Publications by authors named "Daniel Eun"

115 Publications

AUTHOR REPLY.

Urology 2021 Jun;152:165-166

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple Univiersity, Philadelphia, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.01.060DOI Listing
June 2021

Retroperitoneal versus transepritoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for postero-lateral renal masses: an international multicenter analysis.

World J Urol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, 23298-0118, USA.

Purpose: To assess the outcomes of retroperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (r-RAPN) in a large cohort of patients with postero-lateral renal masses comparing to those of transperitoneal RAPN (t-RAPN).

Methods: Patients with posterior (R.E.N.A.L. score grading P) or lateral (grading X) renal mass who underwent RAPN in six high-volume US and European centers were identified and stratified into two groups according to surgical approach: r-RAPN ("study group") and t-RAPN ("control group"). Baseline characteristics, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected and compared.

Results: Overall, 447 patients were identified for the analysis. 231 (51.7%) and 216 (48.3%) patients underwent r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively. Baseline characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the groups. r-RAPN group reported lower median operative time (140 vs. 170 min, p < 0.001). No difference was found in ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and intraoperative complications. Overall, 47 and 54 postoperative complications were observed in r-RAPN and t-RAPN groups, respectively (20.3 vs. 25.1%, p = 0.9). 1 and 2 patients reported major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ III grade) in the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal groups (0.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.9). There was no difference in hospital re-admission rate, median length of stay, and PSM rate. Trifecta criteria were achieved in 90.3 and 89.2% of r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively (p = 0.7).

Conclusion: r-RAPN and t-RAPN offer similar postoperative, functional, and oncological outcomes for patients with postero-lateral renal tumors. Our analysis suggests an advantage for r-RAPN in terms of shorter operative time, whereas it does not confirm a difference in terms of length of stay, as suggested by previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03741-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Transvesical robotic excision of a Müllerian duct remnant.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Sep 19;38:101686. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, 3401 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Müllerian duct remnants are rare and found in patients with disorders of sexual development. Presenting symptoms vary and many parents opt for surgical management. Literature on robotic repair is limited to small series, single case reports and all were approached extravesically. We present our case of a unique transvesical approach. Perioperative parameters were favorable with no complications, suggesting robotic repair is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these unique patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2021.101686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093405PMC
September 2021

Risk Factors for Intravesical Recurrence after Minimally Invasive Nephroureterectomy for Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer (ROBUUST Collaboration).

J Urol 2021 Apr 21:101097JU0000000000001786. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Purpose: Intravesical recurrence (IVR) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has an incidence of approximately 20%-50%. Studies to date have been composed of mixed treatment cohorts-open, laparoscopic and robotic. The objective of this study is to assess clinicopathological risk factors for intravesical recurrence after RNU for UTUC in a completely minimally invasive cohort.

Materials And Methods: We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 485 patients with UTUC without prior or concurrent bladder cancer who underwent robotic or laparoscopic RNU. Patients were selected from an international cohort of 17 institutions across the United States, Europe and Asia. Univariate and multiple Cox regression models were used to identify risk factors for bladder recurrence.

Results: A total of 485 (389 robotic, 89 laparoscopic) patients were included in analysis. Overall, 110 (22.7%) of patients developed IVR. The average time to recurrence was 15.2 months (SD 15.5 months). Hypertension was a significant risk factor on multiple regression (HR 1.99, CI 1.06; 3.71, p=0.030). Diagnostic ureteroscopic biopsy incurred a 50% higher chance of developing IVR (HR 1.49, CI 1.00; 2.20, p=0.048). Treatment specific risk factors included positive surgical margins (HR 3.36, CI 1.36; 8.33, p=0.009) and transurethral resection for bladder cuff management (HR 2.73, CI 1.10; 6.76, p=0.031).

Conclusions: IVR after minimally invasive RNU for UTUC is a relatively common event. Risk factors include a ureteroscopic biopsy, transurethral resection of the bladder cuff, and positive surgical margins. When possible, avoidance of transurethral resection of the bladder cuff and alternative strategies for obtaining biopsy tissue sample should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001786DOI Listing
April 2021

A Multi-institutional Experience with Robotic Vesicovaginal and Ureterovaginal Fistula Repair After Iatrogenic Injury.

J Endourol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, 12314, Urology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States;

Objectives: To describe our multi-institutional experience with robotic repair of iatrogenic urogynecologic fistulae (UGF), including vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF) and ureterovaginal fistulae (UVF).

Methods: We performed a retrospective review identifying patients who underwent robotic repair of vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistulae between January 2010 and May 2019. All patients failed conservative management with foley catheter or upper tract drainage (ureteral stent and/or nephrostomy tube), respectively. Patient demographics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Success was defined as no vaginal leakage of urine postoperatively, in the absence of drains, catheters or stents.

Results: Of 34 patients, 22/34 (65%) had VVF and 12/34 (35%) had UVF repair. VVF etiology included radiation (1/22, 4.5%) and surgery (21/22, 95.5%). 4/22 (18%) had undergone prior repair attempt. Median console time was 187 minutes (interquartile range (IQR): 151-219), estimated blood loss (EBL) was 50 milliliters (mL) (IQR: 50-93), and median length of stay (LOS) was 1 day (IQR: 1-2). 2/22 (9%) patients had a postoperative complication. At mean follow-up of 28.9 months, 20/22 (91%) VVF cases were clinically successful. UVF etiology was gynecologic surgery in all cases; 8/12 (67%) were left-sided, 4/12 (33%) were right-sided. None were repeat repairs. 2/12 (17%) underwent ureteroureterostomy, 10/12 (83%) had reimplant. Median console time was 160 minutes (IQR: 133-196), EBL was 50 mL (IQR: 50-112) and LOS was 1 day (IQR: 1-1). No complications were encountered. At mean follow-up of 29.3 months, 100% of UVF repairs were successful.

