Publications by authors named "Daniel Kam-Wah Mok"

35 Publications

Water extract of Er-xian decoction selectively exerts estrogenic activities and interacts with SERMs in estrogen-sensitive tissues.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 3;275:114096. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, 518057, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The increasing use of "kidney"-nourishing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) like Er-xian decoction (EXD) for management of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis has aroused concerns about their safety, and whether they interact with prescription drugs as both of them act via estrogen receptors (ERs) and regulate serum estradiol.

Aim Of The Study: The present study aimed to evaluate whether EXD selectively exerted estrogenic activities and interacted with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs).

Materials And Methods: In vivo, mature ovariectomized (OVX) rats were administrated with EXD or combined treatment of EXD and SERMs for 12 weeks. The tissue-selective effect of EXD and its interaction of SERMs were studied in four estrogen sensitive tissues, bone, brain, breast and uterus. In vitro, the interaction of extracts of EXD-treated serum and SERMs in four ER-positive cell lines.

Results: In OVX rats, EXD selectively alleviated estrogen deficiency-induced changes in the bone and brain without inducing any estrogenic effects in the breast or uterus. Two-way ANOVA indicated the presence of interactions between EXD and SERMs in OVX rats but EXD did not significantly alter the tissue responses to SERMs in the bone, breast or brain. Indeed, the combined use of EXD and SERMs appeared to suppress the estrogenic effect of raloxifene and tamoxifen in the uterus. Extract of EXD-treated serum directly stimulated cell proliferation or differentiation in human osteosarcoma MG-63, neuroblastoma SHSY5Y, breast cancer MCF-7, and endometrial Ishikawa cells. Two-way ANOVA revealed that EXD-treated serum interacted with SERMs at various concentrations and altered the effects of tamoxifen in MG-63 and MCF-7 cells.

Conclusions: EXD exerted estrogenic effects in a tissue-selective manner and interacted with SERMs. Combined treatment of EXD and SERMs did not hamper the beneficial effects of SERMs on the bone or brain but appeared to moderate the estrogenic effect of SERMs in the uterus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114096DOI Listing
July 2021

The lignan-rich fraction from Sambucus Williamsii Hance ameliorates dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and modulates gut microbiota composition in ovariectomized rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 22;137:111372. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, PR China; Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Menopausal women are susceptible to have high risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and osteoporosis due to the metabolic disorder caused by estrogen deficiency. Accumulating evidence supports that gut microbiota is a key regulator of metabolic diseases. Our previous metabolomics study interestingly demonstrated that the anti-osteoporotic effects of lignan-rich fraction (SWCA) from Sambucus wialliamsii Hance were related to the restoration of a series of lipid and glucose metabolites. This study aims to investigate how SWCA modulates lipid and glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that oral administration of SWCA (140 mg/kg and 280 mg/kg) for 10 weeks alleviated dyslipidemia, improved liver functions, prevented glucose tolerance and insulin actions, attenuated system inflammation and improved intestinal barrier in OVX rats. It also induced a high abundance of Actinobacteria, and restored microbial composition. We are the first to report the protective effects of the lignan-rich fraction from S. williamsii on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Our findings provide strong evidence for the application of this lignan-rich fraction to treat menopausal lipid disorder and insulin resistance-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111372DOI Listing
May 2021

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator-Like Activities of Herba epimedii Extract and its Interactions With Tamoxifen and Raloxifene in Bone Cells and Tissues.

Front Pharmacol 2020 15;11:571598. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

(HEP), a kidney-tonifying herb, has been commonly used alone or in formula for strengthening kidney function and treating bone disorders. Its bone protective activity has been demonstrated to be via estrogen receptor (ERs). HEP activates the phosphorylation of ERα in an estrogen response element- (ERE-) dependent manner. We examined the bone protective effects of HEP and its potential interactions with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene) as they act via the same ERs. Six-month-old mature Sprague Dawley sham-operated (Sham) or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with either vehicle, 17ß-estradiol (1.0 mg/kg.day), tamoxifen (Tamo, 1.0 mg/kg.day), raloxifene (Ralo, 3.0 mg/kg.day), HEP (0.16 g/kg.day), or its combinations with respective SERMs (HEP + Tamo; HEP + Ralo) for 12 weeks. HEP and SERMs as well as their combinations significantly restored changes in bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone properties, and bone turnover biomarkers induced by ovarian sex hormone deficiency in ovariectomized rats. Besides the increase in serum estradiol, inhibition on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) might also be involved in the osteoprotective activities of HEP and SERMs. HEP interacted with SERMs to protect bones from ovarian sex hormone deficiency without altering SERMs' bone protective activities. HEP neither induced changes in uterus weight nor altered the uterotrophic activity of SERMs in OVX rats. In human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells, HEP-treated serum (HEP-Ts) significantly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity like the crude HEP extract did but did not stimulate ERE activity. Our study also reported that biologically activated HEP interacted with SERMs to promote ALP activity without altering the action of SERMs at most of the concentrations tested in MG-63 cells. HEP exerted bone protective activity and the use of HEP did not alter the bone protective activities of SERMs when they were used simultaneously in an estrogen-deficient rat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.571598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843570PMC
January 2021

Mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach for differentiation of beef of different geographic origins.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 25;338:127847. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen 518057, China; Food Safety and Technology Research Centre and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Beef is a common staple food in many countries, and there is a growing concern over misinformation of beef products, such as false claims of origin, species and production methods. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to study the metabolite profiles of beef samples purchased from local retailers in Hong Kong. Using multivariate analysis, beef samples from different a) geographical origins, namely the United States (US), Japan and Australia, and b) feeding regimes could be differentiated. We identified twenty-four metabolites to distinguish beef samples from different countries, ten metabolites to identify Angus beef samples from others and seven metabolites to discriminate Australian beef produced by the organic farming from that produced using other farming modes. Based on results of this study, it is concluded that metabolomics provides an efficient strategy for tracing and authenticating beef products to ensure their quality and to protect consumer rights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127847DOI Listing
February 2021

Arnicolide D Inhibits Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation by Suppression of Akt/mTOR and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.

Int J Med Sci 2020 15;17(11):1482-1490. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen 518057, China.

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a most dangerous breast cancer subtype. The naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone, arnicolide D (AD), has proven effective against a variety of tumors, however, the inhibitory effects of AD against TNBC and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, two TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) and an MDA-MB-231 xenograft mouse model were employed to investigate the anti-TNBC effects of AD and . Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. studies demonstrated that AD significantly decreased cell viability, and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. assays showed that oral administration of 25 or 50 mg/kg AD for 22 days led to a reduction of tumor weights by 24.7% or 41.0%, without appreciable side effects. Mechanistically, AD inhibited the activation of Akt/mTOR and STAT3 signaling pathways. Based on our findings, AD is a promising candidate for development as an adjunctive therapeutic drug for TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.46925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359397PMC
March 2021

Brevilin A, a Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone Inhibited the Growth of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells via Akt/mTOR and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 10;13:5363-5373. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a a breast cancer subtype characterized by a lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth receptor 2 and is associated with poorer prognoses when compared to other breast cancers. Thus, novel anti-cancer agents with high efficacy are urgently needed. Brevilin A (BA), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer effects. However, the effects of BA on TNBC have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the anti-TNBC effects and the underlying mechanism of BA, in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: Two TNBC cell lines and a xenograft mouse model were employed to assess the effects of BA. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle status and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell migration was measured by wound-healing assay. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting analysis. The in vivo anti-cancer activity of BA was assessed in orthotopic tumor xenograft mice.

Results: BA significantly inhibited the growth of TNBC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. BA also inhibited tumor cell migration. BA significantly downregulated the expression of Akt, mTOR, Stat3 and their phosphorylation, and thus inhibiting the activation of the Akt/mTOR and STAT3 signaling pathways. Furthermore, oral administration of BA at 25 or 50 mg/kg leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and proliferation in tumor xenograft model mice.

Conclusion: BA significantly inhibited the growth and migration of TNBC cells, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of the Akt/mTOR and Stat3 signal pathways. Based on our findings, BA possesses a promising candidate for development as an anti-cancer therapeutic drug against TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S256833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293987PMC
June 2020

Anti-cancer Activity of Extract in Triple Negative Breast Cancer via Inhibition of AKT, NF-κB, and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.

Front Oncol 2020 9;10:491. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in females worldwide. Estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer, suggest that globally, there were around 2.1 million new breast cancer cases and 627,000 deaths due to breast cancer in 2018. Among the subtypes of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and carries the poorest prognosis, largest recurrence, and lowest survival rate. Major treatment options for TNBC patients are mainly constrained to chemotherapy, which can be accompanied by severe side effects. Therefore, development of novel and effective anti-cancer drugs for the treatment of TNBC are urgently required. is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has historically been used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, relieve pain, and reduce swelling. Recent studies have shown that exhibited efficacy against certain cancers, however, to date, no studies have been conducted on its effects in breast cancer. Here, we aimed to investigate the anti-cancer activity of the total extract of (CME), and its underlying mechanism, in TNBC. In MDA-MB-231, we found that CME could significantly reduce cell viability and proliferation, induce apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell migration and invasion, in a dose and time-dependent manner. We showed that CME may potentially act via inhibition of multiple signaling pathways, including the EGFR, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, NF-κB, and STAT3 pathways. Treatment with CME also led to downregulation of MMP-9 activity and inhibition of metastasis. Further, we demonstrated that CME could significantly reduce tumor burden in MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice, without any appreciable side effects. Based on our findings, CME is a promising candidate for development as a therapeutic with high efficacy against TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160338PMC
April 2020

