Publications by authors named "Daniel Fischer"

176 Publications

Editorial: The Role of the Individual in the Great Transformation Toward Sustainability.

Front Psychol 2021 5;12:710897. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Consumer Research, Communication and Food Sociology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.710897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287330PMC
July 2021

Out-of-Hospital Management of Diabetic Emergencies in Germany: Structural and Process Quality.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

1st Department of Medicine, Lippe-Detmold Hospital, Germany.

Aims: To collect and analyse representative data of structural and process quality in the management of diabetic emergencies in Germany in 2020.

Methods: A standardised questionnaire comprising detailed items concerning clinically relevant parameters on the structural and process quality of out-of-hospital management of diabetic emergencies was sent nationwide to medical directors of emergency medical service districts (EMSDs). Results were compared with those from a similar study conducted in 2001.

Results: The return rate of the questionnaires represented 126 EMSDs, serving a total population of > 40.1 million. Only 4% of ambulances carried glucagon (6% in 2001). In 2020, blood glucose determination increased significantly to 71% of all emergency interventions and to 29% of suspected cardiac emergencies (24% and 15%, respectively, in 2001). In 100% of EMSDs severe hypoglycaemia (SH) was treated by paramedics by administering intravenous dextrose before the arrival of a doctor compared to 63% in 2001. The potential value of nasal glucagon was acknowledged by 43% of responders. In selected patients, treatment of SH was conducted without hospital admission in 78% of EMDs (60% in 2001). Fifty-three percent of medical directors acknowledged the need for further training in diabetic emergencies (47% in 2001). Cooperation for medical education between emergency teams and a diabetes centre was reported by 14% (41% in 2001).

Conclusion: Structural and process quality of the management of diabetic emergencies in Germany has improved considerably since 2001. Persisting deficiencies could be improved by providing better medical equipment in ambulances and ongoing education to the entire emergency teams.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1523-7562DOI Listing
July 2021

Characterization of nucleic acids from extracellular vesicle-enriched human sweat.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 9;22(1):425. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Disease Networks Research Unit, Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Kvantum Institute, Infotech Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Background: The human sweat is a mixture of secretions from three types of glands: eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous. Eccrine glands open directly on the skin surface and produce high amounts of water-based fluid in response to heat, emotion, and physical activity, whereas the other glands produce oily fluids and waxy sebum. While most body fluids have been shown to contain nucleic acids, both as ribonucleoprotein complexes and associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs), these have not been investigated in sweat. In this study we aimed to explore and characterize the nucleic acids associated with sweat particles.

Results: We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize DNA and RNA in pooled and individual samples of EV-enriched sweat collected from volunteers performing rigorous exercise. In all sequenced samples, we identified DNA originating from all human chromosomes, but only the mitochondrial chromosome was highly represented with 100% coverage. Most of the DNA mapped to unannotated regions of the human genome with some regions highly represented in all samples. Approximately 5 % of the reads were found to map to other genomes: including bacteria (83%), archaea (3%), and virus (13%), identified bacteria species were consistent with those commonly colonizing the human upper body and arm skin. Small RNA-seq from EV-enriched pooled sweat RNA resulted in 74% of the trimmed reads mapped to the human genome, with 29% corresponding to unannotated regions. Over 70% of the RNA reads mapping to an annotated region were tRNA, while misc. RNA (18,5%), protein coding RNA (5%) and miRNA (1,85%) were much less represented. RNA-seq from individually processed EV-enriched sweat collection generally resulted in fewer percentage of reads mapping to the human genome (7-45%), with 50-60% of those reads mapping to unannotated region of the genome and 30-55% being tRNAs, and lower percentage of reads being rRNA, LincRNA, misc. RNA, and protein coding RNA.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrates that sweat, as all other body fluids, contains a wealth of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA of human and microbial origin, opening a possibility to investigate sweat as a source for biomarkers for specific health parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07733-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188706PMC
June 2021

Single Femtosecond Laser-Pulse-Induced Superficial Amorphization and Re-Crystallization of Silicon.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;14(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin, Germany.

Superficial amorphization and re-crystallization of silicon in <111> and <100> orientation after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses (790 nm, 30 fs) are studied using optical imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry (SIE) allows fast data acquisition at multiple wavelengths and provides experimental data for calculating nanometric amorphous layer thickness profiles with micrometric lateral resolution based on a thin-film layer model. For a radially Gaussian laser beam and at moderate peak fluences above the melting and below the ablation thresholds, laterally parabolic amorphous layer profiles with maximum thicknesses of several tens of nanometers were quantitatively attained. The accuracy of the calculations is verified experimentally by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX). Along with topographic information obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM), a comprehensive picture of the superficial re-solidification of silicon after local melting by femtosecond laser pulses is drawn.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14071651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037179PMC
March 2021

A NIST facility for Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering measuring nano-scale soft matter structure at NSLS-II.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Materials Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899, UNITED STATES.