Conclusions: Robotic repair of iatrogenic UGF may be successfully performed with low complication rates by experienced urologic surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0993DOI Listing
March 2021

Single stage Xi® robotic radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: surgical technique and outcomes.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Urology, Onze Lieve Vrouw Hospital, Aalst, Belgium.

Background: Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) represents the standard of care for high grade upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Open and laparoscopic approaches are well-established treatments, but evidence regarding robotic RANU is growing. The introduction of the Xi® system facilitates the implementation of this multi-quadrant procedure. The aim of this video-article is to describe the surgical steps and the outcomes of Xi® robotic RNU.

Methods: Single stage Xi® robotic RNU without patients repositioning and robot re-docking were done between 2015 and 2019 and collected in a large worldwide multi-institutional study, the ROBotic surgery for Upper tract Urothelial cancer STudy (ROBUUST). Institutional review board approval and data share agreement were obtained at each center. Surgical technique is described in detail in the accompanying video. Descriptive statistics of baseline characteristics and surgical, pathological, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. RESULTSː Overall, 148 patients were included in the analysis; 14% had an ECOG >1 and 68.2% ASA ≥3. Median tumor dimension was 3.0 (IQR:2.0-4.2) cm and 34.5% showed hydronephrosis at diagnosis. Forty-eight% were cT1 tumors. Bladder cuff excision and lymph node dissection were performed in 96% and 38.1% of the procedures, respectively. Median operative time and estimated blood loss were 215.5 (IQR:160.5-290.0) minutes and 100.0 (IQR: 50.0-150.0) mL, respectively. Approximately 56% of patients took opioids during hospital stay for a total morphine equivalent dose of 22.9 (IQR:16.0-60.0) milligrams equivalent. Postoperative complications were 26 (17.7%), with 4 major (15.4%). Seven patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, with median number of cycles of 4.0 (IQR:3.0-6.0).

Conclusions: Single stage Xi® RNU is a reproducible and safe minimally invasive procedure for treatment of UTUC. Additional potential advantages of the robot might be a wider implementation of LND with a minimally invasive approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04247-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Ureteral Rest is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Robotic Ureteral Reconstruction of Proximal and Middle Ureteral Strictures.

Urology 2021 Jun 25;152:160-166. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ureteral rest on outcomes of robotic ureteral reconstruction.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent robotic ureteral reconstruction of proximal and/or middle ureteral strictures in our multi-institutional database between 2/2012-03/2019 with ≥12 months follow-up. All patients were recommended to undergo ureteral rest, which we defined as the absence of hardware (ie. double-J stent or percutaneous nephroureteral tube) across a ureteral stricture ≥4 weeks prior to reconstruction. However, patients who refused percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement did not undergo ureteral rest. Perioperative outcomes were compared after grouping patients according to whether or not they underwent ureteral rest. Continuous and categorical variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U and 2-tailed chi-squared tests, respectively; P <.05 was considered significant.

Results: Of 234 total patients, 194 (82.9%) underwent ureteral rest and 40 (17.1%) did not undergo ureteral rest prior to ureteral reconstruction. Patients undergoing ureteral rest were associated with a higher success rate compared to those not undergoing ureteral rest (90.7% versus 77.5%, respectively; P = .027). Also, patients undergoing ureteral rest were associated with lower estimated blood loss (50 versus 75 milliliters, respectively; p<0.001) and less likely to undergo buccal mucosa graft ureteroplasty (20.1% versus 37.5%, respectively; p=0.023).

Conclusions: Implementing ureteral rest prior to ureteral reconstruction may allow for stricture maturation and is associated higher surgical success rates, lower estimated blood loss, and decreased utilization of buccal mucosa graft ureteroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.01.058DOI Listing
June 2021

A Preoperative Nomogram to Predict Renal Function Insufficiency for Cisplatin-based Adjuvant Chemotherapy Following Minimally Invasive Radical Nephroureterectomy (ROBUUST Collaborative Group).

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

OLV Hospital, Aalst, Belgium;ORSI Academy, Melle, Belgium.

Background: Postoperative renal function impairment represents a main limitation for delivering adjuvant chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU).

Objective: To create a model predicting renal function decline after minimally invasive RNU.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 490 patients with nonmetastatic UTUC who underwent minimally invasive RNU were identified from a collaborative database including 17 institutions worldwide (February 2006 to March 2020). Renal function insufficiency for cisplatin-based regimen was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <50 ml/min/1.73 m at 3 mo after RNU. Patients with baseline eGFR >50 ml/min/1.73 m (n = 361) were geographically divided into a training set (n = 226) and an independent external validation set (n = 135) for further analysis.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Using transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD) guidelines, a nomogram to predict postoperative eGFR <50 ml/min/1.73 m was built based on the coefficients of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operation (LASSO) logistic regression. The discrimination, calibration, and clinical use of the nomogram were investigated.

Results And Limitations: The model that incorporated age, body mass index, preoperative eGFR, and hydroureteronephrosis was developed with an area under the curve of 0.771, which was confirmed to be 0.773 in the external validation set. The calibration curve demonstrated good agreement. Besides, the model was converted into a risk score with a cutoff value of 0.583, and the difference between the low- and high-risk groups both in overall death risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.59, p < 0.001) and cancer-specific death risk (HR: 5.19, p < 0.001) was statistically significant. The limitation mainly lies in its retrospective design.

Conclusions: A nomogram incorporating immediately available clinical variables can accurately predict renal insufficiency for cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy after minimally invasive RNU and may serve as a tool facilitating patient selection.

Patient Summary: We have developed a model for the prediction of renal function loss after radical nephroureterectomy to facilitate patient selection for perioperative chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.01.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Robotic Ureteral Bypass Surgery with Appendiceal Graft for Management of Long-Segment Radiation-Induced Distal Ureteral Strictures: A Case Series.