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactones in Centipeda minima by UPLC-Orbitrap-MS & UPLC-QQQ-MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Sep 30;174:360-366. Epub 2019 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, 518057, China; Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Orbitrap-MS) method has been used to identify sesquiterpene lactones in the methanolic extract of Centipeda minima. Fifteen sesquiterpene lactones were tentatively identified based on retention time and accurate mass of external standards or exact accurate mass searching (within 2 ppm) by comparison of some previous isolated sesquiterpene lactones. Meanwhile, a rapid, sensitive, precise, and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QQQ-MS) method has been developed to evaluate the quality of Centipeda minima through a simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpene lactones, namely brevilin A, arnicolide C, arnicolide D, microhelenin C, minimolide F. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Acquilty UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of a) 0.1% formic acid and b) a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol 50:50 v/v under an isocratic elution (42:58) manner. Positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring was applied for the detection of the five sesquiterpene lactones. Method validation for linearity, accuracy and precision was also carried out. Finally, the method was successfully used for the analysis of 10 batches of Centipeda minima samples collected in China. Brevilin A and arnicolide D were the dominant sesquiterpene lactones in Centipeda minima and could be proposed as suitable markers for the quality control of Centipeda minima.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.05.067DOI Listing
September 2019

Arnicolide D, from the herb Is a Therapeutic Candidate against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Molecules 2019 May 17;24(10). Epub 2019 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen 518057, China.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a high morbidity and mortality cancer with an obvious racial and geographic bias, particularly endemic to Southeast China. Our previous studies demonstrated that extract (CME) exhibited anti-cancer effects in human NPC cell lines. Arnicolide C and arnicolide D are sesquiterpene lactones isolated from . In this study, for the first time, we investigated their anti-NPC effects and further explored the related molecular mechanisms. The effects of both arnicolide C and arnicolide D were tested in NPC cells CNE-1, CNE-2, SUNE-1, HONE1, and C666-1. The results showed that the two compounds inhibited NPC cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. As the inhibitory effect of arnicolide D was the more pronounced of the two, our following studies focused on this compound. Arnicolide D could induce cell cycle arrest at G/M, and induce cell apoptosis. The molecular mechanism of cell cycle regulation and apoptosis induction was investigated, and the results showed that arnicolide D could downregulate cyclin D3, cdc2, p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-STAT3, and upregulate cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase 9, and Bax. Regulation of cyclin B1, cdk6, and Bcl-2 expression by arnicolide D showed dynamic changes according to dose and time. Taken together, arnicolide D modulated the cell cycle, activated the caspase signaling pathway, and inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and STAT3 signaling pathways. These findings provide a solid base of evidence for arnicolide D as a lead compound for further development, and act as proof for the viability of drug development from traditional Chinese medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571971PMC
May 2019

Altered metabolites in guinea pigs with allergic asthma after acupoint sticking therapy: New insights from a metabolomics approach.

Phytomedicine 2019 Feb 5;54:182-194. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical evidence gathered in Chinese communities suggested that acupoint sticking therapy could be an alternative treatment for asthma-related diseases. However, its underlying mechanism is still poorly understood.

Aim/hypothesis: In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of acupoint sticking application with 'Treatment of Winter Disease in Summer' (TWDS) prescription by using metabolomics.

Methods: Allergic asthma in guinea pig was sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA). Histopathological evaluation of the lung tissue was performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of Th2 cytokine and IgE level in serum were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and orosomucoid-like 3 (ORMDL3) were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Proteins of NF-κB signaling pathway were measured using western blot. The serum metabolomics profiles were obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS).

Results: The overall results confirmed that AST with TWDS prescription had a significant protective effect against OVA-induced allergic asthma in guinea pig. This treatment not only attenuated airway inflammation and collagen deposition in the airway, but also decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IgE in serum. In addition, metabolomics results indicated that metabolisms of phospholipid, sphingolipid, purine, amino acid and level of epinephrine were restored back to the normal control level. Moreover, results of the gene expression of ORMDL3 in lung tissues indicated that AST using TWDS could alter the sphingolipid metabolism. Further western blotting analysis also showed that its anti-inflammatory mechanism was by decreasing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκB.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that metabolomics provides a better understanding of the actions of TWDS acupoint sticking therapy on OVA-induced allergic asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.021DOI Listing
February 2019

A Metabolomics Study on the Bone Protective Effects of a Lignan-Rich Fraction From Sambucus Williamsii Ramulus in Aged Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2018 21;9:932. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China.