We present the design and performance of a polarized Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering (RSoXS) station for soft matter characterization built by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The RSoXS station is located within the Spectroscopy Soft and Tender (SST) beamline suite at NSLS-II located in Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York. Numerous elements of the RSoXS station were designed for optimal performance for measurements on soft matter systems, where it is of critical importance to minimize beam damage and maximize collection efficiency of polarized X-rays. These elements include a novel optical design, sample manipulator and sample environments, as well as detector setups. Finally, we will report the performance of the measurement station, including energy resolution, higher harmonic content and suppression methods, the extent and mitigation of the carbon absorption dip on optics, and the range of polarizations available from the elliptically polarized undulator source.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abdffbDOI Listing
January 2021

On linear dimension reduction based on diagonalization of scatter matrices for bioinformatics downstream analyses.

Heliyon 2020 Dec 22;6(12):e05732. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

Dimension reduction is often a preliminary step in the analysis of data sets with a large number of variables. Most classical, both supervised and unsupervised, dimension reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) or sliced inverse regression (SIR) can be formulated using one, two or several different scatter matrix functionals. Scatter matrices can be seen as different measures of multivariate dispersion and might highlight different features of the data and when compared might reveal interesting structures. Such analysis then searches for a projection onto an interesting (signal) part of the data, and it is also important to know the correct dimension of the signal subspace. These approaches usually make either no model assumptions or work in wide classes of semiparametric models. Theoretical results in the literature are however limited to the case where the sample size exceeds the number of variables which is hardly ever true for data sets encountered in bioinformatics. In this paper, we briefly review the relevant literature and explore if the dimension reduction tools can be used to find relevant and interesting subspaces for small--large- data sets. We illustrate the methods with a microarray dataset of prostate cancer patients and healthy controls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770551PMC
December 2020

The involvement of the trehalase enzymes in stress resistance and gut colonization.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):329-345

Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Institute of Botany and Microbiology , Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium.

is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and is frequently present in the human microbiome. It has a high relative resistance to environmental stresses and several antifungal drugs. An important component involved in microbial stress tolerance is trehalose. In this work, we characterized the three trehalase enzymes Ath1, Nth1 and Nth2. Single, double and triple deletion strains were constructed and characterized both and to determine the role of these enzymes in virulence. Ath1 was found to be located in the periplasm and was essential for growth on trehalose as sole carbon source, while Nth1 on the other hand was important for oxidative stress resistance, an observation which was consistent by the lower survival rate of the deletion strain in human macrophages. No significant phenotype was observed for Nth2. The triple deletion strain was unable to establish a stable colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in mice indicating the importance of having trehalase activity for colonization in the gut.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2020.1868825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808424PMC
December 2021

A Port Site Richter's Hernia.

Am Surg 2020 Dec 19:3134820979186. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Health Sciences, 26732Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820979186DOI Listing
December 2020

Computerized Clinical Training Simulations with Virtual Clients Abusing Alcohol: Initial Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effectiveness.

Clin Soc Work J 2020 Nov 19:1-13. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

School of Social Work, University of Michigan, 1080 South University Avenue, Room 3796, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1106 USA.

Although masters-level social work students typically build clinical skills via role-playing with their peers or instructors, several innovative training simulations are emerging in the literature that may enhance existing skill-building methodologies. We evaluated the initial feasibility, acceptability, usability, and effectiveness of three computerized simulations (two cognitive behavioral therapy, one motivational interviewing) during an interpersonal practice course among 22 students in a Master of Social Work program accredited by the Council on Social Work Education. Trainees repetitively practiced their clinical skills with virtual clients while receiving feedback via real-time nonverbal cues, transcript review, and performance assessment across pre-specified theoretical learning objectives. Across the three simulations, at least 86.4% of students completed the required protocol and completed M = 468.95 (SD = 178.27) minutes of simulated sessions. Students improved their scores (range 0 to 100) across all the simulations from M = 63.41 (SD = 11.13) to M = 93.64 (SD = 3.24). Students found the simulations to be acceptable with strong usability. Paired sample -tests revealed students reported greater self-efficacy in general clinical skills, exploration skills, insight skills, and action skills between pre-test and post-test after completing the simulations (all p < 0.001). Students reported that the clinical skills learned from the simulations translated into successful interactions with real-world clients during their field placements. We discuss the results of this initial feasibility study within the context of simulation-based learning and the potential for broader implementation within MSW programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10615-020-00779-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674574PMC
November 2020

Virtual Standardized Patients vs Academic Training for Learning Motivational Interviewing Skills in the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the US Military: A Randomized Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2017348. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Veterans Affairs (VA) Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle and Tacoma, Washington.

Importance: Despite the need for effective and scalable training in motivational interviewing (MI) that includes posttraining coaching and feedback, limited evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of using virtual (computerized) standardized patients (VSPs) in such training.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of training with a VSP on the acquisition and maintenance of MI skills compared with traditional academic study.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study was a 2-group, parallel-training randomized trial of 120 volunteer health care professionals recruited from a Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense medical facility. Motivational interviewing skill was coded by external experts blinded to training group and skill assessment time points. Data were collected from October 17, 2016, to August 12, 2019.