J Endourol Case Rep 2020 29;6(4):305-309. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Surgical management of long-segment radiation-induced distal ureteral strictures (RIDUS) is challenging. Pelvic radiation can damage the bladder, inhibiting the utilization of typical reconstruction techniques such as a psoas hitch and/or Boari flap. Also, radiation can cause scarring that can make ureterolysis difficult. We present a case series of patients undergoing robotic ureteral bypass surgery with appendiceal graft for management of strictures in this setting. This novel procedure utilizes the patient's appendix as a bypass graft to divert urine away from the strictured portion of ureter and into the bladder; this technique does not require dissection of the strictured ureteral segment. Robotic ureteral bypass surgery can be effective for management of long-segment RIDUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cren.2020.0105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803247PMC
December 2020

The role of RENAL score in predicting complications after robotic partial nephrectomy.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA -

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between tumor complexity based on RENAL nephrometry score and complications.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 2555 patients who underwent RPN for renal cell carcinoma. Major complication was defined as clavien grade≥3. The relationship between baseline demographic, clinical characteristics, perioperative and postoperative outcomes, and tumor complexity were assessed using Chi-square test of independence, Fishers exact and Kruskal Wallis test. An unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between major complication and demographic, clinical characteristics, and perioperative outcomes.

Results: There was a significant relationship between tumor complexity and WIT(p<0.001), operative time(p<0.001), estimated blood loss (p<0.001), and major complication(p=0.019). However, there was no relationship with overall complications(p=0.237) and length of stay (LOS) (p=0.085). In the unadjusted model, higher tumor complexity was associated with major complication (p=0.009). Controlling for other variables, there was no significant difference between major complication and tumor complexity (low vs. moderate, p=0.142 and high, p=0.204). LOS (p <0.001) and operative time (p=0.025) remained a significant predictor of major complication in the adjusted model.

Conclusions: Tumor complexity is not associated with an increase in overall or major complication rate after RPN. Experience in high-volume centers is demonstrating a standardization of low complications rates after RPN independent of tumor complexity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.20.03608-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Intermediate-term outcomes after robotic ureteral reconstruction for long-segment (≥4 centimeters) strictures in the proximal ureter: A multi-institutional experience.

Investig Clin Urol 2021 Jan 12;62(1):65-71. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: To report our intermediate-term, multi-institutional experience after robotic ureteral reconstruction for the management of long-segment proximal ureteral strictures.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our Collaborative of Reconstructive Robotic Ureteral Surgery (CORRUS) database to identify all patients who underwent robotic ureteral reconstruction for long-segment (≥4 centimeters) proximal ureteral strictures between August 2012 and June 2019. The primary surgeon determined the specific technique to reconstruct the ureter at time of surgery based on the patient's clinical history and intraoperative findings. Our primary outcome was surgical success, which we defined as the absence of ureteral obstruction on radiographic imaging and absence of obstructive flank pain.

Results: Of 20 total patients, 4 (20.0%) underwent robotic ureteroureterostomy (RUU) with downward nephropexy (DN), 2 (10.0%) underwent robotic ureterocalycostomy (RUC) with DN, and 14 (70.0%) underwent robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft (RU-BMG). Median stricture length was 4 centimeters (interquartile range [IQR], 4-4; maximum, 5), 6 centimeters (IQR, 5-7; maximum, 8), and 5 centimeters (IQR, 4-5; maximum, 8) for patients undergoing RUU with DN, RUC with DN, and RU-BMG, respectively. At a median follow-up of 24 (IQR, 14-51) months, 17/20 (85.0%) cases were surgically successful. Two of four patients (50.0%) who underwent RUU with DN developed stricture recurrences within 3 months.

Conclusions: Long-segment proximal ureteral strictures may be safely and effectively managed with RUC with DN and RU-BMG. Although RUU with DN can be utilized, this technique may be associated with a higher failure rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.20200298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801167PMC
January 2021

Single overnight stay after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: a bi-center experience.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA -

Background: Despite hospital length of stay (LOS) being shorter for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) compared to its open counterpart, several series in the literature report on average a LOS of 2-3 days or more. We aimed to assess factors predicting a prolonged length of stay (beyond a single overnight stay) in patients undergoing RAPN.

Methods: Patients who underwent RAPN between 2010 and 2019 at two U.S. Centers were included and divided into two groups according to LOS: the study group included all patients who were discharged on POD1, whereas the control group included patients with LOS≥2 days. Demographics, surgical and perioperative outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of LOS≥2.

Results: Overall, 173 (60.5%) patients discharged on POD1, and 113 (39.5%) discharged on POD≥2. Patients in the study group presented a lower mean BMI (29 vs. 32, p=0.02). Retroperitoneal approach was performed in 13.3% patients with shorter LOS (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in median OT (144 vs. 168min, p=0.005) and WIT (19 vs. 23min, p=0.001). We observed six postoperative complications (3.6%) in patients discharged on POD1 and 35 (30.5%) in control group (p<0.001). Major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade≥III) were observed in 3 of POD1 patients (1.8 vs. 6.1%, p<0.001). There was no difference in hospital readmission rate. On logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of prolonged LOS were OT (OR 1.01, 95%C.I.: 1.0-1.2, p=0.001), and occurrence of a postoperative complication (OR 2.2, 95%C.I. 2.0-2.5, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings confirm that a single overnight stay after RAPN is feasible and safe. In our experience, and within the limitations of the present analysis, prolonged operative time and occurrence of immediate postoperative complications translate into higher risk of prolonged hospital stay. Besides adopting a minimally invasive approach, surgeons should also implement perioperative care pathways facilitating early discharge without increasing the risk of readmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.20.04054-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Robotic-assisted Partial Nephrectomy for "Very Small" (<2 cm) Renal Mass: Results of a Multicenter Contemporary Cohort.

