Publications by authors named "Daniel E Goltz"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Short stay after shoulder arthroplasty does not increase 90-day readmissions in Medicare patients compared with privately insured patients.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: As of January 1, 2021, total shoulder arthroplasty was removed from the Medicare inpatient-only list, reflecting a growing belief in the potential merits of same-day discharge regardless of insurance type. It is yet unknown whether Medicare populations, which frequently have more severe comorbidity burdens, would experience higher complication rates relative to privately insured patients, who are often younger with fewer comorbidities. Given the limited number of true outpatient cohorts available to study, discharge at least by postoperative day 1 may serve as a useful proxy for true same-day discharge, and we hypothesized that these Medicare patients would have increased 90-day readmission rates compared with their privately insured counterparts.

Methods: Data on 4723 total shoulder arthroplasties (anatomic in 2459 and reverse in 2264) from 2 large, geographically diverse health systems in patients having either Medicare or private insurance were collected. The unplanned 90-day readmission rate was the primary outcome, and patients were stratified into those who were discharged at least by postoperative day 1 (short inpatient stay) and those who were not. Patients with private insurance (n = 1845) were directly compared with those with Medicare (n = 2878), whereas cohorts of workers' compensation (n = 198) and Medicaid (n = 58) patients were analyzed separately. Forty preoperative variables were examined to compare overall health burden, with the χ and Wilcoxon rank sum tests used to test for statistical significance.

Results: Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty were not significantly more likely than those with private insurance to experience an unplanned 90-day readmission (3.6% vs. 2.5%, P = .14). This similarity existed despite a substantially worse comorbidity burden in the Medicare population (P < .05 for 26 of 40 factors). Furthermore, a short inpatient stay did not result in an increased 90-day readmission rate in either Medicare patients (3.6% vs. 3.4%, P = .77) or their privately insured counterparts (2.5% vs. 2.4%, P = .92). Notably, when the analysis was restricted to a single insurance type, readmission rates were significantly higher for reverse shoulder arthroplasty compared with total shoulder arthroplasty (P < .001 for both), but when the analysis was restricted to a single procedure (anatomic or reverse), readmission rates were similar between Medicare and privately insured patients, whether undergoing a short or extended length of stay.

Conclusions: Despite a substantially more severe comorbidity profile, Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty did not experience a significantly higher rate of unplanned 90-day readmission relative to privately insured patients. A higher incidence of reverse shoulder arthroplasty in Medicare patients does increase their overall readmission rate, but a similar increase also appears in privately-insured patients undergoing a reverse indicating that Medicare populations may be similarly appropriate for accelerated-care pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.05.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Malnutrition in elective shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-institutional retrospective study of preoperative albumin and adverse outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Malnutrition is associated with poor postoperative outcomes after knee, hip, and spine surgery. However, whether albumin labs should be part of the routine preoperative workup for shoulder arthroplasty remains understudied. This study investigated the role of preoperative albumin levels in predicting common postoperative adverse outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: All shoulder arthroplasty cases performed at 2 tertiary referral centers between July 2013 and May 2019 (institution 1) and between June 2007 and Feb 2020 (institution 2) were reviewed. A total of 421 primary and 71 revision elective shoulder arthroplasty cases had preoperative albumin levels recorded. Common demographic variables and relevant Elixhauser comorbidities were pulled. Outcomes gathered included extended (>3 days) postoperative inpatient length of stay (eLOS), 90-day readmission, and discharge to rehab or skilled nursing facility (SNF).

Results: The prevalence of malnutrition (albumin <3.5 g/dL) was higher in the revision group compared with the primary group (36.6% vs. 19.5%, P = .001). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (P = .013) and increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = .016) were identified as independent risk factors for malnutrition in the primary group. In the revision group, liver disease was associated with malnutrition (P = .046). Malnourished primary shoulder arthroplasty patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (26.8% vs. 13.6%, P = .003) and discharge to rehab/SNF (18.3% vs. 10.3%, P = .045). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.34 for eLOS (P = .004), which retained significance in a multivariable model including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, sex, and body mass index (OR 2.11, P = .03). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an OR of 1.94 for discharge to SNF/rehab (P = .048), but this did not reach significance in the multivariable model. Among revisions, malnourished patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (30.8% vs. 6.7%, P = .014) and discharge to rehab/SNF (26.9% vs. 4.4%, P = .010). In both the primary and revision groups, there was no difference in 90-day readmission rate between patients with low or normal albumin.

