Publications by authors named "Daniel Fernandes"

152 Publications

Hormonal protocol used for cervical dilation in ewes does not affect morphological embryo quality but reduces recovery rate and temporarily alters gene expression.

Vet Rec 2021 Nov 8:e1064. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Departamento de Patologia e Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Information on the impact of hormonal protocols for cervical dilation on the quality of ovine embryos is scarce.

Methods: To compare the quality of embryos after cervical dilation protocol, ewes (n = 64) were allocated into either a treated group (100 μg estradiol benzoate intravenous and 0.12 mg cloprostenol intramuscularly, 12 hours before embryo collection plus 100 iu oxytocin intravenous 15 minutes before the collection procedure) or a control group (saline). Luteal function was analysed using ultrasonography and P4 measurement. Some collected embryos were frozen/thawed for gene expression, others were cultured in vitro, frozen/thawed for gene expression, and the remaining embryos were fixed for the apoptosis test (TUNEL test).

Results: The treatment reduced fluid (p=0.04) and structure (p=0.03) recovery rates, but the morphological quality, development stage, and apoptosis incidence of the embryos were not affected by treatment. The corpora lutea of the control group had greater blood perfusion (p = 0.002) and greater P4 concentrations at 6, 9, and 12 h after the treatment (p < 0.0001). The expression of BAX, BCL2, PRDX1, and HSP90 genes were not affected by the treatment. However, the embryos in the treated group had fewer NANOG and OCT4 transcripts than control embryos (p = 0.008; p = 0.006, respectively). After culture, there was no difference between the groups in any gene.

Conclusion: The hormonal protocol for cervical dilation reduced the efficiency of embryo collection. In addition, the treatment induced luteolysis and a transient alteration of embryo gene expression, however there were no detectable changes in embryo morphological quality, development stage, or incidence of apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vetr.1064DOI Listing
November 2021

TKGWV2: an ancient DNA relatedness pipeline for ultra-low coverage whole genome shotgun data.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 28;11(1):21262. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Estimation of genetically related individuals is playing an increasingly important role in the ancient DNA field. In recent years, the numbers of sequenced individuals from single sites have been increasing, reflecting a growing interest in understanding the familial and social organisation of ancient populations. Although a few different methods have been specifically developed for ancient DNA, namely to tackle issues such as low-coverage homozygous data, they require a 0.1-1× minimum average genomic coverage per analysed pair of individuals. Here we present an updated version of a method that enables estimates of 1st and 2nd-degrees of relatedness with as little as 0.026× average coverage, or around 18,000 SNPs from 1.3 million aligned reads per sample with average length of 62 bp-four times less data than 0.1× coverage at similar read lengths. By using simulated data to estimate false positive error rates, we further show that a threshold even as low as 0.012×, or around 4000 SNPs from 600,000 reads, will always show 1st-degree relationships as related. Lastly, by applying this method to published data, we are able to identify previously undocumented relationships using individuals that had been excluded from prior kinship analysis due to their very low coverage. This methodological improvement has the potential to enable relatedness estimation on ancient whole genome shotgun data during routine low-coverage screening, and therefore improve project management when decisions need to be made on which individuals are to be further sequenced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00581-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8553948PMC
October 2021

Retrieval analysis of neck fracture on uni-modular total hip arthroplasty stems: The contributions of material processing and stem design.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Oct 21:9544119211049580. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Biomechanical Engineering Laboratory (LEBm) of University Hospital, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Total hip arthroplasty stem fracture is an important contributor to morbidity rate and increases the cost of revision surgery. Failure is usually caused by issues related to overload, inadequate stem support, inappropriate stem design or dimensions and material processing. In this study, the role of the relationship between material characterization and biomechanical performance in the fracture of retrieved stems was explored. The stems were manufactured with forged stainless steel, had the same length, 12/14 trunnion, and 28-mm head. These stems were evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic examination to identify the causes of premature failure. Each stem was sectioned into four regions, and the cross-sections were used for the microhardness and grain size analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out, considering the stem positioned at the femur, a musculoskeletal model, and biomechanical loading. All stems had fractured through a fatigue mechanism, mainly a unidirectional bending loading condition, with crack nucleation on the lateral side and propagation on the medial side. The numerical analysis revealed maximum mechanical stress on the lateral side of the stem neck, but this was below the yield stress calculated via the hardness. The use of a shorter head neck length could reduce the maximum mechanical stress at the neck. At a cross-section near the plane of the stem fracture, the hardness was lower than that normally reported by the ASM, and there were heterogonous and coarse grain sizes on the lateral side. The main cause of failure of the two stems analyzed was a combination of low hardness and coarse grain size, due to inappropriate materials processing, worsen by a high level of stress on the lateral side of the neck due to the large stem-head offset selected by the orthopedic surgeon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09544119211049580DOI Listing
October 2021

Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Tests and Imaging Exams for Femoroacetabular Impingement: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Surgery, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences (PPGCM-UFSC), Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Celso Ramos Hospital, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; Department of Orthopaedics, Regional Hospital of São José Dr Homero de Miranda Gomes, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Midwest Orthopedics at Rush, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois; and Internal Medicine Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Objective: To synthesize available evidence about diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests and imaging examinations for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome.

Design: Umbrella review.

Setting: N/A.

Participants: N/A.

Interventions: N/A.