Interventions: After a computer course on MI, participants trained during two 45-minute sessions separated by 3 months. The 2 randomized training conditions included a branching storyline VSP, which provided MI skill rehearsal with immediate and summative feedback, and a control condition, which included academic study of content from the computerized MI course.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Measurement of MI skill was based on recorded conversations with human standardized patients, assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 4.2.1 coding system, measured at baseline, after training, and after additional training in the randomized condition 3 months later.

Results: A total of 120 volunteers (83 [69%] women), with a mean (SD) of 13.6 (10.3) years of health care experience, participated in the study; 61 were randomized to receive the intervention, and 59 were randomized to the control group. Those assigned to VSP training had significantly greater posttraining improvement in technical global scores (0.23; 95% CI, 0.03-0.44; P = .02), relational global scores (0.57; 95% CI, 0.33-0.81; P = .001), and the reflection-to-question ratio (0.23; 95% CI, 0.15-0.31; P = .001). Differences were maintained after the 3-month additional training session, with more improvements achieved after the 3-month training for the VSP trainees on the reflection-to- question ratio (0.15; 95% CI, 0.07-0.24; P = .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: This randomized trial demonstrated a successful transfer of training from a VSP to human standardized patients. The VSP MI skill outcomes were better than those achieved with academic study and were maintained over time. Virtual standardized patients have the potential to facilitate dissemination of MI and may be useful for training in other evidence-based skills and treatments.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04558060.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563071PMC
October 2020

The mechanisms of action and use of botulinum neurotoxin type A in aesthetics: Key Clinical Postulates II.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 11 16;19(11):2785-2804. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Center for Clinical and Cosmetic Research, Aventura, Florida, USA.

Background: The literature on botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) is extensive, often contradictory, and confounded by a competitive market of products and research attempting to distinguish brand individuality.

Methods: A comprehensive review of literature on the principles of BoNT-A in aesthetics as well as clinical examples.

Results: In 2017, the Eight Key Clinical Postulates were formulated as a guide for the aesthetic practitioner in understanding BoNT-A pharmacodynamics and to compare different toxins. These are now updated to include (a) All type A toxins act identically; (b) The mathematical relationship between toxin and receptor is the basis of efficacy, and clinical efficacy is influenced by molecular potency and patient attributes including muscle mass, gender, age, and ethnicity; (c) Efficacy, onset, and duration are functions of "molecular potency" defined as the number of active 150 kDa molecules available for binding; (d) "Molecular potency" is difficult to objectively quantify for commercially available toxins; (e) Up to a point, increased molecular potency decreases time to onset and increases duration of effect, and the "Molecular Potency Quotient" is a construct for comparing molecular potency commercial cost; (f) The area of effect of a toxin injection is dependent upon molecular potency, diffusion (passive), and spread (active); (g) Differing reconstitution volumes; and (h) Increased number of injection sites can affect spread, onset, and duration of effect.

Conclusions: The principles of BoNT-A use in aesthetics are complex yet understandable as outlined in the framework of the updated Eight Key Clinical Postulates and serves as a useful tool for providing the most effective treatment and interpreting research on present and future toxin formulations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693297PMC
November 2020

Practices and Barriers in Sexual History Taking: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Public Adult Primary Care Clinic.

J Sex Med 2020 08 28;17(8):1509-1519. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Surveys report low frequencies of sexual history (SH) obtained in primary care. Sexually transmitted infections incidence can be reduced with timely screening. It is important to determine whether providers obtain thorough SH and to identify needs for improvement.

Aim: To evaluate the frequency and depth of SH taking in primary care.

Methods: In this cross-sectional cohort study, 1,017 primary care visits were reviewed (1,017 adult patients, female 55.26%). 417 patients were seen by male providers and 600 patients were seen by female providers. Multivariate ordered and logit models were deployed.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measures included SH taking rates and completeness based on the 5 P model as described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Results: All components of SH were explored in 1.08% of visits. Partial SH was obtained in 33.92% of visits. No SH was taken in the majority of visits (65%). SH was more likely to be taken from female patients than from male patients (P < .001), and was less likely to be obtained from older patients as compared to younger individuals (P < .001). There was no significant difference in SH taking between male and female providers (P = .753). The provider title and the level of training were found to be independent predictors of SH taking (P < .001).

Clinical Implications: The results of this study highlight an unmet need for more comprehensive and consistent SH taking amongst providers, particularly in high-risk settings, so that SH can be used as a valuable tool in preventive care.

Strengths & Limitations: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study to date examining SH taking in the primary care setting. Limitations include the retrospective study design, lack of generalizability to other hospitals, and inconsistencies in available data.

