Publications by authors named "Daniel H Shen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Automated MicroSPECT/MicroCT Image Analysis of the Mouse Thyroid Gland.

Thyroid 2017 11 19;27(11):1433-1440. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

2 Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio.

Background: The ability of thyroid follicular cells to take up iodine enables the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) for imaging and targeted killing of RAI-avid thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. To facilitate identifying novel strategies to improve I therapeutic efficacy for patients with RAI refractory disease, it is desired to optimize image acquisition and analysis for preclinical mouse models of thyroid cancer.

Methods: A customized mouse cradle was designed and used for microSPECT/CT image acquisition at 1 hour (t1) and 24 hours (t24) post injection of I, which mainly reflect RAI influx/efflux equilibrium and RAI retention in the thyroid, respectively. FVB/N mice with normal thyroid glands and TgBRAF mice with thyroid tumors were imaged. In-house CTViewer software was developed to streamline image analysis with new capabilities, along with display of 3D voxel-based I gamma photon intensity in MATLAB.

Results: The customized mouse cradle facilitates consistent tissue configuration among image acquisitions such that rigid body registration can be applied to align serial images of the same mouse via the in-house CTViewer software. CTViewer is designed specifically to streamline SPECT/CT image analysis with functions tailored to quantify thyroid radioiodine uptake. Automatic segmentation of thyroid volumes of interest (VOI) from adjacent salivary glands in t1 images is enabled by superimposing the thyroid VOI from the t24 image onto the corresponding aligned t1 image. The extent of heterogeneity in I accumulation within thyroid VOIs can be visualized by 3D display of voxel-based I gamma photon intensity.

Conclusions: MicroSPECT/CT image acquisition and analysis for thyroidal RAI uptake is greatly improved by the cradle and the CTViewer software, respectively. Furthermore, the approach of superimposing thyroid VOIs from t24 images to select thyroid VOIs on corresponding aligned t1 images can be applied to studies in which the target tissue has differential radiotracer retention from surrounding tissues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5672640PMC
November 2017

Modulation of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer.

Horm Cancer 2014 Dec 19;5(6):363-73. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 1645 Neil Avenue, 304 Hamilton Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Radioactive iodine (RAI) is a key therapeutic modality for thyroid cancer. Loss of RAI uptake in thyroid cancer inversely correlates with patient's survival. In this review, we focus on the challenges encountered in delivering sufficient doses of I-131 to eradicate metastatic lesions without increasing the risk of unwanted side effects. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide influx, and NIS expression and function can be selectively enhanced in thyroid cells by thyroid-stimulating hormone. We summarize our current knowledge of NIS modulation in normal and cancer thyroid cells, and we propose that several reagents evaluated in clinical trials for other diseases can be used to restore or further increase RAI accumulation in thyroid cancer. Once validated in preclinical mouse models and clinical trials, these reagents, mostly small-molecule inhibitors, can be readily translated into clinical practice. We review available genetically engineered mouse models of thyroid cancer in terms of their tumor development and progression as well as their thyroid function. These mice will not only provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying the loss of RAI uptake in thyroid tumors but will also serve as preclinical animal models to evaluate the efficacy of candidate reagents to selectively increase RAI uptake in thyroid cancers. Taken together, we anticipate that the optimal use of RAI in the clinical management of thyroid cancer is yet to come in the near future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12672-014-0203-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4458071PMC
December 2014

Improved and optimized one-pot method for N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) synthesis using microwaves.

Appl Radiat Isot 2014 Dec 2;94:113-117. Epub 2014 Aug 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine/PET Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, No. 325, Sec. 2, Cheng-kung Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City 114, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

N-Succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) is a potential prosthetic agent for novel tracer development in positron emission tomography (PET). Previously, we reported a microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of [(18)F]SFB with high efficacy. Herein, we reveal an improved and optimized approach based on this former model for producing [(18)F]SFB. With optimized approaches, the entire protocol can be completed within 25min, and [(18)F]SFB is generated in satisfactory quality for direct use without further purification via high-performance liquid chromatography.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.07.015DOI Listing
December 2014

Value of ¹⁸F-FDG uptake on PET/CT and CEA level to predict epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2014 Oct 23;41(10):1889-97. Epub 2014 May 23.

Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, 325, Section 2, Cheng-Gong Road, Nei-Hu, Taipei 114, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Purpose: The identification of the mutation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is important for the optimization of treatment in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The acquisition of adequate tissues for EGFR mutational analysis is sometimes not feasible, especially in advanced-stage patients. The aim of this study was to predict EGFR mutation status in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma based on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and imaging features in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), as well as on the serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 132 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who underwent EGFR mutation testing, pretreatment FDG PET/CT and serum CEA analysis. The associations between EGFR mutations and patient characteristics, maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of primary tumors, serum CEA level and CT imaging features were analyzed. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to quantify the predictive value of these factors.

Results: EGFR mutations were identified in 69 patients (52.2 %). Patients with SUVmax ≥6 (p = 0.002) and CEA level ≥5 (p = 0.013) were more likely to have EGFR mutations. The CT characteristics of larger tumors (≥3 cm) (p = 0.023) and tumors with a nonspiculated margin (p = 0.026) were also associated with EGFR mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that higher SUVmax and CEA level, never smoking and a nonspiculated tumor margin were the most significant predictors of EGFR mutation. The combined use of these four criteria yielded a higher area under the ROC curve (0.82), suggesting a good discrimination.

Conclusion: The combined evaluation of FDG uptake, CEA level, smoking status and tumor margins may be helpful in predicting EGFR mutation status in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially when the tumor sample is inadequate for genetic analysis or genetic testing is not available. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to validate these results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-014-2802-yDOI Listing
October 2014

Experience of low-dose aminophylline use to relieve minor adverse effects of dipyridamole in patients undergoing stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

J Nucl Cardiol 2014 Jun 14;21(3):563-9. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

PET center and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital & National Defense Medical Center, 325, Cheng-Kung Road, Section 2, Taipei, 114, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Intravenous administration of aminophylline is widely adopted to reverse dipyridamole-related adverse effects (AEs) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of lower-dose aminophylline to relieve minor AEs.

Methods: 2,250 consecutive patients undergoing dipyridamole-stressed MPI were enrolled. Information concerning AE occurrence and dosages of aminophylline was collected to evaluate the efficacy of lower-dose aminophylline. A logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of dipyridamole-related AE occurrence.

Results: No severe AE was noted. Overall mild AE incidence was 37.0% (833/2,250 patients). Initial low-dose (25 mg) aminophylline relieved symptoms in 98.8% of patients with mild AEs (823/833 patients). An extra 25 mg aminophylline sufficed to reverse all such AEs. Mean body mass index (BMI) differed significantly between patients with and without any AE [25.6 vs 25.1 (P = .009)]. There was no significant difference between two subgroups in mean age, male gender prevalence, body height and weight, dipyridamole dose/BMI, or prevalence of significant perfusion defect(s) on MPI. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated BMI remained the independent predictor of dipyridamole-related AE occurrence (odds ratio 1.028, 95% confidence interval 1.007-1.049, P = .01).

Conclusion: Low-dose (≦50 mg, and usually 25 mg) aminophylline seems sufficient to relieve mild dipyridamole-related AEs during stress MPI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-014-9883-7DOI Listing
June 2014

Modulation of sodium/iodide symporter expression in the salivary gland.

Thyroid 2013 Aug 17;23(8):1029-36. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine-induced damage following (131)I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland.

Methods: NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative (123)I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after (123)I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients.

Results: NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of (123)I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of (123)I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake.

Conclusions: NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated to excretory ducts in salivary ductal cells. NIS expression in salivary glands is decreased during inflammation and tumor formation. Further investigation may identify molecular targets and/or pharmacologic agents that allow selective inhibition of NIS expression/activity in salivary glands during radioactive iodine treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2012.0571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3752512PMC
August 2013

Conversion from FDG-negative to -positive during follow-up in a rare case of pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2012 Jul;37(7):679-81

PET center and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

A female patient aged 75 years presented with an incidental pulmonary nodule without FDG uptake when undergoing FDG PET/CT. Without obtaining histologic diagnosis, the follow-up FDG PET/CT 2 years later demonstrated intense FDG avidity within previously FDG-negative tumor. After surgery, the pathologic diagnosis is pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC). LELCs are unique because of histologic similarities with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal lymphoepithelioma and with a better prognosis as compared with other lung malignancies. However, the expression of FDG uptake in LELC has never been discussed. Herein, we describe a pulmonary LELC manifesting as a slowly growing tumor displaying conversion from FDG-negative to -positive avidity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0b013e31823ea953DOI Listing
July 2012

Micro-single-photon emission computed tomography image acquisition and quantification of sodium-iodide symporter-mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands.