Main Outcome Measures: Systematic reviews (SR) indexed in Embase, LIVIVO, PubMed, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched in a 2-phase process. SR assessing diagnostic accuracy were considered eligible.

Results: From 1520 studies, 6 SR were included, which evaluated 24 primary studies related to FAI syndrome. Of these, 5 SR assessed clinical tests, and a substantial heterogeneity was found concerning reference standards adopted across primary studies, which included arthroscopy, clinical examination (associated or not with imaging exams), intra-articular injections, and open surgery. Most clinical tests presented higher values of sensitivity compared with specificity, although evidence was considered limited because the same primary studies were often included across SR. Nonetheless, evidence around the flexion adduction internal rotation (FADIR) test was considered stronger and its use as a screening tool was consistently supported. Only one SR assessed the accuracy of imaging examinations, which adopted open surgery as the sole reference standard. Most imaging exams presented considerably high values of sensitivity, although specificity values were notably lower.

Conclusions: No robust recommendations can be provided for most clinical tests, although the FADIR test, in particular, was consistently supported as a screening tool. Moreover, although imaging examinations showed considerably high sensitivity values, evidence was considered sparse and further research is strongly recommended to validate its use as reference standards for diagnostic accuracy data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000978DOI Listing
September 2021

In Vitro Bactericidal Efficacy of Nanostructured Ti6Al4V Surfaces is Bacterial Load Dependent.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 10;13(32):38007-38017. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia 5095, Australia.

The demand for medical implants globally has increased significantly due to an aging population amongst other reasons. Despite the overall increase in the survivorship of Ti6Al4V implants, implant infection rates are increasing due to factors such as diabetes, obesity, and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Two commonly found bacteria implicated in implant infections are and . Based on prior work that showed nanostructured surfaces might have potential in passively killing these bacterial species, we developed a hierarchical, hydrothermally etched, nanostructured titanium surface. To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of this surface, etched and as-received surfaces were inoculated with or at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 colony-forming units per disc. Live/dead staining revealed there was a 60% decrease in viability for and greater than a 98% decrease for on etched surfaces at the lowest inoculum of 10 CFU/disc, when compared to the control surface. Bactericidal efficiency decreased with increasing bacterial concentrations in a stepwise manner, with decreases in bacterial viability noted for above 10 CFU/disc and above 10 CFU/disc for . Surprisingly, biofilm depth analysis revealed a decrease in bacterial viability in the 2 μm layer furthest from the nanostructured surface. The nanostructured Ti6Al4V surface developed here holds the potential to reduce the rate of implant infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06919DOI Listing
August 2021

Inorganic nitrate attenuates cardiac dysfunction: roles for xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric oxide.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: NO is a vasodilator and independent modulator of cardiac remodelling. Commonly, in cardiac disease (e.g., heart failure), endothelial dysfunction (synonymous with NO deficiency) has been implicated in increased BP, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Currently, no effective therapies replacing NO have succeeded in the clinic. Inorganic nitrate (NO ), through chemical reduction to nitrite and then to NO, exerts potent BP lowering, but whether it might be useful in treating undesirable cardiac remodelling is not known.

Experimental Approach: We analysed demographics in a nested age- and sex-matched case-control study of hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy (NCT03088514) and assessed the effects of dietary nitrate in mouse models of cardiac dysfunction.

Key Results: Lower plasma nitrite concentrations and vascular dysfunction accompanied cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients. In mouse models of cardiac remodelling, restoration of circulating nitrite levels using dietary nitrate improved endothelial dysfunction through targeting the xanthine oxidoreductase-driven increase in levels of H O and superoxide, and decreased cardiac fibrosis through NO-mediated block of SMAD phosphorylation leading to improvements in cardiac structure and function.

Conclusions And Implications: Dietary nitrate offers easily translatable therapeutic options for delivery of NO and thereby treatment of cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15636DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of total knee arthroplasty for primary knee osteoarthritis on postural balance: A systematic review.

Gait Posture 2021 09 30;89:139-160. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre of Health and Sports Sciences (CEFID), State University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (UDESC), Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Knee osteoarthritis is often related to physical function impairment. Although total knee arthroplasty is considered effective for advanced cases of knee osteoarthritis, its effects on postural balance is a topic of debate.

Research Question: What are the effects of total knee arthroplasty for primary knee osteoarthritis on postural balance compared to preoperative status and/or to healthy controls?.

Methods: Longitudinal studies (with more than 1-month follow-up) assessing postural balance measures (either clinical-based such as balance scales or laboratory-based such as postural sway) were considered eligible and selected in a 2-phase process. Six main electronic databases were searched, complemented by 3 grey literature sources. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools.

Results: A total of 19 studies were included for qualitative synthesis, of which 14 had low and 5 had a moderate risk of bias. The follow-up period ranged from 1-24 months. Most studies (n = 11) presented comparisons to preoperative status only. From these, 7 studies reported relevant improvements in postural balance, 2 reported partial improvements, and 2 no improvements. The remaining studies (n = 8) presented comparisons to healthy controls and, although improvements following total knee arthroplasty were consistently observed, only one study reported postural balance measures comparable to that of controls.

Conclusions: The majority of studies reported relevant improvements (especially in clinical-based measures) compared to preoperative evaluations, although inconsistencies were found possibly due to variability in studies' populations, assessment tools, and follow-up times. Despite this, persistent deficits in postural balance were commonly observed when compared to healthy controls.