Conclusion: The SH taking rates in primary care clinics are globally low with a variation depending on the provider position or level of training, provider gender, and patient age. Palaiodimos L, Herman HS, Wood E, et al. Practices and Barriers in Sexual History Taking: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Public Adult Primary Care Clinic. J Sex Med 2020;17:1509-1519.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.05.004DOI Listing
August 2020

"Masking" our emotions: Botulinum toxin, facial expression, and well-being in the age of COVID-19.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 09 12;19(9):2154-2160. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Center for Clinical and Cosmetic Research, Aventura, FL, USA.

Background: The globally devastating effects of COVID-19 breach not only the realm of public health, but of psychosocial interaction and communication as well, particularly with the advent of mask-wearing.

Methods: A review of the literature and understanding of facial anatomy and expressions as well as the effect of botulinum toxin on emotions and nonverbal communication.

Results: Today, the mask has become a semi-permanent accessory to the face, blocking our ability to express and perceive each other's facial expressions by dividing it into a visible top half and invisible bottom half. This significantly restricts our ability to accurately interpret emotions based on facial expressions and strengthens our perceptions of negative emotions produced by frowning. The addition of botulinum toxin (BTX)-induced facial muscle paralysis to target the muscles of the top (visible) half of the face, especially the corrugator and procerus muscles, may act as a therapeutic solution by its suppression of glabellar lines and our ability to frown. The treatment of the glabella complex not only has been shown to inhibit the negative emotions of the treated individual but also can reduce the negative emotions in those who come in contact with the treated individual.

Conclusions: Mask-wearing in the wake of COVID-19 brings new challenges to our ability to communicate and perceive emotion through full facial expression, our most effective and universally shared form of communication, and BTX may offer a positive solution to decrease negative emotions and promote well-being for both the mask-wearer and all who come in contact with that individual.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361553PMC
September 2020

Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Study to Compare the Efficacy and Tolerance of a 650-microsecond, 1064-nm YAG Laser to a 308-nm Excimer Laser for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Psoriasis Vulgaris

J Drugs Dermatol 2020 Feb;19(2):176-183

Background: Phototherapy is a safe and effective modality for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of the 650-microsecond, 1064-nm pulsed YAG laser with the excimer laser for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis vulgaris of the arms and legs. Methods: Eligible subjects (n=15) aged 54.3 ± 11.7 years enrolled in a randomized, investigator-blinded study. Psoriatic plaques on one side of the body were treated with the 650-microsecond laser and plaques on the other side were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser. Subjects made up to 15 visits, twice weekly, or fewer if full clearance was achieved. Efficacy and tolerance were evaluated by the mPASI scores and local skin reactions, respectively. Results: Both devices showed efficacy in treating psoriatic plaques. Differences between the two devices were not significant for redness, thickness, scaliness, mPASI scores for arms and legs, and overall mPASI scores for the treated psoriatic plaques on each side of the body. The investigator-assessed scores for erosion/ulceration, vesicles, erythema, scaling, edema, and atrophy were low and identical for both sides of the body. Conclusion: The efficacy and tolerance of the 650-microsecond laser is equivalent to that of the excimer laser for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis vulgaris of the arms and legs. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(2)176-183. doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.4769
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.36849/JDD.2020.4769DOI Listing
February 2020

Rethinking the Journal Impact Factor and Publishing in the Digital Age.

J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2020 01 1;13(1):12-17. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Drs. Nestor, Fischer, Arnold, and Berman are with the Center for Clinical and Cosmetic Research in Aventura, Florida.

Clinical and experimental literature search has changed significantly over the past few decades, and with it, the way in which we value information. Today, our need for immediate access to relevant and specific literature, regardless of specialty, has led to a growing demand for open access to publications. The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) has been a long-time standard for representing the quality or "prestige" of a journal, but it appears to be losing its relevance. Here, we define the JIF and deconstruct its validity as a modern measure of a journal's quality, discuss the current models of academic publication, including their advantages and shortcomings, and discuss the benefits and shortcomings of a variety of open-access models, including costs to the author. We have quantified a nonsubscribed physician's access to full articles associated with dermatologic disease and aesthetics cited on PubMed. For some of the most common dermatology conditions, 23.1 percent of citations (ranging from 17.2% for melasma to 31.9% for malignant melanoma) were available as free full articles, and for aesthetic procedures, 18.9 percent of citations (ranging from 11.9% for laser hair removal to 27.9% for botulinum toxin) were available as free full articles. Finally, we discuss existing alternative metrics for measuring journal impact and propose the adoption of a superior publishing model, one that satisfies modern day standards of scholarly knowledge pursuit and dissemination of scholarly publications for dermatology and all of medical science.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028381PMC
January 2020