Eur Urol Focus 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patient with "very small" (<2 cm) renal mass can be offered active surveillance, thermal ablation, or partial nephrectomy. The management strategy will consider patient preferences and prioritize potential harms associated with each of these options. To date, outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) in patients with "very small" renal masses have not been reported.

Objective: To assess the outcomes of RAPN among patients with "very small" renal masses.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional database including RAPN cases performed at eight high-volume US and European centers between 2009 and 2019. Patients were stratified into two groups according to clinical tumor size: <2 cm ("very small" renal mass, study group) and 2-4 cm (control group).

Intervention: RAPN for renal masses.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Baseline characteristics and intraoperative, pathological, and postoperative data were compared between the study and the control group. A "trifecta" was used as surrogate of "surgical quality."

Results And Limitations: Overall, a total of 1019 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 352 had a renal mass of <2 cm (34.5%) and 667 (65.5%) had a renal mass of 2-4 cm. At baseline, the study group presented a lower rate of chronic kidney disease ≥stage III (p < 0.001), a lower RENAL score (p = 0.001), and lower rates of hilar (p = 0.04) and endophytic (p = 0.02) masses. Warm ischemia time was shorter for the study group (median 14 vs 18 min, p < 0.001), which also showed a lower rate of overall postoperative complications (9.6% vs 14.7%, p < 0.001) and no major complications. In terms of oncological outcomes, three and ten patients developed a local recurrence in the study and the control group, respectively (p = 0.1). In the study group, higher estimated glomerular filtration rates were found at discharge (p = 0.001) and at the last follow-up (p = 0.007), which showed a "trifecta" achievement of 90.6%. The retrospective design may limit the generalizability of the findings.

Conclusions: Whenever an active treatment is indicated or warranted, RAPN represents a minimally invasive management option for "very small" renal masses, as it carries minimal risk of complications and has minimal impact on renal function. While both active surveillance and kidney ablation remain valid management options in these cases, RAPN can be offered and discussed with patients as it provides excellent outcomes with low morbidity.

Patient Summary: In this report, we observed that robot-assisted partial nephrectomy represents a true minimally invasive active treatment for "very small" renal masses (<2 cm), as it carries minimal risk of complications and has minimal impact on renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2020.10.001DOI Listing
November 2020

Outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for completely endophytic renal tumors: A multicenter analysis.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 May 16;47(5):1179-1186. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Multicenter retrospective analysis of robotic partial nephrectomy for completely endophytic renal tumors (i.e. 3 points for the 'E' domain of the R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score) was performed.

Materials And Methods: Patients' demographics, tumor characteristics, perioperative, functional, pathological and oncological data were analyzed and compared with those of patients with exophytic and mesophytic masses (i.e. 1 and 2 points for the 'E' domain, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess variables for trifecta achievement (negative margin, no postoperative complications, and 90% estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] recovery).

Results: Overall, 147 patients were included in the study group. Patients with a completely endophytic mass had bigger tumors (mean 4.2 vs. 4.1 vs. 3.2 cm; p < 0.001) on preoperative imaging and higher overall R.E.N.A.L. score. There was no difference in mean operative time. Estimated blood loss was higher in the endophytic group (mean 177.75 vs. 185.5 vs. 130 ml; p = 0.001). Warm ischemia time was shorter for the exophytic group (median 16 vs. 21 vs. 22 min; p < 0.001). Postoperative complications were more frequent in patients with endophytic tumor (24.8% vs. 19.5% vs. 14.8%; p < 0.001). Six (4.5%) patients had positive surgical margins, there was no difference between groups. Trifecta was achieved in 44 patients in endophytic group (45.4 vs. 68.8 and 50.9%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis for trifecta revealed that clinical tumor size (odds ratio: 0.667, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.79, p < 0.001) was only significant predictor for trifecta achievement.

Conclusions: Our findings confirm that RAPN in case of completely endophytic renal masses can be performed with acceptable outcomes in centers with significant robotic expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.08.012DOI Listing
May 2021

Robotic Ureteral Reconstruction in Patients with Radiation-Induced Ureteral Strictures: Experience from the Collaborative of Reconstructive Robotic Ureteral Surgery.

J Endourol 2021 02 21;35(2):144-150. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Management of radiation-induced ureteral stricture (RIUS) is complex, requiring chronic drainage or morbid definitive open reconstruction. Herein, we report our multi-institutional comprehensive experience with robotic ureteral reconstruction (RUR) in patients with RIUSs. In a retrospective review of our multi-institutional RUR database between January 2013 and January 2020, we identified patients with RIUSs. Five major reconstruction techniques were utilized: end-to-end (anastomosing the bladder to the transected ureter) and side-to-side (anastomosing the bladder to an anterior ureterotomy proximal to the stricture without ureteral transection) ureteral reimplantation, buccal or appendiceal mucosa graft ureteroplasty, appendiceal bypass graft, and ileal ureter interposition. When necessary, adjunctive procedures were performed for mobility (i.e., psoas hitch) and improved vascularity (i.e., omental wrap). Outcomes of surgery were determined by the absence of flank pain (clinical success) and absence of obstruction on imaging (radiological success). A total of 32 patients with 35 ureteral units underwent RUR with a median stricture length of 2.5 cm (interquartile range [IQR] 2-5.5). End-to-end and side-to-side reimplantation techniques were performed in 21 (60.0%) and 8 (22.9%) RUR cases, respectively, while 4 (11.4%) underwent an appendiceal procedure. One patient (2.9%) required buccal mucosa graft ureteroplasty, while another needed an ileal ureter interposition. The median operative time was 215 minutes (IQR 177-281), estimated blood loss was 100 mL (IQR 50-150), and length of stay was 2 days (IQR 1-3). One patient required repair of a small bowel leak. Another patient died from a major cardiac event and was excluded from follow-up calculations. At a median follow-up of 13 months (IQR 9-22), 30 ureteral units (88.2%) were clinically and radiologically effective. RUR can be performed in patients with RIUSs with excellent outcomes. Surgeons must be prepared to perform adjunctive procedures for mobility and improved vascularity due to poor tissue quality. Repeat procedures for RIUSs heighten the risk of necrosis and failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0643DOI Listing
February 2021

A Multi-Institutional Experience With Robotic Ureteroplasty With Buccal Mucosa Graft: An Updated Analysis of Intermediate-Term Outcomes.