Significance: This evidence synthesis could better inform clinicians and researchers about the therapeutic effects and limitations of total knee arthroplasty concerning postural balance. Standardization of assessment tools is recommended to strengthen the certainty of cumulative evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.04.042DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome-scale sequencing and analysis of human, wolf, and bison DNA from 25,000-year-old sediment.

Curr Biol 2021 Aug 12;31(16):3564-3574.e9. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Cave sediments have been shown to preserve ancient DNA but so far have not yielded the genome-scale information of skeletal remains. We retrieved and analyzed human and mammalian nuclear and mitochondrial environmental "shotgun" genomes from a single 25,000-year-old Upper Paleolithic sediment sample from Satsurblia cave, western Georgia:first, a human environmental genome with substantial basal Eurasian ancestry, which was an ancestral component of the majority of post-Ice Age people in the Near East, North Africa, and parts of Europe; second, a wolf environmental genome that is basal to extant Eurasian wolves and dogs and represents a previously unknown, likely extinct, Caucasian lineage; and third, a European bison environmental genome that is basal to present-day populations, suggesting that population structure has been substantially reshaped since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results provide new insights into the Late Pleistocene genetic histories of these three species and demonstrate that direct shotgun sequencing of sediment DNA, without target enrichment methods, can yield genome-wide data informative of ancestry and phylogenetic relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.06.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409484PMC
August 2021

Adaptation of Anaerobic Field-Based Tests for Wheelchair Basketball Athletes.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2021 Dec 25;92(4):715-722. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

State University of Londrina-UEL.

: The aim of this study was to propose field-based tests to estimate the anaerobic power of wheelchair basketball athletes. : Eleven lower class wheelchair basketball players performed the Wingate test (WT) and two field-based tests (repeated sprints) of 15 (S-15) and 20 (S-20) meters. The WT provides data in Watts (W). The S-15 and S-20 are recorded in seconds and converted to W using the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) equation. The participants also completed other field-based tests, such as right and left handgrip strength (HGS) tests and the medicine ball chest pass test. In addition, body mass and height were measured, and the body composition was estimated. The field-based tests and anthropometric measures were used to estimate WT peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) using multiple linear regressions. : The field-based tests underestimated the anaerobic power measured with the WT (in W). However, a linear regression model based on S-15 PP, right HGS, height, and body mass explained 76% (= .040) of the WT PP variance. Another model based on S-15 MP and right HGS explained 72% (= .006) of the WT MP variance. Both models had excellent reliability (ICC > 0.90). : WT PP can be estimated using S-15 PP (W), right HGS, height, and body mass. The WT MP is predicted using S-15 MP (W) and right HGS. Therefore, a combination of field-based tests and anthropometric measures seem to be appropriate to determine anaerobic power of lower class wheelchair basketball athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2020.1769009DOI Listing
December 2021

Characterization of Reproductive and Morphological Variables in Female Elite Futsal Players.

Front Psychol 2021 5;12:625354. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physical Therapy, Florida International University, Miami, FL, United States.

We aimed to characterize the age of onset of training, age at menarche, menstrual periodicity, and performance perception during the menstrual cycle and examined the impact of these reproductive variables on body composition, morphology, and body weight satisfaction in Brazilian elite futsal players. The study consisted of 115 female Brazilian elite futsal players from the top national teams. Data were collected during the twentieth Women's Brazil Futsal Cup. Players were interviewed and self-reported their age of onset of training, age at menarche, menstrual periodicity, and the menstrual period, where they performed best. We also asked for what they considered to be their ideal body weight as well as information related to their training (i.e., volume and frequency). Subsequently, anthropometric measurements (i.e., body mass, height, circumferences, diameters, and skinfold thickness) were performed to estimate the body composition and determine morphological characteristics (e.g., somatotype). Fifty-nine (53.2%) players were postmenarche-trained and 52 (46.8%) were premenarche-trained. Eighteen (16.2%), 65 (58.6%), and 28 (25.2%) were classified as early, normal, and late menarche, respectively. Only 11 (9.6%) and 1 (0.9%) had irregular menstrual cycles and were amenorrheic, respectively. Seventy-three (69.5%), 23 (21.9%), and 9 (8.6%) reported that their game performance was the best at the follicular phase, menses, and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, respectively. No associations between the four reproductive-related variables were found. Postmenarche-trained players had significant lower age at menarche and higher percentage body fat. The somatotype profile registered lower ectomorphy rate for the postmenarche-trained participants after controlling for covariates. Early menarche group presented higher sum of six skinfold thickness and endomorphy rate compared to normal and late menarche groups. No differences were found when menstrual periodicity groups and best performance groups were compared, except for higher femur width in the regular menstrual cycle group compared to the irregular one. The association between body weight satisfaction and the four reproductive-related variables were not observed. Premenarche-trained Brazilian elite futsal players had the menarche later than the postmenarche-trained athletes. Most of the participants had menarche age classified as "normal," presented "regular" menstrual cycles and perceived to perform better during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.625354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134544PMC
May 2021

Development of cardiorespiratory fitness standards for working memory using receiver operating curves in 15-year-old adolescents.