Core level spectroscopies locate hydrogen in the proton transfer pathway - identifying quasi-symmetrical hydrogen bonds in the solid state.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Mar 19;22(9):4916-4923. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Short, strong hydrogen bonds (SSHBs) have been a source of interest and considerable speculation over recent years, culminating with those where hydrogen resides around the midpoint between the donor and acceptor atoms, leading to quasi-covalent nature. We demonstrate that X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy provide deep insight into the electronic structure of the short OHN hydrogen bond of 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, revealing for the first time distinctive spectroscopic identifiers for these quasi-symmetrical hydrogen bonds. An intermediate nitrogen (core level) chemical shift occurs for the almost centrally located hydrogen compared to protonated (ionic) and non-ionic analogues, and it reveals the absence of two-site disorder. This type of bonding is also evident through broadening of the nitrogen 1s photoemission and 1s → 1π* peaks in XPS and NEXAFS, respectively, arising from the femtosecond lifetimes of hydrogen in the potential wells slightly offset to either side of the centre. The line-shape of the core level excitations are thus related to the population occupancies, reflecting the temperature-dependent shape of the hydrogen potential energy well. Both XPS and NEXAFS provide a distinctive identifier for these quasi-symmetrical hydrogen bonds, paving the way for detailed studies into their prevalence and potentially unique physical and chemical properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp05677gDOI Listing
March 2020

Performing QTL and eQTL Analyses with the R-Package GenomicTools.

Authors:
Daniel Fischer

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2082:15-38

Applied Statistical Methods, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Jokioinen, Finland.

We present the R-package GenomicTools that can be used to perform QTL and eQTL analyses in a user-friendly way. First, the theoretical backgrounds of both implemented methods are explained. These are (a) the linear model approach that is commonly used in the standard QTL/eQTL testing as well as (b) a non-parametrical directional testing method implemented in GenomicTools. The directional test overcomes some of the drawbacks of the standard way and is robust against outliers in the data. The main focus, however, is on a detailed explanation, how the R-package is used in practice. Starting from the installation of the package, followed by the data import and also the required steps to perform the analyses, all necessary steps are explained in detail with examples. Also, the commands to create publication-ready figures are presented. The last chapter concludes and discusses general topics related to the analysis of QTL and eQTL data in particular and genomic data in general.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0026-9_2DOI Listing
December 2020

NEXAFS imaging to characterize the physio-chemical composition of cuticle from African Flower Scarab Eudicella gralli.

Nat Commun 2019 10 18;10(1):4758. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

The outermost surface of insect cuticle is a high-performance interface that provides wear protection, hydration, camouflage and sensing. The complex and inhomogeneous structure of insect cuticle imposes stringent requirements on approaches to elucidate its molecular structure and surface chemistry. Therefore, a molecular understanding and possible mimicry of the surface of insect cuticle has been a challenge. Conventional optical and electron microscopies as well as biochemical techniques provide information about morphology and chemistry but lack surface specificity. We here show that a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source can probe the surface chemistry of the curved and inhomogeneous cuticle of the African flower scarab. The analysis shows the distribution of organic and inorganic surface species while also hinting at the presence of aragonite at the dorsal protrusion region of the Eudicella gralli head, in line with its biological function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12616-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802387PMC
October 2019

Disruption of Membrane Integrity by the Bacterium-Derived Antifungal Jagaricin.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 09 23;63(9). Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Microbial Pathogenicity Mechanisms, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology-Hans Knöll Institute, Jena, Germany

Jagaricin is a lipopeptide produced by the bacterial mushroom pathogen , the causative agent of mushroom soft rot disease. Apart from causing lesions in mushrooms, jagaricin is a potent antifungal active against human-pathogenic fungi. We show that jagaricin acts by impairing membrane integrity, resulting in a rapid flux of ions, including Ca, into susceptible target cells. Accordingly, the calcineurin pathway is required for jagaricin tolerance in the fungal pathogen Transcriptional profiling of pathogenic yeasts further revealed that jagaricin triggers cell wall strengthening, general shutdown of membrane potential-driven transport, and the upregulation of lipid transporters, linking cell envelope integrity to jagaricin action and resistance. Whereas jagaricin shows hemolytic effects, it exhibited either no or low plant toxicity at concentrations at which the growth of prevalent phytopathogenic fungi is inhibited. Therefore, jagaricin may have potential for agricultural applications. The action of jagaricin as a membrane-disrupting antifungal is promising but would require modifications for use in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00707-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6709453PMC
September 2019

Surface chemistry of the frog sticky-tongue mechanism.