Urology 2021 Jan 13;147:306-310. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To update our prior multi-institutional experience with robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft and analyze our intermediate-term outcomes. Although our previous multi-institutional report provided significant insight into the safety and efficacy associated with robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft, it was limited by small patient numbers.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our multi-institutional database to identify all patients who underwent robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft between October 2013 and March 2019 with ≥12 months follow up. Indication for surgery was a complex proximal and/or middle ureteral stricture not amenable to primary excision and anastomosis secondary to stricture length or peri-ureteral fibrosis. Surgical success was defined as the absence of obstructive flank pain and ureteral obstruction on functional imaging.

Results: Of 54 patients, 43 (79.6 %) patients underwent an onlay, and 11 (20.4%) patients underwent an augmented anastomotic robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft. Eighteen of 54 (33.3%) patients previously failed a ureteral reconstruction. The median stricture length was 3.0 (IQR 2.0-4.0, range 1-8) centimeters. There were 3 of 54 (5.6%) major postoperative complications. The median length of stay was 1.0 (IQR 1.0-3.0) day. At a median follow-up of 27.5 (IQR 21.3-38.0) months, 47 of 54 (87.0%) cases were surgically successful. Stricture recurrences were diagnosed ≤2 months postoperatively in 3 of 7 (42.9%) patients, and ≥10 months postoperatively in 4 of 7 (57.1%) patients.

Conclusion: Robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft is associated with low peri-operative morbidity and excellent intermediate-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.08.003DOI Listing
January 2021

Onlay Repair Technique for the Management of Ureteral Strictures: A Comprehensive Review.

Biomed Res Int 2020 27;2020:6178286. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Urology, Temple University School of Medicine, 255S 17th Street, 7th Floor Medical Tower, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA.

Ureteroplasty using onlay grafts or flaps emerged as an innovative procedure for the management of proximal and midureteral strictures. Autologous grafts or flaps used commonly in ureteroplasty include the oral mucosae, bladder mucosae, ileal mucosae, and appendiceal mucosae. Oral mucosa grafts, especially buccal mucosa grafts (BMGs), have gained wide acceptance as a graft choice for ureteroplasty. The reported length of BMG ureteroplasty ranged from 1.5 to 11 cm with success rates of 71.4%-100%. However, several studies have demonstrated that ureteroplasty using lingual mucosa grafts yields better recipient site outcomes and fewer donor site complications than that using BMGs. In addition, there is no essential difference in the efficacy and complication rates of BMG ureteroplasty using an anterior approach or a posterior approach. Intestinal graft or flap ureteroplasty was also reported. And the reported length of ileal or appendiceal flap ureteroplasty ranged from 1 to 8 cm with success rates of 75%-100%. Moreover, the bladder mucosa, renal pelvis wall, and penile/preputial skin have also been reported to be used for ureteroplasty and have achieved satisfactory outcomes, but each graft or flap has unique advantages and potential problems. Tissue engineering-based ureteroplasty through the implantation of patched scaffolds, such as the small intestine submucosa, with or without cell seeding, has induced successful ureteral regeneration structurally close to that of the native ureter and has resulted in good functional outcomes in animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6178286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407031PMC
April 2021

Multi-institutional Experience Comparing Outcomes of Adult Patients Undergoing Secondary Versus Primary Robotic Pyeloplasty.

Urology 2020 Nov 18;145:275-280. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To describe surgical techniques and peri-operative outcomes with secondary robotic pyeloplasty (RP), and compare them to those of primary RP.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our multi-institutional, collaborative of reconstructive robotic ureteral surgery (CORRUS) database for all consecutive patients who underwent RP between April 2012 and September 2019. Patients were grouped according to whether they underwent a primary or secondary pyeloplasty (performed for a recurrent stricture after previously failed pyeloplasty). Perioperative outcomes and surgical techniques were compared using nonparametric independent sample median tests and chi-square tests; P < .05 was considered significant.

Results: Of 158 patients, 28 (17.7%) and 130 (82.3%) underwent secondary and primary RP, respectively. Secondary RP, compared to primary RP, was associated with a higher median estimated blood loss (100.0 vs 50.0 milliliters, respectively; P < .01) and longer operative time (188.0 vs 136.0 minutes, respectively; P = .02). There was no difference in major (Clavien >2) complications (P = .29). At a median follow-up of 21.1 (IQR: 11.8-34.7) months, there was no difference in success between secondary and primary RP groups (85.7% vs 92.3%, respectively; P = .44). Buccal mucosa graft onlay ureteroplasty was performed more commonly (35.7% vs 0.0%, respectively, P < .01) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green was utilized more frequently (67.9% vs 40.8%, respectively; P < .01) for secondary vs primary repair.

Conclusion: Although performing secondary RP is technically challenging, it is a safe and effective method for recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction after a previously failed pyeloplasty. Buccal mucosa graft onlay ureteroplasty and utilization of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green may be particularly useful in the re-operative setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.07.008DOI Listing
November 2020

A Multi-Institutional Experience With Robotic Appendiceal Ureteroplasty.

