were identified and suggest areas for targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2018.12.015DOI Listing
May 2020

Patient-Surgeon Relationship Influences Outcomes in Bariatric Patients.

Am Surg 2018 Dec;84(12):1850-1855

Bariatric surgery is an important therapy in weight loss. However, adherence to follow-up is critical and may be influenced by the patient-surgeon relationship. To test this hypothesis, bariatric surgical patients were surveyed from March 2013 to March 2015 the National Association for Weight Loss Surgery webpage and social media outlets. Surgical outcomes and adherence to follow-up were collected, and aspects of the patient-surgeon relationship were assessed the Likert scale. Correlations between survey item responses were calculated using Fisher's exact test, Student's test, and Spearman's rho rank correlation. Three hundred twenty patients responded (n = 287 completed in entirety and n = 33 partially completed); 48 months was the median time to survey from operation (interquartile range, 22-84 months). Eighty-six per cent (n = 276) of patients rated their relationship with their operative surgeon as "average" to "very good." Thirteen per cent (n = 43) rated their relationship as "poor" to "very poor." Positive relationship with the operative surgeon and lack of complication were associated with adherence to follow-up ( = 0.0001 and = 0.002, respectively). The presence of complication did not affect the overall patient-surgeon relationship ( = 0.5), although aspects of the patient-surgeon relationship were correlated to complications. There was no association between weight loss at one year and patient-surgeon relationship ( = 0.6) or presence of complication ( = 0.1). The findings of this study support the role of a positive patient-surgeon relationship in achieving long-term follow-up in post-bariatric surgical patients.
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December 2018

Cost Burden and Mortality in Rural Emergency General Surgery Transfer Patients.

J Surg Res 2019 02 3;234:60-64. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

University of Kentucky Department of Surgery, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Recent articles have suggested regionalization of some emergency general surgery (EGS) problems to tertiary referral centers. We sought to characterize the clinical and cost burden of such transfers to our tertiary referral center.

Materials And Methods: Data were collected retrospectively for nine EGS diagnoses for patients admitted to the EGS service during calendar years 2015 and 2016. Patients were grouped as inpatient transfers (IPTs), Emergency Department transfers (EDTs), or local admissions (LAs). Demographic data, length of stay at originating site, insurance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and all relevant financial data were obtained.

Results: Six hundred sixty-three patients were reviewed: 93 IPTs, 343 EDTs, and 227 LAs. IPTs required longer lengths of stay (7.0 d compared to 4.0 d for EDTs and 3.0 d for LAs), higher median direct costs, and higher case mix index, which produced a higher median revenue but averaged a median net loss (-$264 compared to +$2436 for EDTs and +$3125 for LAs). The IPTs had higher median comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index 3.5 versus 2.9 for EDTs and 2.0 for LAs), age (62 y versus 58 for EDTs and 52 for LAs), and mortality rate (7.5% versus 2.3% for EDTs and 0.4% for LAs).

Conclusions: Patients who present to a tertiary care EGS service as an IPT from another hospital have more comorbidities, higher mortality rate, and result in a financial loss. These data suggest the need for adequate risk adjustment in quality assessment of tertiary referral center outcomes and the need for increased financial reimbursement for the care of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.052DOI Listing
February 2019

Long-term efficacy of laparoscopic Nissen versus Toupet fundoplication for the management of types III and IV hiatal hernias.

Surg Endosc 2019 09 26;33(9):2895-2900. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of General Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair via Toupet or Nissen fundoplication remains the most commonly performed procedures for management of large hiatal hernia. Few studies have compared the procedures' long-term effectiveness. This study sought to characterize the efficacy of laparoscopic Toupet versus Nissen fundoplication for types III and IV hiatal hernia.

Methods: With IRB approval, a review of all laparoscopic hiatal hernia repairs with mesh reinforcement performed over 7 years at a single center by one surgeon was conducted. Hiatal hernias were classified as type III or IV using operative reports and preoperative imaging. Patients with type I, II, or recurrent hiatal hernia and patients receiving concomitant procedures were excluded. The GERD-Health Related Quality of Life Survey was administered by telephone no earlier than 18 months postoperatively.

Results: A total of 473 patients underwent laparoscopic fundoplication; 179 having type III or IV hiatal hernia met inclusion criteria; 62 underwent Toupet, 117 underwent Nissen fundoplication. Average patient age was 64 years; 63% of patients were female. Cohorts were similar in demographics, comorbidities, and intraoperative factors. Survey was completed by 77 patients (43%): 50 having Nissen and 27 Toupet. Median time of survey completion after surgery was 54 months (Nissen) and 25 months (Toupet). Median survey responses across all items for both groups were 0 (no symptoms) with no significant variation between groups. Of patients that had Nissen, 26% reported current proton-pump inhibitor use versus 31% of Toupet patients (p = 0.486). Patient-reported satisfaction with current condition was similar between groups (67% Toupet, 72% Nissen, p = 0.351).

Conclusions: Patient-reported symptoms and satisfaction did not vary for patients receiving laparoscopic Nissen versus Toupet fundoplication, which may indicate that patients with large type III and IV hiatal hernia undergoing either procedure have similar long-term postoperative symptom control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6589-yDOI Listing
September 2019