Conclusion: Malnutrition is more prevalent among revision shoulder arthroplasty patients compared with those undergoing a primary procedure. Primary shoulder arthroplasty patients with low preoperative albumin levels have an increased risk of eLOS and may have an increased need for postacute care. Low albumin was not associated with a risk of 90-day readmissions. Albumin level merits further investigation in large, prospective cohorts to clearly define its role in preoperative risk stratification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.143DOI Listing
April 2021

Utility of postoperative hemoglobin testing following total shoulder arthroplasty.

JSES Int 2021 Jan 8;5(1):149-153. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Identifying areas of excess cost for shoulder arthroplasty patients can play a role in effective health care spending. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of postoperative complete blood count (CBC) testing after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and identify which patients benefit from routine CBC testing.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of patients who underwent primary TSA from January 2018 through January 2019. All patients in this cohort received tranexamic acid. Patient demographic characteristics and patient-specific risk factors such as American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Elixhauser index, body mass index, smoking status, and coagulopathy history were obtained. Perioperative values including length of surgery, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, and need for transfusion were also obtained.

Results: This study included 387 TSA patients in the final analysis. Comparison between the cohort requiring transfusion and the cohort undergoing no intervention revealed no statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, or Elixhauser index. The group receiving transfusions was found to have significantly lower levels of preoperative Hgb (11.3 g/dL) and postoperative Hgb (8.1 g/dL) ( < .0001). Additionally, the percentages of patients with abnormal preoperative Hgb levels (<12 g/dL) (72.3%) and postoperative day 1 Hgb levels < 9 g/dL (81.8%) were significantly higher in the group receiving transfusions ( < .0001). A multivariate regression model identified an abnormal preoperative Hgb level (<12 g/dL), with an odds ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.2; < .001), and postoperative day 1 Hgb level < 9 g/dL, with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-6.1; < .03), as significant predictors of the risk of transfusion with a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 96.2% with an area under the curve of 0.87.

Conclusion: Routine CBC testing may not be necessary for patients who receive tranexamic acid and have preoperative Hgb levels > 12 mg/dL and first postoperative Hgb levels > 9 mg/dL. This translates to potential health care cost savings and improves current evidence-based perioperative management in shoulder arthroplasty.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.07.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846688PMC
January 2021

A Preoperative Risk Prediction Tool for Discharge to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 04 16;36(4):1212-1219. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Discharge to rehabilitation or a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after total joint arthroplasty remains a primary driver of cost excess for bundled payments. An accurate preoperative risk prediction tool would help providers and health systems identify and modulate perioperative care for higher risk individuals and serve as a vital tool in preoperative clinic as part of shared decision-making regarding the risks/benefits of surgery.

Methods: A total of 10,155 primary total knee (5,570, 55%) and hip (4,585, 45%) arthroplasties performed between June 2013 and January 2018 at a single institution were reviewed. The predictive ability of 45 variables for discharge location (SNF/rehab vs home) was tested, including preoperative sociodemographic factors, intraoperative metrics, postoperative labs, as well as 30 Elixhauser comorbidities. Parameters surviving selection were included in a multivariable logistic regression model, which was calibrated using 20,000 bootstrapped samples.

Results: A total of 1786 (17.6%) cases were discharged to a SNF/rehab, and a multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated excellent predictive accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.824) despite requiring only 9 preoperative variables: age, partner status, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, gender, neurologic disease, electrolyte disorder, paralysis, and pulmonary circulation disorder. Notably, this model was independent of surgery (knee vs hip). Internal validation showed no loss of accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.8216, mean squared error: 0.0004) after bias correction for overfitting, and the model was incorporated into a readily available, online prediction tool for easy clinical use.

Conclusion: This convenient, interactive tool for estimating likelihood of discharge to a SNF/rehab achieves excellent accuracy using exclusively preoperative factors. These should form the basis for improved reimbursement legislation adjusting for patient risk, ensuring no disparities in access arise for vulnerable populations.

Level Of Evidence: III.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.10.038DOI Listing
April 2021

Response to Letter to the Editor on "The Role of Malnutrition in Ninety-Day Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty".

J Arthroplasty 2020 03 22;35(3):901-902. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Duke Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.11.022DOI Listing
March 2020

The Role of Malnutrition in Ninety-Day Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 11 6;34(11):2594-2600. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Research has linked malnutrition to more complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. The role of preoperative albumin in predicting length of stay (LOS) and 90-day outcomes remains understudied. Often, an albumin cut-off ≤3.5 g/dL is used as proxy for malnutrition, although this value remains understudied. This preoperative level may be missing some patients at risk for adverse events post TJA.