Urology 2020 Nov 15;145:287-291. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Urology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine at New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Objective: To report a multi-institutional experience with robotic appendiceal ureteroplasty.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients undergoing right appendiceal flap ureteroplasty at 2 institutions between April 2016 and October 2019. The primary endpoint was surgical success defined by the absence of flank pain and radiographic evidence of ureteral patency.

Results: Eight of 13 (62%) underwent appendiceal onlay while 5/13 (38%) underwent appendiceal interposition. Mean length of stricture was 6.5 cm (range 1.5-15 cm) affecting anywhere along the right ureter. Mean operative time was 337 minutes (range 206-583), mean estimated blood loss was 116 mL (range 50-600), and median length of stay was 2.5 days (range 1-9). Balloon dilation was required in 1/12 (8%). One patient died on postoperative day 0 due to a sudden cardiovascular event. Otherwise, there were no complications (Clavien-Dindo > 2) within 30 days from surgery. At a mean follow up of 14.6 months, 11/12 (92%) were successful.

Conclusion: Robotic appendiceal ureteroplasty for right ureteral strictures is a versatile technique with high success rates across institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.06.062DOI Listing
November 2020

Should a Drain Be Routinely Required After Transperitoneal Robotic Partial Nephrectomy?

J Endourol 2020 09 25;34(9):964-968. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Closed drains have traditionally been placed after partial nephrectomy because of risks of bleeding and urine leak. We sought to study the safety of a nonroutine drain (NRD) approach after transperitoneal robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). From a multi-institutional database, we have analyzed the data of 904 patients who underwent RPN. Five hundred forty-six (60.40%) patients underwent RPN by a surgeon who routinely placed drains. Three hundred fifty-eight (39.60%) patients underwent RPN by a surgeon who did not routinely placed drains. Perioperative outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and readmission rates were compared between the two groups. Baseline characteristics, perioperative, and postoperative outcomes were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Patients in the NRD group were more likely to have higher body mass index (30.10 kg/m 28.07 kg/m;  < 0.001), higher tumor size (3.0 cm 2.5 cm;  = 0.001), and higher renal score (8 7;  < 0.001). Rate of transfusion (0.00% NRD 0.56% RD;  = 0.157) and overall complication (7.33% NRD 7.82% RD;  = 0.782) were comparable. Median hospital stay is 1 day for both groups. Readmission rate was also similar (0.55% NRD 1.40% RD;  = 0.279). In a multivariable analysis, NRD approach was associated with shorter length of hospital stay (incidence rate ratio [IRR] - 0.72,  < 0.001). An NRD approach for RPN yielded a decreased LOS and similar perioperative outcomes. Placement of surgical drains should be based on individual circumstances, and not required on a routine basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0325DOI Listing
September 2020

Does race impact functional outcomes in patients undergoing robotic partial nephrectomy?

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Apr;9(2):863-869

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The role of race on functional outcomes after robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is still a matter of debate. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of African American (AA) and Caucasian patients who underwent RPN and analyzed the association between race and functional outcomes.

Methods: Data was obtained from a multi-institutional database of patients who underwent RPN in 6 institutions in the USA. We identified 999 patients with complete clinical data. Sixty-three patients (6.3%) were AA, and each patient was matched (1:3) to Caucasian patients by age at surgery, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and renal score. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI). Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable semiparametric Cox regression analyses were performed to assess prevalence and predictors of significant eGFR reduction during follow-up.

Results: Overall, 252 patients were included. AA were more likely to have hypertension (58.7% 35.4%, P=0.001), even after 1:3 match. Overall 42 patients (16.7%) developed AKI after surgery and 35 patients (13.9%) developed significant eGFR reduction between 3 and 15 months after RAPN. On multivariate analysis, AA race did not emerge as a significant factor for predicting AKI (OR 1.10, P=0.8). On Cox multivariable analysis, only AKI was found to be associated with significant eGFR reduction between 3 and 15 months after RAPN (HR 2.49, P=0.019).

Conclusions: Although African American patients were more likely to have hypertension, renal function outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomies were not significantly different when stratified by race. However, future studies with larger cohorts are necessary to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau.2019.09.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214979PMC
April 2020

Outcomes and predictors of benign histology in patients undergoing robotic partial or radical nephrectomy for renal masses: a multicenter study.

Cent European J Urol 2020 23;73(1):33-38. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Division of Urology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA, USA.

Introduction: Theaim of this study was to assess preoperative factors associated with benign histology in patients undergoing surgical removal of a renal mass and to analyze outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) for these masses.

Material And Methods: Overall, 2,944 cases (543 benign and 2,401 malignant) who underwent robotic PN and RN between 2003-2018 at 10 institutions worldwide were included. The assessment of the predictors of benign histology was made at the final surgical pathology report. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's χ, and logistic regression analysis were used.

Results: Patients in the benign group were mostly female (61 vs. 33%; p <0.001), with lower body mass index (BMI) (26.0 vs. 27.1 kg/m; p <0.001). The benign group presented smaller tumor size (2.8 vs. 3.5 cm; p <0.001), R.E.N.A.L. score (6.0 vs. 7.0; p <0.001). There was a lower rate of hilar (11 vs.18%; p = 0.001), cT≥3 (1 vs. 4.5%; p <0.001) tumors in the benign group. There was a statistically significant higher rate of PN in the benign group (97 vs. 86%; p <0.001) as well as a statistically significant lower 30-day re-admission rate (2 vs. 5%; p = 0.081). Multivariable analysis showed male gender (OR: 0.52; p <0.001), BMI (OR: 0.95; p <0.001), and cT3a (OR: 0.22; p = 0.005) to be inversely associated to benign histology.

Conclusions: In 18% of cases, a benign histologic type was found. Only 3% of these tumors were treated with RN. Female gender, lower BMI, and higher T staging showed to be independent predictors of benign histology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2020.0019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203778PMC
March 2020

Intermediate-term Urinary Function and Complication Outcomes After Robot-Assisted Simple Prostatectomy.