Thyroid 2012 Jun 27;22(6):617-24. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 1645 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: Micro-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a noninvasive way to evaluate the effects of genetic and/or pharmacological modulation on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands. However, parameters affecting image acquisition and analysis of mouse thyroids and salivary glands have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of region-of-interest (ROI) selection, collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on image acquisition and quantification of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in mice.

Methods: The effects of data window minima and maxima on thyroidal and salivary ROI selection using a visual boundary method were examined in SPECT images acquired from mice injected with (123)I NaI. The effects of collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on counting linearity and signal intensity were investigated using phantoms filled with various activities of (123)I NaI or Tc-99m pertechnetate. Spatial resolution of target organs in whole-animal images was compared between circular orbit with parallel-hole collimation and spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimation. Lastly, the inter-experimental variability of the same mouse scanned multiple times was compared with the intra-experimental variability among different mice scanned at the same time.

Results: Thyroid ROI was separated from salivary glands by empirically increasing the data window maxima. Counting linearity within the range of 0.5-14.2 μCi was validated by phantom imaging using single- or multiple-pinhole collimators with circular or spiral imaging orbit. Scanning time could be shortened to 15 minutes per mouse without compromising counting linearity despite proportionally decreased signal intensity. Whole-animal imaging using a spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimators achieved a high spatial resolution and counting linearity. Finally, the extent of inter-experimental variability of NIS-mediated radionuclide accumulation in the thyroid and salivary glands by SPECT imaging in the same mouse was less than the magnitude of variability among the littermates.

Conclusions: The impacts of multiple variables and experimental designs on micro-SPECT imaging and quantification of radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands can be minimized. This platform will serve as an invaluable tool to screen for pharmacologic reagents that differentially modulate thyroidal and salivary radioiodine accumulation in preclinical mouse models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2011.0348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3358108PMC
June 2012

Unusual Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake by clinically suspected adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2011 Dec;36(12):e207-8

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0b013e31821a2b90DOI Listing
December 2011

Single photon emission computed tomography imaging for temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin-treated thyroid cancer mouse model.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2011 Feb 30;18(1):27-37. Epub 2010 Nov 30.

The Ohio State Biochemistry Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Selective iodide uptake and prolonged iodine retention in the thyroid is the basis for targeted radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer patients; however, salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent nonthyroidal complications. In this study, we have used noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography functional imaging to quantify the temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radioiodine accumulation in mice. At 60  min post radionuclide injection, radionuclide accumulation in the salivary gland was generally higher than that in thyroid due to much larger volume of the salivary gland. However, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in the salivary gland was lower than that in thyroid and was comparable among mice of different age and gender. Differently, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in thyroid varied greatly among mice. The extent of thyroidal radioiodine accumulation stimulated by a single dose of exogenous bovine TSH (bTSH) in triiodothyronine (T₃)-supplemented mice was much less than that in mice received neither bTSH nor T₃ (nontreated mice), suggesting that the duration of elevated serum TSH level is important to maximize thyroidal radioiodine accumulation. Furthermore, the extent and duration of radioiodine accumulation stimulated by bTSH was less in the thyroids of the thyroid-targeted RET/PTC1 (thyroglobulin (Tg)-PTC1) mice bearing thyroid tumors compared with the thyroids in wild-type (WT) mice. Finally, the effect of 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin on increasing thyroidal, but not salivary, radioiodine accumulation was validated in both WT mice and Tg-PTC1 preclinical thyroid cancer mouse model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/ERC-10-0185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902865PMC
February 2011

Tumoral calcinosis demonstrated on Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy.