Methods: TJA patients at a single institution from 2013 to 2018 were reviewed for preoperative albumin level. In total, 4047 cases (total knee arthroplasty: 2058; total hip arthroplasty: 1989) had available data, including 90-day readmissions, 90-day emergency department (ED) visits, and postoperative LOS.

Results: About 5.6% experienced a readmission and 9.6% had at least one ED visit within 90 days. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 3.6%, and this cohort experienced a longer average LOS (3.5 vs 2.2 days, P < .0001) and was more likely to experience a readmission (16% vs 5%, P < .0001) or ED visit (18% vs 9%, P = .0005). Additionally, albumin ≤3.5 g/dL was correlated with more frequent discharge to skilled nursing facility/rehab (30.8% vs 14.7%, P < .0001), increased risk for 90-day readmission with univariable (odds ratio [OR] 1.79, P < .0001) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 1.55, P < .0001), and increased risk for 90-day ED visits with univariable (OR 1.62, P < .0001) and multivariable regression (OR 1.35, P < .0001). The optimal albumin cut-off was 3.94 g/dL in a univariable model for 90-day readmission.

Conclusion: Screening for malnutrition may serve a role in preoperative evaluation. An albumin cutoff value of 3.5 g/dL may miss some at-risk patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.05.060DOI Listing
November 2019

Patients at Risk for Exceeding CJR Cost Targets After Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

Foot Ankle Int 2019 Sep 7;40(9):1025-1031. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: The Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model includes total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), under which a target reimbursement is established. Whether this reimbursement is sufficient to cover average cost remains unknown. We hypothesized that a substantial number of TAAs still exceed cost targets, and that risk factors associated with exceeding the target cost could be identified preoperatively.

Methods: Two hundred two primary TAAs performed at a single tertiary referral center under the CJR model from June 2013 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, outcomes, and costs were extracted from the electronic medical record using a validated structured query language (SQL) algorithm. A comparison cohort of 2084 CJR total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) cases performed during the same period was also reviewed.

Results: Twenty TAAs (10%) exceeded the target cost of care, significantly fewer than CJR THAs/TKAs (29%) performed during the same period ( < .0001). These patients did not differ significantly in age, sex, body mass index, number of Elixhauser comorbidities, or the American Society of Anesthesiologists score. The average cost for these patients was $17 338 higher than those who did not exceed the target cost, and they were less likely to be married or have a partner (45% vs 79%, = .001). Non-Caucasian status also reached significance ( < .0001). Those exceeding the target cost had a significantly longer length of stay (2.6 vs 1.5 days, < .0001) and were more likely to be discharged to either skilled nursing or a rehabilitation facility (60% vs 1%, < .0001).

Conclusion: Even high-volume TAA centers still exceed target costs in up to 10% of cases, with length of stay, discharge location, and readmissions driving many of these events. Potential risk factors for excess cost include marital/partner status and non-Caucasian ethnicity, but further work is needed to clarify their effects and whether other risk factors exist.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, comparative study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100719853494DOI Listing
September 2019

Should Medical Severity-Diagnosis Related Group Classification Be Utilized for Reimbursement? An Analysis of Elixhauser Comorbidities and Cost of Care.

J Arthroplasty 2019 07 27;34(7):1312-1316. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) classifies reimbursement for total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) based on Medical Severity-Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs) 469 (with major complication/comorbidity) and 470 (without major complication/comorbidity). The validated Elixhauser comorbidity index includes 31 variables that may be associated with MS-DRG 469. However, we hypothesized that these comorbidities may not be the most predictive of increased cost of care.

Methods: Elixhauser comorbidities were retrospectively examined for 1243 TKAs and 897 THAs from 2013 to 2017 at a single center. Comorbidities were investigated in univariable analysis and significant variables associated with MS-DRG 469, and cost of care was further investigated in a multivariable regression to determine which were most predictive of the increased complexity classification assigned by CMS vs true increased cost of care.

Results: Thirty-nine patients (1.8%) were classified as MS-DRG 469. Univariable and multivariable logistic analysis revealed that coagulopathy, electrolyte disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychosis were significantly associated with an increased complexity classification. These 4 comorbidities were also associated with increased cost of care; however, 13 additional comorbidities were also predictive of increased cost but not MS-DRG classification.