Urology 2020 Jul 22;141:89-94. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To assess the incidence of delayed complications after robot-assisted simple prostatectomy and evaluate postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as a function of time with intermediate-term follow-up.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 150 patients who underwent robot-assisted simple prostatectomy between May, 2013 and January, 2019. Indication for surgery was bothersome LUTS refractory to medical management and prostate volume ≥80 milliliters. The severity of LUTS was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QOL) score. One-way analysis of variance test with post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference test was used to compare postoperative IPSS and QOL scores as a function of time; P <.05 was considered significant.

Results: At a mean ± SD follow up of 31.3 ± 18.2 months, none of the patients developed a bladder neck contracture and none of the patients required reoperation for LUTS. Postoperatively, IPSS and QOL scores decreased with an increasing duration of follow up (P <.001). Mean IPSS and QOL scores improved between 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively (P = .027 and P = .006, respectively). After 3 months postoperatively, mean IPPS and QOL scores stabilized and remained unchanged up to 36 months of follow-up (all P >.05).

Conclusion: Robotic simple prostatectomy is associated with a low incidence of delayed complications at a mean of 31.3 months postoperatively. After robotic simple prostatectomy, urinary function outcomes improve in the early postoperative period with maximal improvement occurring at 3 months. Excellent urinary function outcomes are durable up to at least 36 months postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.04.055DOI Listing
July 2020

Utilization of a Peritoneal Interposition Flap to Prevent Symptomatic Lymphoceles After Robotic Radical Prostatectomy and Bilateral Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection.

J Endourol 2020 Aug 13;34(8):821-827. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Urology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The peritoneal interposition flap (PIF) has been shown to prevent postoperative symptomatic lymphocele (SL) formation after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The PIF inhibits the mobilized bladder from resealing over its lateral dissection planes, which overly the lymphadenectomy beds. This creates a window for lymphatic fluid to drain into the peritoneal cavity where it can be absorbed. Herein, we externally validate its utility in preventing postoperative SL formation and assess its effect on postoperative urinary function. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients who underwent RARP with bilateral PLND by a single surgeon between July 2016 and September 2019. All patients who underwent surgery before August 8, 2018 did not receive the PIF, while those who underwent surgery after August 8, 2018 received the PIF. Our PIF technique involves fixing the peritoneum overlying the lateral dome of the bladder to the ipsilateral, anterior-lateral surface of the bladder using a barbed absorbable suture. Continuous and categorical variables were compared between the two groups using independent -tests and chi-square tests, respectively;  < 0.05 was considered significant. Of 318 total patients, 201 did not undergo the PIF and 117 underwent the PIF. With regard to postoperative complications, patients undergoing the PIF had a lower incidence of SL compared with those not undergoing the PIF (0.0% 6.0%,  = 0.007). There was no difference in 30-day postoperative nonlymphocele complications (Clavien >2) between both groups ( = 0.800). With regard to urinary function, there was no difference in the rate of 3-month postoperative continence ( = 0.624), preoperative American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS) ( = 0.898), and postoperative AUASS ( = 0.470) between both groups. Utilization of a PIF may minimize the risk of SL formation after RARP and PLND without increasing the risk of non-SL-related complications. This technique does not adversely affect postoperative urinary function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0073DOI Listing
August 2020

Ureteral Reimplantation via Robotic Nontransecting Side-to-Side Anastomosis for Distal Ureteral Stricture.

J Endourol 2020 Aug 5;34(8):836-839. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Urology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

To describe a novel technique of ureteral reimplantation through robotic nontransecting side-to-side anastomosis. Although the standard approach to ureteroneocystostomy has a high rate of success, it involves transection of the ureter that may impair vascularity and contribute to recurrent strictures. Our method seeks to maximally preserve distal ureteral blood flow that may reduce this risk. We retrospectively reviewed a multi-institutional ureteral reconstruction database to identify patients who underwent this operation between 2014 and 2018, analyzing perioperative and postoperative outcomes. Our technique was utilized in 16 patients across three U.S. academic institutions. Median operative time and estimated blood loss were 178 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 150-204) and 50 mL (IQR 38-100), respectively. The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR 1-2). No intraoperative complications or postoperative complications with Clavien score ≥3 were reported. Postoperatively, 15 of 16 (93.8%) patients reported clinical improvement in flank pain, and all patients who underwent follow-up imaging had radiographic improvement with decrease in hydronephrosis at a median follow-up of 12.5 months. Ureteral reimplantation through a robotic nontransecting side-to-side anastomosis is a feasible and effective operation for distal ureteral stricture that may have advantages over the standard of care transecting ureteroneocystostomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2019.0877DOI Listing
August 2020

Robotic partial nephrectomy vs minimally invasive radical nephrectomy for clinical T2a renal mass: a propensity score-matched comparison from the ROSULA (Robotic Surgery for Large Renal Mass) Collaborative Group.

BJU Int 2020 07 15;126(1):114-123. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objective: To compare outcomes of minimally invasive radical nephrectomy (MIS-RN) and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) in clinical T2a renal mass (cT2aRM).

Patients And Methods: Retrospective, multicentre, propensity score-matched (PSM) comparison of RAPN and MIS-RN for cT2aRM (T2aN0M0). Cohorts were PSM for age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, clinical tumour size, and R.E.N.A.L. score using a 2:1 ratio for RN:PN. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS), complication rates, and de novo estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m . Multivariable (MVA) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses (KMSA) were conducted.