Biointerphases 2018 11 26;13(6):06E408. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

The School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Frogs capture their prey with a highly specialized tongue. Recent studies indicate this tongue is covered with fibril-forming mucus that acts as a pressure sensitive adhesive. However, no analysis of the interfacial chemistry of frog tongue mucus has been performed. The goal of this study is to examine the chemical structure of the surface of mucus after a tongue strike. Previous studies of mucus from other animals suggest that mucus from a frog's tongue consists of mucins-serine-, threonine-, and proline-rich glycoproteins. Therefore, the authors expect to observe chemical bonds associated with glycoproteins, as well as fibrils formed at the mucus-tongue interface. To test this hypothesis, they collected both near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) microscopy images and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra from layers of mucus left after frog tongue strikes on cleaned glass slides. NEXAFS imaging demonstrates a uniform distribution of amide, hydroxyl, and carbon-carbon bonds across the mucus surface. Difference spectra of individual N and C K-edge spectra pulled from these images indicate a structure consistent with fibril formation as well as disorder of oligosaccharide groups near the mucus surface. C-H region SFG spectra reveal surface active modes which likely stem from serine and threonine within the mucin protein. Combined, this work suggests that glycoproteins are well-ordered at the mucus-tongue interface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.5052651DOI Listing
November 2018

Delayed interval delivery in multiple gestations: the Munich experience.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2019 02 1;299(2):339-344. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate delayed interval deliveries in multiple gestations in regard of delayed interval and neonatal survival and to provide a protocol.

Methods: Data of multiple pregnancies with delayed interval delivery at a tertiary maternity unit between 2002 and 2017 were collected. Contraindications for evaluation of a delay of the delivery of the remaining child were: severe maternal blood loss, poor maternal general condition, preeclampsia, placental abruption, fetal distress, serious congenital malformations of the remaining child, chorioamnionitis, and premature rupture of membranes of the second fetus. A total of 14 cases was included in this retrospective monocentric analysis.

Results: The cohort comprised nine twin and five triplet pregnancies. Mean gestational age at delivery of the first fetus was 21 + 6 and 26 + 0 of the retained fetus, respectively. The earliest delivery of the first fetus was at 15 + 2 weeks. The mean interval of the delay was 29.3 days (2-82 days). Mortality of the first fetuses was 53.3%, while it was 17.6% for the retained fetuses. Maternal outcome was good in general: two cases of major blood loss occurred with the necessity of a blood transfusion.

Conclusion: Delayed interval delivery is a reasonable approach in cases of an imminent preterm birth in multiple gestations which can be performed with a good fetal outcome and limited maternal risks. The situation when this procedure may be an option always comes unexpected. Therefore, the team of perinatologists should keep it in mind as one potential therapeutic approach. In addition, a standard protocol for the procedure should be established in the perinatal center.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4959-2DOI Listing
February 2019

A splice site variant in INPP5E causes diffuse cystic renal dysplasia and hepatic fibrosis in dogs.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(9):e0204073. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Pathology Research Unit, Finnish Food Safety Authority, Evira, Helsinki, Finland.

Ciliopathies presenting as inherited hepatorenal fibrocystic disorders are rare in humans and in dogs. We describe here a novel lethal ciliopathy in Norwich Terrier puppies that was diagnosed at necropsy and characterized as diffuse cystic renal disease and hepatic fibrosis. The histopathological findings were typical for cystic renal dysplasia in which the cysts were located in the straight portion of the proximal tubule, and thin descending and ascending limbs of Henle's loop. The pedigree of the affected puppies was suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance and therefore, whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping were used for identification of the causative variant. The analyses revealed a case-specific homozygous splice donor site variant in a cilia related gene, INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A. Association of the variant with the defect was validated in a large cohort of Norwich Terriers with 3 cases and 480 controls, the carrier frequency being 6%. We observed that the identified variant introduces a novel splice site in INPP5E causing a frameshift and formation of a premature stop codon. In conclusion, our results suggest that the INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A variant is causal for the ciliopathy in Norwich Terriers. Therefore, genetic testing can be carried out in the future for the eradication of the disease from the breed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204073PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6147468PMC
March 2019

Dynamics of labile and stable carbon and priming effects during composting of sludge and lop mixtures amended with low and high amounts of biochar.

Waste Manag 2018 Aug 7;78:880-893. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Agronomy and Nutritional Sciences, Soil Biogeochemistry, von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle, Germany. Electronic address:

This study was performed to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on the dynamics of labile and stable carbon (C) fractions and associated priming effects during composting of sludge and lop mixtures. Furthermore, the effect of aerobic composting on biochar stable C composition was analyzed. Low amounts of activated carbon [dosage 0-1.7% w/w] and higher amounts of charcoal [dosage 0-38% w/w] were applied to the organic feedstock mixture in two separated full-scale composting trials under practical field conditions. The results demonstrated that biochar-C was substantially more stable during the composting process than compost-derived organic C resulting in a significant enrichment of the stable black C fraction in the final product. Furthermore, stability of final products were significantly increased, if more biochar has been initially added prior to composting. However, labile organic C losses were increased (positive priming) if low amounts of activated carbon have been applied, while no short-term priming effects could be observed after adding charcoal over a wider application range. Moreover, biochar stable C composition was positively affected during the composting process. Based on our results, a biochar amendment ≥10% (w/w) seems generally favorable for an accelerated composting process, while stability characteristics of the final products were improved. However, some caution seems to be required concerning the usability of activated carbon due to positive priming.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.06.056DOI Listing
August 2018