Clin Nucl Med 2008 Dec;33(12):920-1

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

A 61-year-old uremic male under hemodialysis underwent Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy due to suspicious secondary hyperparathyroidism. The images showed increased uptake in the right forearm, left shoulder, right knee and, to a lesser extent, in the left hip and the right thigh. Subsequent Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and x-ray studies revealed intense extraosseous uptake and calcified masses in areas corresponding to those found in Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy, suggesting tumoral calcinoses. We demonstrate the rare case in which Tc-99m sestamibi was taken up by tumoral calcinoses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0b013e31818c4e4dDOI Listing
December 2008

Detection of multiple myeloma by PET/CT in a patient with colon cancer.

Clin Nucl Med 2008 May;33(5):367-70

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, People's Republic of China.

A 76-year-old man with previous sigmoid colon resection for adenocarcinoma had low back pain for 2 months. Whole-body bone scintigraphy showed multiple focal Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP)-avid lesions in both rib cages and 3 lumbar vertebrae, indicating metastases. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging was performed for further evaluation of this possible metastatic disease and demonstrated the lumbar and costal metastases and several hypermetabolic areas in the pelvic bones, multiple thoracic vertebrae, both shoulders, and the right femur. Histopathologic examination of the right-sided iliac crest, however, revealed multiple myeloma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0b013e31816a8883DOI Listing
May 2008

FDG PET/CT demonstrated rapid progression of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in sarcoidosis.

Clin Nucl Med 2007 Feb;32(2):117-21

Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.rlu.0000252217.14064.0fDOI Listing
February 2007

Correlation of Na+/I- symporter expression and activity: implications of Na+/I- symporter as an imaging reporter gene.

J Nucl Med 2006 Jan;47(1):182-90

Integrated Biomedical Science Graduate Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA.

Unlabelled: The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) has been proposed as an imaging reporter gene to ascertain the expression of therapeutic genes in targeted tissues. In this study, we investigated whether posttranslational processing and cell-surface trafficking of NIS affect NIS-mediated radioiodide uptake in cells expressing exogenous NIS.

Methods: We established FTC133, HeLa, and PC12 cell lines with doxycycline-inducible NIS expression to investigate the correlation among total NIS protein levels, cell-surface NIS protein levels, and NIS-mediated radioiodide uptake in cells induced with various levels of NIS.

Results: We found that most exogenous NIS proteins were efficiently trafficked to the cell surface; thus, a possible deficiency in NIS cell-surface trafficking is not a concern for clinical applications of NIS gene transfer. The extent of radioiodide uptake correlated with cell-surface NIS protein level within a certain range, suggesting that the imaging signals can quantify levels of NIS expression only within a certain range in vivo. Finally, a moderate increase in NIS protein level significantly increased radioiodide uptake, indicating that a low level of NIS expression is sufficient to facilitate radionuclide imaging in vivo.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that NIS will be useful as an imaging reporter gene to ascertain that the therapeutic gene is localized to the correct tissue and to monitor the expression levels and duration of the therapeutic gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2006

Imaging of metastatic pulmonary tumors following NIS gene transfer using single photon emission computed tomography.

Cancer Gene Ther 2004 Feb;11(2):121-7

Medical Scientist Program, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is a membrane glycoprotein that facilitates the uptake of iodine into thyroid follicular cells. Recently, we and others have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging subcutaneous xenografts expressing exogenous NIS, suggesting that NIS may serve as an imaging reporter gene to monitor vector delivery and therapeutic gene expression. In this study, we established NIS-expressing pulmonary tumors in nude mice to investigate the minimal tumor size required for in vivo detection of pulmonary tumors by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with pinhole collimation. In order to define the anatomic location of NIS-expressing tumor nodules detectable by SPECT, we performed simultaneous, dual-isotope imaging. We injected 1 mCi 99mTc-MAA via tail vein to image pulmonary perfusion and injected 1 mCi Na125I intraperitoneally to image NIS-expressing tumors. Fused images showed that 99mTc-MAA perfusion defects correlated with NIS-mediated 125I uptake. Post-mortem analysis revealed that tumors 3 mm in diameter could be detected by SPECT with pinhole collimation. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT to detect pulmonary tumors expressing exogenous NIS in mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.cgt.7700661DOI Listing
February 2004