Results: In all, 648 patients (216 RAPN/432 MIS-RN) were matched. There were no significant differences in intraoperative complications (P = 0.478), Clavien-Dindo Grade ≥III complications (P = 0.063), and re-admissions (P = 0.238). The MVA revealed high ASA class (hazard ratio [HR] 2.7, P = 0.044) and sarcomatoid (HR 5.3, P = 0.001), but not surgery type (P = 0.601) to be associated with all-cause mortality. Increasing R.E.N.A.L. score (HR 1.31, P = 0.037), high tumour grade (HR 2.5, P = 0.043), and sarcomatoid (HR 2.8, P = 0.02) were associated with recurrence, but not surgery (P = 0.555). Increasing age (HR 1.1, P < 0.001) and RN (HR 3.9, P < 0.001) were predictors of de novo eGFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m . Comparing RAPN and MIS-RN, KMSA revealed no significant differences for 5-year OS (76.3% vs 88.0%, P = 0.221) and 5-year DFS (78.6% vs 85.3%, P = 0.630) for pT2 RCC, and no differences for 3-year OS (P = 0.351) and 3-year DFS (P = 0.117) for pT3a upstaged RCC. The 5-year freedom from de novo eGFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m was 91.6% for RAPN vs 68.9% for MIS-RN (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: RAPN had similar oncological outcomes and morbidity profile as MIS-RN, while conferring functional benefit. RAPN may be considered as a first-line option for cT2aRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15064DOI Listing
July 2020

Selective clamping during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in patients with a solitary kidney: is it safe and does it help?

BJU Int 2020 06 27;125(6):893-897. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Urology, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Objectives: To obtain the most accurate assessment of the risks and benefits of selective clamping in robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) we evaluated outcomes of this technique vs those of full clamping in patients with a solitary kidney undergoing RAPN.

Patients And Methods: Data from institutional review board-approved retrospective and prospective databases from 2006 to 2019 at multiple institutions with sharing agreements were evaluated. Patients with a solitary kidney were identified and stratified based on whether selective or full renal artery clamping was performed. Both groups were analysed with regard to demographics, risk factors, intra-operative complications, and postoperative outcomes using chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact tests, t-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests.

Results: Our initial cohort consisted of 4112 patients, of whom 72 had undergone RAPN in a solitary kidney (51 with full clamping and 21 with selective clamping). There were no significant differences in demographics, tumour size, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), or warm ischaemia time (WIT) between the groups (Table 1). Intra-operative outcomes, including estimated blood loss, operating time, and intra-operative complications were similar in the two groups. Short- and long-term postoperative percentage change in eGFR, frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI), and frequency of de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD) were also not significantly different between the two techniques.

Conclusion: In a large cohort of patients with solitary kidney undergoing RAPN, selective clamping resulted in similar intra-operative and postoperative outcomes compared to full clamping and conferred no additional risk of harm. However, selective clamping did not appear to provide any functional advantage over full clamping as there was no difference observed in the frequency of AKI, CKD or change in eGFR. Short WIT in both groups (<15 min) may have prevented identification of benefits in the selective clamping group; a similar study analysing cases with longer WIT may elucidate any beneficial effects of selective clamping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15043DOI Listing
June 2020

Robot-assisted distal ureteral reconstruction for benign pathology: Current state.

Investig Clin Urol 2020 02 21;61(Suppl 1):S23-S32. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Urology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Distal ureteral reconstruction for benign pathologies such as stricture disease or iatrogenic injury has posed a challenge for urologist as endoscopic procedures have poor long-term outcomes, requiring definitive open reconstruction. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing shift towards robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) with multiple institutions reporting their outcomes. In this article, we reviewed the current literature on RAL distal ureteral reconstruction, focusing on benign pathologies only. We present peri-operative data and outcomes on the most common technique, ureteral reimplantation, as well as adjunct procedures such as psoas hitch and Boari flap. Additionally, we present alternative techniques reported in the literature with some technical considerations. Lastly, we describe the outcomes of the comparative studies between open, laparoscopy, and RAL. Although the body of literature in this field is limited, RAL reconstruction of the distal ureter appears to be safe, feasible, and with some advantages over the traditional open approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.2020.61.S1.S23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004836PMC
February 2020

Upstaging to pT3a disease in patients undergoing robotic partial nephrectomy for cT1 kidney cancer: Outcomes and predictors from a multi-institutional dataset.

Urol Oncol 2020 04 16;38(4):286-292. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, VCU Health System, Richmond, VA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Surgically treated clinical T1 (cT1) kidney cancer has in general a good prognosis, but there is a risk of upstaging that can potentially jeopardize the oncological outcomes after partial nephrectomy (PN). Aim of this study is to analyze the outcomes of robot-assisted PN (RAPN) for cT1 kidney cancer upstaged to pT3a, and to identify predictors of upstaging.

Material And Methods: The study cohort included 1,640 cT1 patients who underwent RAPN between 2005 and 2018 at 10 academic institutions. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the predictors of upstaging. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate recurrence-free survival and overall survival.

Results: Overall, 74 (4%) were upstaged cases (cT1/pT3a). Upstaged patients presented larger renal tumors (3.1 vs. 2.4 cm; P = 0.001), and higher R.E.N.A.L. score (8.0 vs. 6.0; P = 0.004). cT1/pT3a group had higher rate of intraoperative complications (5 vs. 1% P = 0.032), higher pathological tumor size (3.2 vs. 2.5 cm; P < 0.001), higher rate of Fuhrman grade ≥3 (32 vs. 17%; P = 0.002), and higher number of sarcomatoid differentiation (4 vs. 1%; P = 0.008). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ≥3 (OR: 2.54; P < 0.014), and clinical tumor size (OR: 1.07; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of upstaging. cT1/pT3a group had worse 2-year (94% vs. 99%) recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Upstaging to pT3a in patients with cT1 renal mass undergoing RAPN represents an uncommon event, involving less than 5% of cases. Pathologic upstaging might translate into worse oncological outcomes, and therefore strict follow-up protocols should be applied in these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.12.024DOI Listing
April 2020