The lignan-rich fraction (SWR) of Sambucus Williamsii Ramulus, a folk herbal medicine in China for treatment of bone diseases, has previously reported to exert protective effects on bone without exerting uterotrophic effects in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The aim of the present study was to identify the potential metabolites and the associated metabolic pathways that contribute to the beneficial effects of SWR on bone . Aged female Sprague Dawley rats (9 months old) were either sham-operated or ovariectomized for 12 weeks, before receiving treatment for another 12 weeks with the following treatment groups ( = 12 each): vehicle (Sham), vehicle (OVX), Premarin (130 μg/kg) or low (57 mg/kg), medium (114 mg/kg), and high (228 mg/kg) doses of SWR. The results showed that SWRH significantly suppressed bone loss, improved bone micro-architecture and increased bone strength on tibia without stimulating uterus weight gain in OVX rats. Premarin exerted similar bone protective effects as SWRH but elicited uterotrophic effects in OVX rats. The metabolic profiles of serum samples were analyzed by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography time-of flight mass spectrometry, and the metabolites that were significantly altered were identified by multivariate statistical analysis. Our study indicated that SWRH effectively restored the changes of 26 metabolites induced by estrogen-deficiency in OVX rats, which related to lipids, amino acids, tryptophan metabolisms, and anti-oxidative system. A subsequent validation showed that the serum level of superoxide dismutase and catalase were indeed up-regulated, while the serotonin level in a tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) high expressing cells (rats RBL-2H3 cells) was down regulated after treatment with SWR. The results also suggested that the gut-microbiota may play an important role on the bone protective effects of SWR. The current study provides insight for understanding the unique mechanism of actions of SWR that might be involved in achieving bone protective effects .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110923PMC
August 2018

Clinical and histopathological features of chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients with high HBV-DNA viral load and normal alanine aminotransferase level: A multicentre-based study in China.

PLoS One 2018 4;13(9):e0203220. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Hepatology, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: The aim of this study is to reveal the clinical and histopathological features of HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infected patients with high level of HBV DNA, from 17 hospitals and medical centres in China, with alanine aminotransferase levels within the lower region of normal range versus those with levels within the upper region of normal range and to investigate the clinical risk factors for the requirement of treatment through the examination of liver biopsy.

Methods: Liver biopsy was performed on high level of HBV DNA of 455 patients with HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase level. Liver necroinflammation and fibrosis were graded per the Knodell histological activity index and Ishak's fibrosis score, respectively. Univariate analysis of the clinical parameters versus necroinflammation and fibrosis was carried out.

Results: Of the subjects in this multicentre-based study, 5.49% and 10.11% had significant necroinflammation with Knodell histological activity index ≥ 9 and hepatic fibrosis stages with Ishak scores ≥ 3, respectively. The subjects were stratified into three age groups (30-39, 40-49 and ≥ 50 years), and our data clearly suggested that age, particularly in the age group over 50, was an independent predictor of liver necroinflammation and fibrosis. Lower HBV-DNA viral levels were found in patients with Knodell histological activity index ≥ 9 or advanced fibrosis (Ishak scores ≥ 3).

Conclusion: Our results showed that histological changes in liver tissues were observed in a significant proportion of patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase level. According to the data evaluation results, liver biopsy is advisable for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infected patients aged older than 40 and high HBV-DNA viral load in China.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203220PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122822PMC
February 2019

8-Prenylgenistein, a prenylated genistein derivative, exerted tissue selective osteoprotective effects in ovariectomized mice.

Oncotarget 2018 May 19;9(36):24221-24236. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, PRC.

Our previous study reported that the osteogenic effects of 8-prenylgenistein (8PG) were more potent than its parent compound genistein. This study aimed to evaluate the osteoprotective effects of 8PG in ovariectomized (OVX) mice as well as to characterize its estrogenic effects in uterus. Mature OVX mice were treated with phytoestrogen-free diet containing 8PG or genistein. Trabecular bone mass and most of the micro-structural parameters were ameliorated at the distal femoral metaphysis in OVX mice upon treatment with genistein and both doses of 8PG. The beneficial effects of 8PG on trabecular bone were confirmed by safranin O and ABHO staining. 8PG markedly inhibited the ovariectomy-induced mRNA expressions of RANKL/OPG, ALP, COL, OCN, cathepsin K and ER-α in bone. In contrast, genistein further increased the ovariectomy-induced ER-α expression in bone. The uterus index was increased in genistein-treated group. Genistein up-regulated the expression of ER-α and PR, while 8PG significantly down-regulated the ER-α and C3 expression in uterus of OVX mice. Moreover, genistein, but not 8PG, increased expressions of ER-α, PCNA and C3 in Ishikawa cell. This study suggested that 8PG improved trabecular bone properties in OVX mice without exerting uterotrophic effects and its estrogenic actions were distinct from those of genistein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966244PMC
May 2018