Conclusions: Patient comorbidities have been shown to increase complications and cost of care for arthroplasty patients. To date, however, the only risk adjustment provided has been the 469 DRG code. This study demonstrates little correlation to the current system with the most expensive diagnoses. Consequently, an expansion of the current risk adjustment system for THA and TKA provided by CMS appears greatly needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.02.045DOI Listing
July 2019

A Novel Risk Calculator Predicts 90-Day Readmission Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Mar;101(6):547-556

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (D.E.G., S.P.R., D.E.A., M.P.B., and T.M.S.), Department of Anesthesiology (T.J.H.), and Performance Services (C.B.H.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: A reliable prediction tool for 90-day adverse events not only would provide patients with valuable estimates of their individual risk perioperatively, but would also give health-care systems a method to enable them to anticipate and potentially mitigate postoperative complications. Predictive accuracy, however, has been challenging to achieve. We hypothesized that a broad range of patient and procedure characteristics could adequately predict 90-day readmission after total joint arthroplasty (TJA).

Methods: The electronic medical records on 10,155 primary unilateral total hip (4,585, 45%) and knee (5,570, 55%) arthroplasties performed at a single institution from June 2013 to January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. In addition to 90-day readmission status, >50 candidate predictor variables were extracted from these records with use of structured query language (SQL). These variables included a wide variety of preoperative demographic/social factors, intraoperative metrics, postoperative laboratory results, and the 30 standardized Elixhauser comorbidity variables. The patient cohort was randomly divided into derivation (80%) and validation (20%) cohorts, and backward stepwise elimination identified important factors for subsequent inclusion in a multivariable logistic regression model.

Results: Overall, subsequent 90-day readmission was recorded for 503 cases (5.0%), and parameter selection identified 17 variables for inclusion in a multivariable logistic regression model on the basis of their predictive ability. These included 5 preoperative parameters (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score, age, operatively treated joint, insurance type, and smoking status), duration of surgery, 2 postoperative laboratory results (hemoglobin and blood-urea-nitrogen [BUN] level), and 9 Elixhauser comorbidities. The regression model demonstrated adequate predictive discrimination for 90-day readmission after TJA (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.7047) and was incorporated into static and dynamic nomograms for interactive visualization of patient risk in a clinical or administrative setting.

Conclusions: A novel risk calculator incorporating a broad range of patient factors adequately predicts the likelihood of 90-day readmission following TJA. Identifying at-risk patients will allow providers to anticipate adverse outcomes and modulate postoperative care accordingly prior to discharge.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.00843DOI Listing
March 2019

A Weighted Index of Elixhauser Comorbidities for Predicting 90-day Readmission After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 05 25;34(5):857-864. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Evolving reimbursement models increasingly compel hospitals to assume costs for 90-day readmission after total joint arthroplasty. Although risk assessment tools exist, none currently reach the predictive performance required to accurately identify high-risk patients and modulate perioperative care accordingly. Although unlikely to perform adequately alone, the Elixhauser index is a set of 31 variables that may lend value in a broader model predicting 90-day readmission.

Methods: Elixhauser comorbidities were examined in 10,022 primary unilateral total joint replacements, of which 4535 were hip replacements and 5487 were knee replacements, all performed between June 2013 and January 2018 at a single tertiary referral center. Data were extracted from electronic medical records using structured query language. After randomizing to derivation (80%) and validation (20%) subgroups, predictive models for 90-day readmission were generated and transformed into a system of weights based on each parameter's relative performance.

Results: We observed 497 90-day readmissions (5.0%) during the study period, which demonstrated independent associations with 14 of the 31 Elixhauser comorbidity groups. A score created from the sum of each patient's weighted comorbidities did not lose substantial predictive discrimination (area under the curve: 0.653) compared to a comprehensive multivariable model containing all 31 unweighted Elixhauser parameters (area under the curve: 0.665). Readmission risk ranged from 3% for patients with a score of 0 to 27% for those with a score of 8 or higher.

Conclusions: The Elixhauser comorbidity score already meets or exceeds the predictive discrimination of available risk calculators. Although insufficient by itself, this score represents a valuable summary of patient comorbidities and merits inclusion in any broader model predicting 90-day readmission risk after total joint arthroplasty.

Level Of Evidence: III.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.01.044DOI Listing
May 2019

Predicting Costs Exceeding Bundled Payment Targets for Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 03 15;34(3):412-417. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, Duke University Hospital, Duke Orthopaedics at Page Road, Durham, NC.