BMC Pediatr 2021 04 29;21(1):208. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Physical Activity and Health, Center of Physical Education and Sports, Londrina State University - UEL, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Background: Working memory performance is associated with better academic achievements in children and adolescents, and it is positively related to CRF. However, what level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) discriminates higher working memory performance is not known. The purpose of this study was to identify CRF thresholds linked to working memory in adolescents.

Methods: Data of 141 adolescents (53.2 % girls) were collected (14.9 years) from a cross-sectional study during the year 2019. CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test, and maximal oxygen uptake was calculated using the Mahar´s equation. Working memory was evaluated by the Corsi blocks test and performance was classified by percentiles. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify CRF thresholds.

Results: The ROC analysis indicated that CRF could be used to discriminate working memory in adolescents. CRF thresholds of ≥45.03 ml.kg.minfor boys and ≥36.63 ml.kg.minfor girls were found to be indicative of "normal" working memory performance.

Conclusions: CRF could discriminate low and normal working memory performance in 14-16- year-old adolescents. These thresholds could allow for earlier identification and intervention of low working memory performance using CRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02681-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082830PMC
April 2021

Integrating buccal and occlusal dental microwear with isotope analyses for a complete paleodietary reconstruction of Holocene populations from Hungary.

Sci Rep 2021 03 29;11(1):7034. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, AltrantraBe 14, Vienna, Austria.

Dietary reconstruction is used to make inferences about the subsistence strategies of ancient human populations, but it may also serve as a proxy to characterise their diverse cultural and technological manifestations. Dental microwear and stable isotope analyses have been shown to be successful techniques for paleodietary reconstruction of ancient populations but, despite yielding complementary dietary information, these techniques have rarely been combined within the same study. Here we present for the first time a comprehensive approach to interpreting ancient lifeways through the results of buccal and occlusal microwear, and δC and δN isotope analyses applied to the same individuals of prehistoric populations of Hungary from the Middle Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age periods. This study aimed to (a) assess if the combination of techniques yields a more precise assessment of past dietary and subsistence practices, and (b) contribute to our understanding of the dietary patterns of the prehistoric Hungarian populations. Overall, no correlations between microwear and δC and δN isotope variables were observed, except for a relationship between nitrogen and the vertical and horizontal index. However, we found that diachronic differences are influenced by the variation within the period. Particularly, we found differences in microwear and isotope variables between Middle Neolithic sites, indicating that there were different dietary practices among those populations. Additionally, microwear results suggest no changes in the abrasiveness of the diet, neither food processing methods, despite higher C plant resource consumption shown by carbon isotopic signal. Thus, we demonstrate that the integration of dental microwear and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope methodologies can provide complementary information for making inferences about paleodietary habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86369-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007593PMC
March 2021

Effect of myofascial release on lower limb range of motion, sit and reach and horizontal jump distance in male university students.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2021 Jan 26;25:140-145. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Florida International University - FIU, Miami, FL, USA.

Objective: Evaluate the effects of Myofascial release (MR) on lower limb ROM, sit and reach and horizontal jump distance in male university students.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental study.

Background: MR is a technique that aims to stretch fascia to increase range of motion (ROM), relieve pressure points and improve performance. However, there is limited evidence of its actual effects on flexibility and physical performance.

Methods: Twenty-one uninjured, male university students received MR (11 on the first session and the other 10 on the second session 24 h later), completed lower limb ROM assessments, the sit and reach and the horizontal jump tests in a randomized order. MR was performed before the tests with a myofascial stick in the anterior and posterior aspects of the right and left thigh and calf muscles. Each muscle group was massaged for 90 s, totaling 9 min of MR. The testing conditions with MR and without MR were compared using Student t-tests and the effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

Results: There were no significant differences between the testing conditions on horizontal jump distance. However, the sit and reach distance (28 ± 9 vs. 32 ± 9 cm, p = 0.001; ES = 0.44), left hip extension (10 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 2°, p = 0.006; ES = 1.00) and left plantar flexion (36 ± 7 vs. 39 ± 7°, p = 0.044; ES = 0.43) were higher with MR.

Conclusions: MR increased sit and reach distance, left hip extension and plantar flexion, but it did not affect horizontal jump distance in uninjured, male university students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.10.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Bi-Phasic Ag-In-Ga-Embedded Elastomer Inks for Digitally Printed, Ultra-Stretchable, Multi-layer Electronics.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 10;13(12):14552-14561. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Systems and Robotics, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-290, Portugal.

A bi-phasic ternary Ag-In-Ga ink that demonstrates high electrical conductivity, extreme stretchability, and low electromechanical gauge factor (GF) is introduced. Unlike popular liquid metal alloys such as eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), this ink is easily printable and nonsmearing and bonds strongly to a variety of substrates. Using this ink and a simple extrusion printer, the ability to perform direct writing of ultrathin, multi-layer circuits that are highly stretchable (max. strain >600%), have excellent conductivity (7.02 × 10 S m), and exhibit only a modest GF (0.9) related to the ratio of percent increase in trace resistance with mechanical strain is demonstrated. The ink is synthesized by mixing optimized quantities of EGaIn, Ag microflakes, and styrene-isoprene block copolymers, which functions as a hyperelastic binder. When compared to the same composite without EGaIn, the Ag-In-Ga ink shows over 1 order of magnitude larger conductivity, up to ∼27× lower GF, and ∼5× greater maximum stretchability. No significant change over the resistance of the ink was observed after 1000 strain cycles. Microscopic analysis shows that mixing EGaIn and Ag microflakes promotes the formation of AgIn microparticles, resulting in a cohesive bi-phasic ink. The ink can be sintered at room temperature, making it compatible with many heat-sensitive substrates. Additionally, utilizing a simple commercial extrusion based printer, the ability to perform stencil-free, digital printing of multi-layer stretchable circuits over various substrates, including medical wound-dressing adhesives, is demonstrated for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22206DOI Listing
March 2021

Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockade improves hyporesponsiveness to vasopressors in septic shock.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 20;897:173953. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil. Electronic address:

Sepsis activates the renin-angiotensin system and the production of angiotensin II, which has a key role in the regulation of blood pressure through AT receptors. However, excessive activation of AT receptor is associated with deleterious effects. We investigated the consequences of a differential blockade of AT receptor caused by two doses of losartan (0.25 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg, s.c), a selective AT receptor antagonist on sepsis outcome. These doses reduced the effect of angiotensin II in normal rats by 30% and >90% 8 h after administration, respectively, but only the higher dose maintained its inhibitory effect (~70%) 24 h after injection. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Losartan was injected 2 h after CLP and parameters were evaluated 6 and 24 h after CLP. Septic rats developed hypotension and hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors, an intense inflammatory process and increase in plasma markers of organ dysfunction. The lower dose of losartan improved the vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine and angiotensin II, reduced lung myeloperoxidase and prevented leukopenia 24 h after CLP, but it did not reduce NOS-2 expression, plasma IL-6 levels or organ injury parameters of septic rats. On the other hand, the higher dose of losartan worsened the response to vasoconstrictors, potentiated the hypotension and increased further levels of creatine, urea and lactate in septic rats. Therefore, an early and partial blockade of AT receptor with a low dose of losartan may counteract sepsis-induced refractoriness to vasoconstrictors thus providing an opportunity to improve the outcome of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173953DOI Listing
April 2021

A minimally destructive protocol for DNA extraction from ancient teeth.

Genome Res 2021 03 12;31(3):472-483. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, 1097 Budapest, Hungary.

Ancient DNA sampling methods-although optimized for efficient DNA extraction-are destructive, relying on drilling or cutting and powdering (parts of) bones and teeth. As the field of ancient DNA has grown, so have concerns about the impact of destructive sampling of the skeletal remains from which ancient DNA is obtained. Due to a particularly high concentration of endogenous DNA, the cementum of tooth roots is often targeted for ancient DNA sampling, but destructive sampling methods of the cementum often result in the loss of at least one entire root. Here, we present a minimally destructive method for extracting ancient DNA from dental cementum present on the surface of tooth roots. This method does not require destructive drilling or grinding, and, following extraction, the tooth remains safe to handle and suitable for most morphological studies, as well as other biochemical studies, such as radiocarbon dating. We extracted and sequenced ancient DNA from 30 teeth (and nine corresponding petrous bones) using this minimally destructive extraction method in addition to a typical tooth sampling method. We find that the minimally destructive method can provide ancient DNA that is of comparable quality to extracts produced from teeth that have undergone destructive sampling processes. Further, we find that a rigorous cleaning of the tooth surface combining diluted bleach and UV light irradiation seems sufficient to minimize external contaminants usually removed through the physical removal of a superficial layer when sampling through regular powdering methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.267534.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919446PMC
March 2021

A genetic history of the pre-contact Caribbean.

Nature 2021 02 23;590(7844):103-110. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Humans settled the Caribbean about 6,000 years ago, and ceramic use and intensified agriculture mark a shift from the Archaic to the Ceramic Age at around 2,500 years ago. Here we report genome-wide data from 174 ancient individuals from The Bahamas, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (collectively, Hispaniola), Puerto Rico, Curaçao and Venezuela, which we co-analysed with 89 previously published ancient individuals. Stone-tool-using Caribbean people, who first entered the Caribbean during the Archaic Age, derive from a deeply divergent population that is closest to Central and northern South American individuals; contrary to previous work, we find no support for ancestry contributed by a population related to North American individuals. Archaic-related lineages were >98% replaced by a genetically homogeneous ceramic-using population related to speakers of languages in the Arawak family from northeast South America; these people moved through the Lesser Antilles and into the Greater Antilles at least 1,700 years ago, introducing ancestry that is still present. Ancient Caribbean people avoided close kin unions despite limited mate pools that reflect small effective population sizes, which we estimate to be a minimum of 500-1,500 and a maximum of 1,530-8,150 individuals on the combined islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola in the dozens of generations before the individuals who we analysed lived. Census sizes are unlikely to be more than tenfold larger than effective population sizes, so previous pan-Caribbean estimates of hundreds of thousands of people are too large. Confirming a small and interconnected Ceramic Age population, we detect 19 pairs of cross-island cousins, close relatives buried around 75 km apart in Hispaniola and low genetic differentiation across islands. Genetic continuity across transitions in pottery styles reveals that cultural changes during the Ceramic Age were not driven by migration of genetically differentiated groups from the mainland, but instead reflected interactions within an interconnected Caribbean world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03053-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864882PMC
February 2021

Polyphenolic compounds of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) Bruyns (Euphorbiaceae) improved endothelial dysfunction through arginase inhibition.