Rapid differentiation of Ganoderma species by direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Anal Chim Acta 2018 Jan 9;999:99-106. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation) and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control, Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Resources of Changbai Mountain and Functional Molecules (Yanbian University), Ministry of Education, Yanji, Jilin 133002, China. Electronic address:

In this study, direct ionization mass spectrometry (DI-MS) has been developed for rapid differentiation of Ganoderma (known as Lingzhi in Chinese), a very popular and valuable herbal medicine. Characteristic mass spectra can be generated by DI-MS directly from the raw herbal medicines with the application of a high voltage and solvents. Rapid differentiation of the Ganoderma species that are officially stated in the Chinese pharmacopoeia from easily confused Ganoderma species could be achieved based on this method, as the acquired DI-MS spectra showed that ganoderic acids, the major active components of Ganoderma, could be found only in the official Ganoderma species but not in the confused Ganoderma species. In addition, classification of wild and cultivated Ganoderma and potential differentiation of Ganoderma from different geographical locations could be accomplished based on principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The method is rapid, simple and reproducible, and can be further extended to analysis of other herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.006DOI Listing
January 2018

Effect of the water fraction isolated from Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract on bone metabolism via antagonizing a calcium-sensing receptor in experimental type 1 diabetic rats.

Food Funct 2017 Dec;8(12):4703-4712

Spine Disease Research Institute, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China.

Our previous studies have demonstrated that the extract of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) can maintain in vivo calcium homeostasis in aged and ovariectomized rats. This study was designed to elucidate the action of water fraction isolated from the FLL extract on bone metabolism and a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in parathyroid glands and kidneys of diabetic rats. The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with vehicle, FLL extract, and the water fraction (WF) isolated from the FLL extract for 4 weeks. Treatment with WF dramatically increased the serum levels of both calcium and parathyroid hormone and reduced urinary calcium excretion in diabetic rats as well as improved the pathological changes of trabecular bone as shown by the increased BA/TA, BMD/BV, and BV/TV. The mRNA expression of the calcium-binding protein 9k and protein expression of a vitamin D receptor (VDR) and plasma membrane Ca-ATPase in duodenum were significantly increased in diabetic rats after treatment with WF, which reduced the expression of CaSR in parathyroid gland and kidney as well as inhibited the up-regulation of VDR and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24 hydroxylase expressions in the kidney of diabetic rats. This study reveals that the water fraction may be an active component of the FLL extract that exerts beneficial effects on improving bone metabolism via regulating vitamin D metabolism in kidney and vitamin D-dependent calcium transporters in duodenum as well as modulating the expression of CaSR in the parathyroid gland and kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7fo01259dDOI Listing
December 2017

Chemical Analysis of Astragali Complanati Semen and Its Hypocholesterolemic Effect Using Serum Metabolomics Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2017 Jul 21;6(3). Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

The hypocholesterolemic protective effect of the dried seed of (ACS) was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD), and HCD plus 70% ethanol extract of ACS (600 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for four weeks. ACS extract was tested to be rich in antioxidants, which may be contributed to its high content of phenolic compounds. Consumption of ACS remarkably suppressed the elevated total cholesterol ( < 0.01) and LDL-C ( < 0.001) induced by HCD. Chemical constituents of ACS extract were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry and the results showed that the ACS extract mainly consisted of phenolic compounds including flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. In addition, based on the serum fatty acid profiles, elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, free and esterified fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid, adrenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were regulated in ACS treatment group. Western blot results further indicated the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ( < 0.05) in liver was upregulated in ACS treatment group. To conclude, our results clearly demonstrated that ACS provides beneficial effect on lowering HCD associated detrimental change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618085PMC
July 2017

Semiautomated Alignment of High-Throughput Metabolite Profiles with Chemometric Tools.

J Anal Methods Chem 2017 12;2017:9402045. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, China.