Comparison of soil organic carbon speciation using C NEXAFS and CPMAS C NMR spectroscopy.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jul 20;628-629:906-918. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

We compared synchrotron-based C near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and CPMAS C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with respect to their precision and accuracy to quantify different organic carbon (OC) species in defined mixtures of soil organic matter source compounds. We also used both methods to quantify different OC species in organic surface horizons of a Histic Leptosol as well as in mineral topsoil and subsoil horizons of two soils with different parent material, stage of pedogenesis, and OC content (Cambisol: 15-30 OC mgg, Podzol: 0.9-7 OC mgg). CPMAS C NMR spectroscopy was more accurate and precise (mean recovery of different C functional groups 96-103%) than C NEXAFS spectroscopy (mean recovery 92-113%). For organic surface and topsoil samples, NMR spectroscopy consistently yielded larger O-alkyl C percentages and smaller alkyl C percentages than C NEXAFS spectroscopy. For the Cambisol subsoil samples both methods performed well and showed similar C speciation results. NEXAFS spectroscopy yielded excellent spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio also for OC-poor Podzol subsoil samples, whereas this was not the case for CPMAS C NMR spectroscopy even after sample treatment with HF. Our results confirm the analytical power of CPMAS C NMR spectroscopy for a reliable quantitative OC speciation in soils with >10mgOCg. Moreover, they highlight the potential of synchrotron-based C NEXAFS spectroscopy as fast, non-invasive method to semi-quantify different C functional groups in soils with low C content (0.9-10mgg).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.121DOI Listing
July 2018

The R-package GenomicTools for multifactor dimensionality reduction and the analysis of (exploratory) Quantitative Trait Loci.

Authors:
Daniel Fischer

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2017 Nov 30;151:171-177. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Myllytie 1, Jokioinen, Finland; University of Tampere, School of Health Sciences, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: http://genomictools.danielfischer.name.

Background And Objectives: We introduce the R-package GenomicTools to perform, among others, a Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) for the identification of SNP-SNP interactions. The package further provides a new class of tests for an (exploratory) Quantitative Trait Loci analysis that overcomes some of the limitations of other popular (e)QTL approaches. Popular (e)QTL approaches that use linear models or ANOVA are often based on over-simplified models that have weak statistical properties and which are not robust against outlying observations.

Method: The algorithm to calculate the MDR is well established. To speed up its calculation in R, we implemented it in C++. Further, our implementation also supports the combination of several MDR results to an MDR ensemble classifier. The (e)QTL test procedure is based on a generalized Mann-Whitney test that is tailored for directional alternatives, as they are present in an (e)QTL analysis.

Results: Our package GenomicTools provides functions to determine SNP combinations that have the highest accuracy for a MDR classification problem. It also provides functions to combine the best MDR results to a joined ensemble classifier for improved classification results. Further, the (e)QTL analysis is based on a solid statistical theory. In addition, informative visualizations of the results are provided.

Conclusion: The here presented new class of tests and methods have an easy to apply syntax, so that also researchers inexperienced in R are able to apply our proposed methods and implementations. The package creates publication ready Figures and hence could be a valuable tool for genomic data analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.08.012DOI Listing
November 2017

Taxon abundance, diversity, co-occurrence and network analysis of the ruminal microbiota in response to dietary changes in dairy cows.

PLoS One 2017 13;12(7):e0180260. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Green Technology, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Jokioinen, Finland.

The ruminal microbiome, comprising large numbers of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, archaea and fungi, responds to diet and dietary additives in a complex way. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of increasing the depth of the community analysis in describing and explaining responses to dietary changes. Quantitative PCR, ssu rRNA amplicon based taxa composition, diversity and co-occurrence network analyses were applied to ruminal digesta samples obtained from four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae. The cows received diets with forage:concentrate ratio either 35:65 (diet H) or 65:35 (L), supplemented or not with sunflower oil (SO) (0 or 50 g/kg diet dry matter), supplied in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and four 35-day periods. Digesta samples were collected on days 22 and 24 and combined. QPCR provided a broad picture in which a large fall in the abundance of fungi was seen with SO in the H but not the L diet. Amplicon sequencing showed higher community diversity indices in L as compared to H diets and revealed diet specific taxa abundance changes, highlighting large differences in protozoal and fungal composition. Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Mbb. gottschalkii dominated archaeal communities, and their abundance correlated negatively with each other. Co-occurrence network analysis provided evidence that no microbial domain played a more central role in network formation, that some minor-abundance taxa were at nodes of highest centrality, and that microbial interactions were diet specific. Networks added new dimensions to our understanding of the diet effect on rumen microbial community interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180260PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509137PMC
September 2017

Cranial Indicators Identified for Peak Incidence of Otitis Media.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2017 Oct 3;300(10):1721-1740. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Icahn School of Medicine, Center for Anatomy and Functional Morphology, New York, NY.

Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence. Growth was divided into five dental eruption stages ranging from edentulous neonates (Stage 1) to adults with erupted third maxillary molars (Stage 5). A total of 32 three-dimensional landmarks were used and Generalized Procrustes Analysis was performed. Next, we performed principal components analysis and calculated univariate measures. It was found that growth change in Stage 1 was the most rapid and comprised the largest amount of overall growth in upper respiratory tract proportions (where time is represented by the natural logarithmic transformation of centroid size). The analysis of univariate measures showed that Stage 1 humans did indeed possess the relatively shortest and most horizontally oriented CET's with the greatest amount of growth change occurring at the transition to Stage 2 (eruption of deciduous dentition at five postnatal months, commencing peak AOM incidence) and ceasing by Stage 3 (approximately six postnatal years). Skeletal indicators appear related to peak ages of AOM incidence and may contribute to understanding of a nearly ubiquitous human disease. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1721-1740, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23625DOI Listing
October 2017

Three-Factor Versus Four-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for the Emergent Management of Warfarin-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage.

Neurocrit Care 2018 02;28(1):43-50

Department of Pharmacy, Intermountain Medical Center, 5171 South Cottonwood St, Murray, UT, 84107, USA.

Background: Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) produce a more rapid and complete INR correction compared with 3-factor PCC in patients receiving warfarin. It is unknown if this improves clinical outcomes in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included patients presenting with warfarin-associated ICH reversed with either 4- or 3-factor PCC. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, discharge location, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital-free days, INR reversal, and thromboembolic (TE) events at 90 days. Each was analyzed using regression analysis. Continuous and binary outcomes were analyzed using linear and logistic regression, respectively, while ordinal regression was used for discharge location.

Results: Of the 103 patients, 63 received 4-factor PCC. Median age was 79 years [interquartile intervals(IQI 73-84)], median presenting INR was 2.7 (2.2-3.3), and presenting ICH was intraparenchymal in 51% of patients. In-hospital and 30-day mortality were 25 and 35%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was greater among those who received 4-factor PCC, yet was not statistically significant (OR 2.2, 95% CI 0.59-9.4, p = 0.26), as having Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8 explained most of the difference (OR 48, 95% CI 14-219, p <0.001). The effect of 4-factor PCC was not statistically significant in any of the secondary analyses. Crude rates of TE events were higher in the 4-factor PCC group (19 vs. 10%), though not significantly.

Conclusions: In-hospital mortality was not improved with the use of 4- versus 3-factor PCC in the emergent reversal of warfarin-associated ICH. Secondary clinical outcomes were similarly nonsignificant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-017-0374-yDOI Listing
February 2018

Model Amphiphilic Block Copolymers with Tailored Molecular Weight and Composition in PDMS-Based Films to Limit Soft Biofouling.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 May 2;9(19):16505-16516. Epub 2017 May 2.

Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa , Pisa 56124, Italy.

A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic block copolymers dispersed in a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry including antifouling and fouling-release performance. Such properties were assessed by carrying out assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to nonpolar surfaces). All films performed well against U. linza and exhibited high removal of attached sporelings (young plants) under an applied shear stress, with the lower molecular weight block copolymers being the best performing in the set. The composition ratios from 50:50 to 60:40 of the AF6/PEGMA side groups were shown to be more effective, with several films exhibiting spontaneous removal of the sporelings. The cells of N. incerta were also removed from several coating compositions. All films were characterized by surface techniques including captive bubble contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to correlate surface chemistry and morphology with biological performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b03168DOI Listing
May 2017

Thin SnO films for surface plasmon resonance enhanced ellipsometric gas sensing (SPREE).

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2017 28;8:522-529. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Leibniz Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften ISAS e.V., Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany.

Gas sensors are very important in several fields like gas monitoring, safety and environmental applications. In this approach, a new gas sensing concept is investigated which combines the powerful adsorption probability of metal oxide conductive sensors (MOS) with an optical ellipsometric readout. This concept shows promising results to solve the problems of cross sensitivity of the MOS concept. Undoped tin oxide (SnO) and iron doped tin oxide (Fe:SnO) thin add-on films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on the top of the actual surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing gold layer. The films were tested for their sensitivity to several gas species in the surface plasmon resonance enhanced (SPREE) gas measurement. It was found that the undoped tin oxide (SnO) shows higher sensitivities to propane (CH) then to carbon monoxide (CO). By using Fe:SnO, this relation is inverted. This behavior was explained by a change of the amount of binding sites for CO in the layer due to this iron doping. For hydrogen (H) no such relation was found but the sensing ability was identical for both layer materials. This observation was related to a different sensing mechanism for H which is driven by the diffusion into the layer instead of adsorption on the surface. The gas sensing selectivity can be enhanced by tuning the properties of the thin film overcoating. A relation of the binding sites in the doped and undoped SnO films and the gas sensing abilities for CO and CH was found. This could open the path for optimized gas sensing devices with different coated SPREE sensors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.8.56DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5355906PMC
February 2017
-->