Phytother Res 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil.

Euphorbia umbellata is used for its anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are limited data available regarding its effects on vascular function. Its bark is rich in polyphenolic compounds, which potentially improve endothelial dysfunction (ED). This study proposes to investigate the effects of E. umbellata bark extracts and its polyphenolic compounds on arginase (ARG) activity and nitric oxide (NO)-related targets. Chromatographic procedures were used for the chemical characterisation of the extracts. Furthermore, in silico (molecular docking), in vitro (ARG inhibition), in vivo (streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia model), and ex vivo (l-arginine metabolism, vascular reactivity, western blot, and biochemical) techniques were carried out. Quercetin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid were identified in the extracts. In silico screening predicted that gallic acid and quercetin would have the most promising interactions with ARG -identified cavities. This was confirmed in vitro as both compounds had a direct inhibitory effect on ARG, as was the case regarding the extracts. Oral treatment preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation through ARG inhibition together with an increase in l-arginine bioavailability and endothelial NO synthase expression. Biochemical parameters determined the lack of toxicity for sub-chronic treatment. E. umbellata bark extracts and its compounds can contribute to ED treatment, at least partly, through the inhibition of vascular ARG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6986DOI Listing
December 2020

EFFECTS OF BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTION TRAINING ON HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND MUSCULAR VOLUME OF YOUNG WOMEN.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2020 Dec;15(6):901-909

Associate Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education UEL/ UEM.

Background: High-intensity training methods are generally recommended to increase muscle mass and strength, with training loads of 60-70% 1RM for novice and 80-100% 1RM for advanced individuals. Blood flow restriction training, despite using lower intensities (30-50% 1RM), can provide similar improvements in muscle mass and strength. However, studies commonly investigate the effects of blood flow restriction training in large muscular groups, whereas there are few studies that investigated those effects in smaller muscle groups, such as the muscles involved in grasping (e.g, wrist flexors; finger flexors). Clinically, smaller muscular groups should also be considered in intervention programs, given that repetitive stress, such as repeated strain injuries, affects upper limbs and may lead to chronic pain and incapacity for work. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of blood flow restriction training in strength and anthropometric indicators of muscular volume in young women.

Hypothesis: The effect of blood flow restriction training in handgrip strength (HGS) and muscular volume of young women can be similar to traditional training, even with lower loads.

Methods: Twenty-eight university students, 18 to 25 years of age, were randomly assigned into two groups, blood flow restriction training (BFR, n = 14) and traditional training (TRAD, n = 14). The anthropometric measures and maximum handgrip strength (MHGS) test were performed before and after the intervention. The participants did three weekly sessions of dynamic concentric contraction exercises on a dynamometer for four weeks (12 sessions). Each session had a time length of five minutes and the intensity was established from a percentage of MHGS at 30-35% in the first week, 40-45% in the second and 50-55% in third/fourth weeks. Three sets of 15-25 handgrip repetitions were performed until a failure with a 30 seconds rest for BFR training and three sets of 8-12 repetitions with one-minute rest for TRAD training.

Results: A significant increase was found in the arm muscle circumference (20.6 ± 2.2 vs 21.6 ± 1.7cm) and right MHGS (32.7 ± 4.5 vs 34.3 ± 4.1 kgf) and left MHGS (28.0 ± 5.5 vs 30.9 ± 4.1 kgf) for the BFR training, and the left MHGS (27.6 ± 5.0 vs 31.0 ± 6.1 kgf) for the TRAD training.

Conclusion: Dynamometer training with blood flow restriction, performed with low to moderate loads, was more effective than the traditional training in increasing HGS and muscle volume in young women.

Level Of Evidence: 2b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20200901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727424PMC
December 2020

Aqueous extract of Paullinia cupana attenuates renal and hematological effects associated with ketoprofen.

J Food Biochem 2021 01 3;45(1):e13560. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Paullinia cupana (AEG) against ketoprofen side effects, through biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters. AEG showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH scavenging (IC  = 17.00 ± 1.00 µg/ml) and HPLC analysis revealed that this extract is constituted by antioxidants (caffeine, catechins, theobromine, and polyphenols). In vivo experiments in female Wistar rats demonstrated that alterations in urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels promoted (p < .05) by ketoprofen were reversed when AEG was co-administered. Ketoprofen significantly decreased the catalase levels of animal tissues (p < .05), which were restored when AEG was co-administered with the mentioned drug. Histological analysis showed that AEG protected tissues from damages caused by ketoprofen. Moreover, AEG reestablished the number of white blood cells, which had decreased when ketoprofen was administered. In conclusion, this study suggested that the association between ketoprofen and AEG may be an alternative to reduce health damages caused by this drug. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Paullinia cupana, popularly known as guaraná, is commonly consumed as a beverage in Brazil and exhibits pharmacological and beneficial effects to humans. Ketoprofen is an efficacious drug employed in the treatment of inflammatory processes. However, this drug can cause several side effects in humans. Thus, the usage of natural products and plant extracts that can reduce such undesirable effects consists in a valuable strategy to be applied in therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13560DOI Listing
January 2021

Ancient DNA reveals monozygotic newborn twins from the Upper Palaeolithic.