The rapid increase in the use of metabolite profiling/fingerprinting techniques to resolve complicated issues in metabolomics has stimulated demand for data processing techniques, such as alignment, to extract detailed information. In this study, a new and automated method was developed to correct the retention time shift of high-dimensional and high-throughput data sets. Information from the target chromatographic profiles was used to determine the standard profile as a reference for alignment. A novel, piecewise data partition strategy was applied for the determination of the target components in the standard profile as markers for alignment. An automated target search (ATS) method was proposed to find the exact retention times of the selected targets in other profiles for alignment. The linear interpolation technique (LIT) was employed to align the profiles prior to pattern recognition, comprehensive comparison analysis, and other data processing steps. In total, 94 metabolite profiles of ginseng were studied, including the most volatile secondary metabolites. The method used in this article could be an essential step in the extraction of information from high-throughput data acquired in the study of systems biology, metabolomics, and biomarker discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/9402045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267077PMC
January 2017

Shugan Xiaozhi Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Enhancing PPAR and L-FABP Expressions in High-Fat-Fed Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016 28;2016:7870189. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Hepatology, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen 518033, Hong Kong.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Shugan Xiaozhi decoction (SX) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high-fat diet in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely, control, model, fenofibrate, and three different dosage of SX (10, 20, and 40 g/kg/day, p.o.). After establishing the NASH model, at 8 weeks of the experiment, treatments were administrated intragastrically to the fenofibrate and SX groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the model group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) serum in the serum were significantly reduced in all SX treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence showed that SX could protect the liver by upregulating the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR) and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical constituents of SX were further analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) and 30 chemicals in the ethanolic extract were tentatively identified. To conclude, our results clearly indicated that SX could protect liver functions and relieve hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7870189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5149676PMC
November 2016

Rapid authentication of Gastrodiae rhizoma by direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Anal Chim Acta 2016 Sep 28;938:90-7. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation) and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control, Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Resources of Changbai Mountain and Functional Molecules (Yanbian University), Ministry of Education, Yanji, 133002, China. Electronic address:

In this study, direct ionization mass spectrometry (DI-MS) for rapid authentication of Gastrodiae rhizoma (known as Tianma in Chinese), a popular herbal medicine, has been developed. This method is rapid, simple and allows direct generation of characteristic mass spectra from the raw herbal medicines with the application of some solvents and a high voltage. The acquired DI-MS spectra showed that gastrodin, parishin B/parishin C and parishin, the major active components of Gastrodiae rhizoma, could be found only in genuine Gastrodiae rhizoma samples, but not in counterfeit samples, thus allowing rapid authentication of Gastrodiae rhizoma. Moreover, wild and cultivated Gastrodiae rhizoma could be classified and Gastrodiae rhizoma from different geographical locations could be differentiated based on their different intensity ratios of characteristic ions or principal component analysis (PCA). This method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and can be extended to analyze other herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.07.028DOI Listing
September 2016

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Centipeda minima by HPLC-QTOF-MS & HPLC-DAD.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Jun 20;125:400-7. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Shenzhen, China; Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) method in both positive and negative ion modes was established to investigate the major constituents in the ethanolic extract of Centipeda minima (EBSC). Twelve common components including flavones and their glycosides, phenolic and polyphenolic acids, and sesquiterpene lactone were identified in ten batches of samples based on comparison with the retention time and accurate mass of external standards (mass accuracy within 3ppm) or the fragmentation patterns of tandem MS. Meanwhile, a simple, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was also developed to determine the content of 10 chemical markers simultaneously. Results obtained from method validations including linearity, accuracy and precision showed that this new method is reliable and robust. Isochlorogenic acid A and brevilin A were found to be the most abundant in the ethanol extract of EBSC and could be served as markers for quality control of EBSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2016.04.029DOI Listing
June 2016

Discrimination between Leave of Apocynum venetum and Its Adulterant, A. pictum Based on Antioxidant Assay and Chemical Profiles Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2015 May 8;4(2):359-72. Epub 2015 May 8.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen 518057, China.

An integrated approach including chemical and biological assessments was developed to investigate the differences between Apocynum venetum L. (AV) and its adulterant, Apocynum pictum Schrenk (AP). Ten flavonoids were tentatively identified by ultra-visible and mass spectra data. The chemical component, hyperoside, was identified as a critical parameter for discrimination of two species from the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative analysis. The anti-oxidative power of the herbal extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and H₂O₂-induced cell damage on LO2 cells. The results of the biological assays suggested that the chemical differences between AV and AP do lead to difference in activity and AV is demonstrated to have higher anti-oxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665472PMC
May 2015

Centipeda minima (Ebushicao) extract inhibits PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells.

Chin Med 2015 18;10:26. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 People's Republic of China ; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen, 518057 People's Republic of China.

Background: Centipeda minima (Ebushicao) has been used for the treatment of various diseases, such as nasal allergies, rhinitis and sinusitis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cough, and headache. This study aims to investigate the anticancer activities of Centipeda minima ethanol extracts (CME) against nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-1 and their underlying mechanism.