Background: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has instituted bundled reimbursement models for total joint arthroplasty (TJA), which includes target prices for each procedure. Some patients exceed these targets; however, currently there are no tools to accurately predict this preoperatively. We hypothesized that a validated comorbidity index combined with patient demographics would adequately predict excess cost-of-care prior to hospitalization.

Methods: Two thousand eighty-four primary unilateral TJAs performed at a single tertiary center were retrospectively examined. Data were extracted from medical records and a predictive model was built from 30 comorbidities and 7 patient demographic factors (age, gender, race, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, smoking status, and marital status). Following parameter selection, a final multivariable model was created, with a corresponding nomogram for interactive visualization of probability for excess cost.

Results: Six hundred twelve patients (29%) had cost-of-care exceeding the target price. The final model demonstrated adequate predictive discrimination for cost-of-care exceeding the target price (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.747). Factors associated with excess cost included age, gender, marital status, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, and race, as well as 7 Elixhauser comorbidities (alcohol use, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, electrolyte disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, psychoses, and pulmonary circulatory disorders).

Conclusion: A novel patient model composed of a subset of validated comorbidities and demographic variables provides adequate discrimination in predicting excess cost within bundled payment models for TJA. This not only helps identify patients who would benefit from preoperative optimization, but also provides evidence for modification of future bundled reimbursement models to adjust for nonmodifiable risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.11.012DOI Listing
March 2019

Medicaid Insurance Correlates With Increased Resource Utilization Following Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 02 16;34(2):255-259. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: With increased restraints and efforts to contain costs in total hip arthroplasty (THA), an emphasis has been placed on risk stratification. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Medicaid patients have increased resource utilization (including 90-day emergency department [ED] visits and readmissions) compared to Medicare or commercial insurance carriers. The study hypothesized that the Medicaid population would represent a high-risk cohort with increased resource utilization.

Methods: The institutional database was retrospectively queried for primary THAs from 2013 to 2017 based on Current Procedural Terminology codes and patients undergoing revision surgery were excluded. Demographic information including age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) and medical comorbidities including American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores were evaluated. Patients were stratified by insurance type and length of stay (LOS), and 90-day ED visits and 90-day readmissions were assessed in univariable and multivariable analysis.

Results: A total of 3674 primary THA patients were included in the analysis (including 116 with Medicaid, 1713 with Medicare, and 1845 with other insurance providers). Medicaid patients had significantly higher ASA scores (P < .001) and BMI (P < .001), with corresponding increase in procedure duration (115 vs 99 vs 105 minutes; P < .001). They had a prolonged LOS (2.5 vs 2.5 vs 1.5 days; P < .001) compared with other insurances, but similar to Medicare patients. Following discharge, in multivariable analysis controlling for age, BMI, and ASA score, Medicare patients were significantly more likely to return to the ED (odds ratio, 3.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-5.27; P < .001) and be readmitted (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-4.81; P = .009).

Conclusion: Medicaid patients represent a higher risk cohort with increased resource utilization perioperatively, including longer LOS, and more 90-day ED visits and readmissions. This should be considered in outcome assessments and alternative expectations for the episode of care should be set for this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.10.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Skilled Nursing Facilities After Total Knee Arthroplasty: The Time for Selective Partnerships Is Now!

J Arthroplasty 2018 12 18;33(12):3612-3616. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: Bundled payment initiatives for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are dramatically impacted by discharges to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), making target prices set by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services difficult to achieve. However, we hypothesized that a granular examination of SNF discharges would reveal that some may disproportionately increase costs compared to others.

Methods: The institutional database was retrospectively queried for primary TKA patients under bundled payment initiatives. The 4 most common SNFs utilized by our patient population (A, B, C, and D) were investigated for length of stay, cost of care, and whether the overall target price for the episode of care (EOC) was reached.

Results: In total, 1223 TKA patients were analyzed, with 378 (30.9%) discharged to an SNF and 246 patients selecting one of the 4 most common SNFs (A: 198, B: 21, C: 15, D: 12). Each SNF represented a significant fiscal portion of the total EOC; however, SNF D had significantly longer length of stay (21 vs 13 days, P < .001) and cost of care ($11,805 vs $6015, P < .001) relative to the others, resulting in no EOC under the target price. SNF costs >24.6% of the total EOC were predictive of exceeding the target price.