Commun Biol 2020 11 6;3(1):650. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

The Upper Palaeolithic double burial of newborns and the single burial of a ca. 3-month-old infant uncovered at the Gravettian site of Krems-Wachtberg, Austria, are of paramount importance given the rarity of immature human remains from this time. Genome-wide ancient DNA shows that the male infants of the double grave are the earliest reported case of monozygotic twins, while the single grave´s individual was their 3rd-degree male relative. We assessed the individuals´ age at death by applying histological and µCT inspection of the maxillary second incisors (i2) in conjunction with C- and N-isotope ratios and Barium (Ba) intake as biomarker for breastfeeding. The results show that the twins were full-term newborns, and that while individual 2 died at birth, individual 1 survived for about 50 days. The findings show that Gravettian mortuary behaviour also included re-opening of a grave and manipulation of its layout and content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01372-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648643PMC
November 2020

SARS-CoV-2 and acute pancreatitis: a new etiological agent?

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2020 11;112(11):890

Health Sciences, Federal University of Goiás, BRAZIL.

We hereby report a case of COVID-19 who presented acute pancreatitis (AP) without any other risk factors, which emphasizes the possibility of considering SARS-CoV-2 as a new etiological agent for AP. We suggest the study of pancreatic enzymes in COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, which may reveal pancreatic involvement that is not yet recognized in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17235/reed.2020.7481/2020DOI Listing
November 2020

Tubulovillous adenoma of the duodenal papilla: radiological-endoscopic and anatomopathological correlation in the surgical proposal.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2020 Sep;66(9):1190-1195

Departamento de Radiologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM- Unicamp), Campinas, SP, Brasil.

Tubulovillous adenomas of the duodenal ampulla are rare neoplasms. The present report describes a case with radiological-endoscopic and pathological correlation in which the patient underwent duodenal pancreatectomy with good postoperative progression. With advanced imaging methods, especially magnetic resonance and endoscopic ultrasound, locoregional aspects and extraluminal, lymphovascular, and metastatic invasion have been increasingly discussed as contributors to therapeutic decision making. This progression improves lesion staging and is especially useful in selecting eligible candidates for endoscopic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.66.9.1190DOI Listing
September 2020

The value of morphofunctional magnetic resonance imaging with hepatospecific contrast agent in the characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic patient with hepatitis C.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2020 Jul 24;66(7):908-912. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Departamento de Radiologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil.

Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C in the absence of cirrhosis is uncommon. We demonstrate the importance of morphofunctional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a hepatospecific contrast agent by describing an asymptomatic female patient with HCV, who presented with a nodule detected on ultrasound. She underwent inconclusive computed tomography, presenting no signs of chronic liver disease. MRI with hepatospecific contrast providing functional information combined with the superior tissue contrast inherent to this method stands out for its greater accuracy with the possibility of not resorting to invasive diagnostic methods. With increasing experience and the dissemination of this new diagnostic modality in the medical field, its use and other potential benefits of morphofunctional MRI with hepatospecific contrast agents may be established, benefiting patients with challenging focal liver lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.66.7.908DOI Listing
July 2020

Distinct Contribution of Systemic Blood Flow to Hypertension in an African Population Across the Adult Lifespan.

Hypertension 2020 08 22;76(2):410-419. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

From the Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Although hypertension in groups of African ancestry is volume-dependent, the relative impact of systemic flow (stroke volume, peak aortic flow [Q]) versus vascular mechanisms (systemic vascular resistance, aortic characteristic impedance [Zc], total arterial compliance) components of arterial load has not been evaluated across the adult age range. In participants of African ancestry (n=824, age=16-99 years, 68.3% female), using central arterial pressure and aortic velocity and diameter measurements in the outflow tract, we determined the hemodynamic correlates of age-related increases in blood pressure. Strong independent positive relations between age and stroke volume or peak aortic Q were noted (<0.0001), effects associated with ventricular end diastolic volume and aldosterone-to-renin ratios. Age-related increases in mean arterial pressure were associated with stroke volume and not systemic vascular resistance. Although age-Q relations began from early adulthood, initially an inverse association between age and aortic Zc (<0.0001) driven by increments in aortic root diameter (<0.0001) prevented an enhanced systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. When Zc began to positively relate to age (<0.0001), age-Q relations translated into increases in forward wave pressures and hence systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Age relations with pulse pressure were as strongly determined by Q as by Zc or total arterial compliance (0.027±0.001 versus 0.028±0.001 and 0.032±0.003 mm Hg per yearly increase in pulse pressure produced by Q, Zc, and total arterial compliance; <0.0001). Uncontrolled hypertension (confirmed with 24-hour blood pressure) was determined more by Q, Zc, and total arterial compliance than by increases in systemic vascular resistance (<0.0005 for comparison). In conclusion, relationships between age and systemic blood flow contribute markedly to hypertension in groups of African origins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14925DOI Listing
August 2020

Human auditory ossicles as an alternative optimal source of ancient DNA.

Genome Res 2020 03 25;30(3):427-436. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary.