Methods: CNE-1 cells were treated with different concentrations (15-50 μg/mL) of CME for different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 h). Cytotoxicity of CME was determined by MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed by fluorescence microscopy after HO 33258 staining. Cell cycle status was evaluated by flow cytometry following propidium iodide staining. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry following annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The levels of apoptosis-associated and PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling related proteins were measured by western blotting analysis.

Results: CME (15-50 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of CNE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P = 0.026 for 15 μg/mL, P < 0.001 for 25, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL, respectively); the IC50 values (μg/mL) were 41.57 ± 0.17, 30.34 ± 0.06 and 24.98 ± 0.08 for 24, 48 and 72 h treatments, respectively. Significant morphological changes of CNE-1 cells displaying apoptosis were observed after CME treatment. CME showed low cytotoxicity toward normal LO2 cells. CNE-1 cells were arrested in the G2/M phase while treated with 15, 25, 40 μg/mL of CME, respectively (P = 0.032, P = 0.0053, P < 0.001). CME (15, 25, 40 μg/mL) down-regulated Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.032, P = 0.0074, P < 0.001), and up-regulated Bax (P = 0.026, P = 0.0056, P < 0.001) with activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP observed in CNE-1 cells (P = 0.015, P = 0.0067, P < 0.001 for caspase 3; P = 0.210, 0.028, < 0.001 for caspase 8; P = 0.152, 0.082, 0.0080 for caspase 9; P = 0.265, 0.0072, < 0.001 for PARP). CME suppressed the activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (P = 0.03, 0.0007, 0.004, 0.006, 0.022 for p-PI3K, p-Akt-Ser(473), p-Akt-Thr(308), p-mTOR-Ser(2448), p-mTOR-Ser(2481), respectively after 40 μg/mL of CME treated for 24 h).

Conclusion: CME inhibited the proliferation of CNE-1 cells and activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-015-0058-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4575463PMC
September 2015

Identifying bioactive components in natural products through chromatographic fingerprint.

Anal Chim Acta 2015 Apr 26;870:45-55. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, SAR Hong Kong, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Shenzhen, PR China.

Bioactive component identification is a crucial issue in search for new drug leads. We provide a new strategy to search for bioactive components based on Sure Independence Screening (SIS) and interval PLS (iPLS). The method, which is termed as SIS-iPLS, is not only able to find out the chief bioactive components, but also able to judge how many components should be there responsible for the total bioactivity. The method is totally "data-driven" with no need for prior knowledge about the unknown mixture analyzed, therefore especially suitable for effect-directed work like bioassay-guided fractionation. Two data sets, a synthetic mixture system of twelve components and a suite of Radix Puerariae Lobatae extracts samples, are used to test the identification ability of the SIS-iPLS method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.02.030DOI Listing
April 2015

A review on the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and formulae with hypolipidemic effect.

Biomed Res Int 2014 7;2014:925302. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong ; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen 518057, China ; Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/925302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109135PMC
April 2015

Semen Astragali Complanati: an ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review.

J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Aug 13;155(1):39-53. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China; Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Semen Astragali Complanati (SAC), the dried ripe seed of Flatstem Milkvetch (Astragalus complanatus Bunge) (Leguminosae), is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating muscle, liver, kidney, blood, skin and reproductive system diseases.

Materials And Methods: Relevant information about SAC was gathered via "Google Scholar", "ISI Web of Knowledge", "PubMed", "ScienceDirect", "Medline Plus", "ACS", "CNKI" and "Wiley Online Library" and from books in local libraries.

Results: The major contents of SAC include fatty acids, amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpene glycosides and trace elements. Previous scientific studies have reported that SAC exhibits a number of therapeutic effects on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and cancers. It has been found that flavonoids are the main bioactive component in SAC. However most of the previous studies have shown the effects brought by the total flavonoid fraction extracted from SAC only; further studies are warranted for the biological effects produced by individual components. There are only a few studies on the toxicity of SAC and the overall results show that its toxicity is quite low or even non-existent.

Conclusions: SAC is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects for treating some chronic diseases. More studies on SAC will help us to have a better understanding of its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide more scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases and understand its possible harmful effects. Based on previous studies, it is easy to identify that antioxidant effect of SAC might play an important role on its pharmacological effects. Studying the effects of SAC on handling intracellular reactive oxygen species may be a potential direction to help understanding the molecular mechanisms of SAC on preventing and/or treating chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.013DOI Listing
August 2014

A review of the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of raphani semen.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 8;2013:636194. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen), is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/636194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723324PMC
August 2013

Fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in extracts of Curculiginis Rhizoma by HPLC-diode array detector.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2013 ;61(8):802-8

Yancheng Institute of Health Science; Yancheng 224005, China.