DNA recovery from ancient human remains has revolutionized our ability to reconstruct the genetic landscape of the past. Ancient DNA research has benefited from the identification of skeletal elements, such as the cochlear part of the osseous inner ear, that provides optimal contexts for DNA preservation; however, the rich genetic information obtained from the cochlea must be counterbalanced against the loss of morphological information caused by its sampling. Motivated by similarities in developmental processes and histological properties between the cochlea and auditory ossicles, we evaluate the ossicles as an alternative source of ancient DNA. We show that ossicles perform comparably to the cochlea in terms of DNA recovery, finding no substantial reduction in data quantity and minimal differences in data quality across preservation conditions. Ossicles can be sampled from intact skulls or disarticulated petrous bones without damage to surrounding bone, and we argue that they should be used when available to reduce damage to human remains. Our results identify another optimal skeletal element for ancient DNA analysis and add to a growing toolkit of sampling methods that help to better preserve skeletal remains for future research while maximizing the likelihood that ancient DNA analysis will produce useable results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.260141.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111520PMC
March 2020

The spread of steppe and Iranian-related ancestry in the islands of the western Mediterranean.

Nat Ecol Evol 2020 03 24;4(3):334-345. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria-Gobierno de Cantabria-Banco Santander, Santander, Spain.

Steppe-pastoralist-related ancestry reached Central Europe by at least 2500 BC, whereas Iranian farmer-related ancestry was present in Aegean Europe by at least 1900 BC. However, the spread of these ancestries into the western Mediterranean, where they have contributed to many populations that live today, remains poorly understood. Here, we generated genome-wide ancient-DNA data from the Balearic Islands, Sicily and Sardinia, increasing the number of individuals with reported data from 5 to 66. The oldest individual from the Balearic Islands (~2400 BC) carried ancestry from steppe pastoralists that probably derived from west-to-east migration from Iberia, although two later Balearic individuals had less ancestry from steppe pastoralists. In Sicily, steppe pastoralist ancestry arrived by ~2200 BC, in part from Iberia; Iranian-related ancestry arrived by the mid-second millennium BC, contemporary to its previously documented spread to the Aegean; and there was large-scale population replacement after the Bronze Age. In Sardinia, nearly all ancestry derived from the island's early farmers until the first millennium BC, with the exception of an outlier from the third millennium BC, who had primarily North African ancestry and who-along with an approximately contemporary Iberian-documents widespread Africa-to-Europe gene flow in the Chalcolithic. Major immigration into Sardinia began in the first millennium BC and, at present, no more than 56-62% of Sardinian ancestry is from its first farmers. This value is lower than previous estimates, highlighting that Sardinia, similar to every other region in Europe, has been a stage for major movement and mixtures of people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1102-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080320PMC
March 2020

Anatomy of the reproductive system of a population of Amerotyphlops brongersmianus from southeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Scolecophidia).

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2020 09 8;303(9):2485-2496. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Amerotyphlops brongersmianus (Vanzolini, 1976) is distributed in Brazil from the Atlantic Rainforest to the Cerrado biome. Only few studies have focused on the gross anatomy, reproductive organs, and histological data of typhlopids. We accessed information from the anatomy of gonads of 95 individuals collected at different months in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This included histological sections of the testes, ductus deferens and sexual segment of kidney (SSK) in males, and oviducts in females, from which fecundity was determined. Results revealed a correlation between gross morphology and histology of the reproductive system. Testes volume increased during spermatogenesis, and the ductus deferens diameter increased with the presence of spermatozoa. Additionally, changes occurred in kidney morphology, which showed a smooth or rough surface, the latter corresponding to the development of the SSK. Spermatozoa were found inside the lumen of the SSK of some males. Females lacked left oviducts and showed changes in morphological and histological aspects of the right oviducts throughout the year. In summer and spring the uterus showed undeveloped structures, while during winter this organ showed conspicuously developed glands and appeared pleated and opaque upon gross examination. The infundibulum was pleated in most females throughout the year and one female had spermatozoon in a receptacle located in the posterior infundibulum. In spring, this organ was enlarged compared to winter, with a thinner epithelium. Fecundity corresponded to 7-11 eggs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24382DOI Listing
September 2020

Biocompatibility of bioabsorbable Mg-Ca alloys with rare earth elements addition.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2019 Dec 3;30(12):134. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Biomaterials Laboratory, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-270, Brazil.

The objectives were to investigate the mechanical strength and biocompatibility of Mg2Ca2Gd and Mg1Ca2Nd (wt%) alloys developed for biomedical application as implantable bioabsorbable devices. Samples were implanted in New-Zealand rabbits tibia for 3, 6 and 8 weeks and compatibility analysis involved whole blood test, biochemistry, histopathology, histology, and radiographs. Refinement in grains were observed in MgCaGd alloy; and MgGd, MgNd, α-Mg and MgCa phases were identified. Polarization curves revealed easier oxidation of Mg2Ca2Gd alloy, smaller values of corrosion rate and a higher polarization resistance of Mg1Ca2Nd. Adequate compatibility of both alloys was identified with pre-osteoblast stem cells. Red and white cells stayed compatible with reference ranges. Enzymes from liver and kidneys stayed at regular values and samples from kidneys and liver tissues presented similar organization to control animals. Histological displays from implantation sites disclosed well-structured tissues with evidences of bone cells activities compatible with the new bone tissues observed. Radiographs from tibias did not revealed relevant gas pockets. Mg2Ca2Gd alloy demonstrated faster degradation. Adequate biocompatibility was observed in Mg-Ca alloys with RE addition, being potential candidates for development of metallic implantable bioabsorbable devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-019-6330-yDOI Listing
December 2019
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