Curculiginis Rhizoma (Curculigo orchioides GAERTN.) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, as well as an important Rasayana drug in India. Current criteria of quality control on this herb are to quantitatively analyze single compound curculigoside, which fail to comprehensively evaluate quality of this herb. In this paper, a simple and reliable HPLC coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method was developed to evaluate the quality of Curculiginis Rhizoma through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneously quantitating four phenolic compounds, orcinol glucoside, orcinol, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid and curculigoside. The fingerprint displayed eleven common peaks, and the similarity index of different samples was in a range of 0.890-0.977. Validation of the method was acceptable, with 96.03-102.82% accuracy in recovery test and inter and intra-day precisions were less than 2%. This developed method by having a combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantitation analysis could be applied to the quality control of Curculiginis Rhizoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c12-01058DOI Listing
February 2014

Gui-ling-gao, a traditional Chinese functional food, prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

Food Funct 2013 Apr;4(5):745-53

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Shenzhen, PR China.

Functional foods have become an increasingly popular alternative to prevent diseases and maintain body health status. Gui-ling-gao (GLG, also known as turtle jelly) is a well-known traditional functional food popular in Southern China and Hong Kong. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of GLG, a traditional Chinese functional food, on preventing oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In this study, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were measured by using both a cell-free assay [2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl assay] and biological methods [2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-induced haemolysis assay and H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cardiomyocytes]. Additionally, the total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of GLG was evaluated by nuclear staining and a DNA fragmentation assay. GLG was found to have good antioxidant activities and high total phenolic content. In H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cells, GLG was demonstrated to ameliorate the apoptotic effects, such as nuclear condensations, increased intracellular caspase-3 activity and inter-nucleosomal DNA cleavage, induced by H(2)O(2). The present study demonstrated for the first time that GLG possesses anti-apoptotic potential in vitro and this effect may be mediated, in part, by its antioxidative function. Additionally, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were proved both chemically and biologically. This study provides scientific evidence to prove the anecdotal health-beneficial claim that the consumption of GLG could help the body to handle endogenous toxicants such as free radicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3fo30182fDOI Listing
April 2013

Suppression of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia by turtle jelly, a traditional chinese functional food, in rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 31;2012:320304. Epub 2012 Oct 31.

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, 518057 Shenzhen, China.

Consumption of functional foods for lowering serum cholesterol has globally gained acceptance by the general public. Turtle jelly (TJ), also called gui-ling-gao, is a popular traditional functional food in southern China. The hypocholesterolemic effect of consuming TJ was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with simvastatin (3 mg/kg bw per day, p.o.) or TJ (3.3 or 10 mL/kg bw per day, p.o.) for 30 days. TJ markedly reversed the increased serum total cholesterol, increased high-density lipoprotein, and decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on the atherogenic index. It also demonstrated good hepatoprotective function by reducing fat depositions and overall lipid contents in the liver and increasing the activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. The blunted nitric oxide/endothelium-mediated aortic relaxation in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was partially restored after TJ consumption. It is postulated that the hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by TJ; it then leads to secondary beneficial effects such as vasoprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The results revealed that TJ could block the downregulation of LDLR and PEPCK and upregulation of PPARα mRNA and protein expressions in the livers of rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/320304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514861PMC
December 2012

Microencapsulation of puerarin nanoparticles by poly(l-lactide) in a supercritical CO(2) process.

Acta Biomater 2009 Oct 4;5(8):2913-9. Epub 2009 May 4.

Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Puerarin nanoparticles were firstly prepared in the process of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO(2) (SEDS) and then successfully microencapsulated by poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) in a modified SEDS process. By adding an organic non-solvent, an initial puerarin solution with a higher degree of saturation and lower concentration was obtained and applied in the SEDS process. The resulting puerarin nanoparticles were then suspended in PLLA solution and microencapsulated by PLLA in a modified SEDS process, where an 'injector' was employed in the particle suspension delivery system. The puerarin nanoparticles exhibited a good spherical shape, a smooth surface and a narrow particle size distribution with a mean particle size of 188 nm. After microencapsulation the puerarin-PLLA microparticles had a mean size of 675 nm, a drug load of 23.6% and an encapsulation efficiency of 39.4%; after a burst release at the first stage, the drug was released in a sustained process. Compared with the parallel study of a co-precipitation process, this microencapsulation process is a much more promising technique to prepare a drug-polymer carrier for a drug delivery system, especially for protein drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.04.032DOI Listing
October 2009