Conclusion: Bundled payment models are significantly impacted by SNF disposition; however, select facilities disproportionately impact this system. In order to maintain free patient selection for disposition, post-acute care facilities must be held accountable for controlling cost, or a separate bundled payment provided.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.08.012DOI Listing
December 2018

Outcomes of Articulating Spacers With Autoclaved Femoral Components in Total Knee Arthroplasty Infection.

J Arthroplasty 2018 08 30;33(8):2595-2604. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: In 2-stage revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection, articulating antibiotic spacers show similar eradication rates and superior range of motion compared with static spacers. This study evaluated infection control and other outcomes in articulating spacers with an autoclaved index femoral component.

Methods: We reviewed 59 patients who underwent 2-stage treatment of TKA infection using articulating antibiotic spacers with an autoclaved femoral component with at least 2-year follow-up (mean: 5.0 years) from spacer placement. Reinfection was defined as any subsequent infection; recurrence was defined as reinfection with the same organism, need for chronic antibiotics, or conversion directly to amputation/arthrodesis.

Results: Nine patients (15%) experienced a recurrence and 22 patients (37%) experienced a reinfection. Incidence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in patients who became reinfected. Other comorbidities, revision history, prior spacer, or presence of virulent organisms did not predict infection recurrence. Forty-seven spacers underwent reimplantation, 6 (13%) of these went on to above-knee amputation, 6 (13%) received another 2-stage procedure, and 3 (6%) underwent subsequent irrigation and debridement. Three patients (5%) proceeded directly from spacer to above-knee amputation (2) or arthrodesis (1). Nine spacers (15%) in 7 patients were retained indefinitely (mean: 3.4 years), with overall good motion and function.

Conclusion: Accounting for methodology, articulating spacers with autoclaved femoral components provide similar infection control to previous reports. Most patients with reinfection grew different organisms compared with initial infection, suggesting that some subsequent infections may be host related. Some patients retained spacers definitively with overall good patient satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.03.059DOI Listing
August 2018

Trends in Opioid Utilization Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2018 07 14;33(7S):S147-S153.e1. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Opioids are a mainstay in perioperative pain management among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, patterns in opioid use before and after TKA have not been well-studied. The objectives of this study are to characterize prescribing trends preoperatively and postoperatively and identify risk factors for chronic postoperative opioid use.

Methods: A review of the prescription-tracking database of a large private payer from 2007 to 2013 was performed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes. Chronic opioid use was defined as opioid prescriptions over 6 contiguous months postoperatively.

Results: We identified 66,950 patients who underwent TKA with minimum 2-year follow-up and medication codes. Of those taking opioids preoperatively (n = 36,668), 34.8% became chronic users postoperatively compared to only 5.0% of the opioid-naïve cohort (n = 30,282). Major risk factors for chronic postoperative opioid use included preoperative opioid use (relative risk [RR] 3.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-3.93), female gender (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.20-1.25), and younger age (≤44 vs ≥60: RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.32-1.49; 45-59 vs ≥60: RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.40-1.46). From 2007 to 2013, there was a significant linear increase in opioid use preoperatively (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05, P < .001) and postoperatively (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.18-1.21, P < .001), but chronic postoperative opioid use increased only marginally (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, P = .021).

Conclusion: The greatest risk factors for chronic postoperative opioid use were preoperative use, younger age, female gender, greater length of stay, and worse health status. Although the use of opioids continues to grow significantly preoperatively and postoperatively, chronic opioid use post-TKA has remained clinically unchanged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.10.060DOI Listing
July 2018

The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator Has a Role in Predicting Discharge to Post-Acute Care in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2018 01 18;33(1):25-29. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Patient demand and increasing cost awareness have led to the creation of surgical risk calculators that attempt to predict the likelihood of adverse events and to facilitate risk mitigation. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator is an online tool available for a wide variety of surgical procedures, and has not yet been fully evaluated in total joint arthroplasty.

Methods: A single-center, retrospective review was performed on 909 patients receiving a unilateral primary total knee (496) or hip (413) arthroplasty between January 2012 and December 2014. Patient characteristics were entered into the risk calculator, and predicted outcomes were compared with observed results. Discrimination was evaluated using the receiver-operator area under the curve (AUC) for 90-day readmission, return to operating room (OR), discharge to skilled nursing facility (SNF)/rehab, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

Results: The risk calculator demonstrated adequate performance in predicting discharge to SNF/rehab (AUC 0.72). Discrimination was relatively limited for DVT (AUC 0.70, P = .2), 90-day readmission (AUC 0.63), PJI (AUC 0.67), and return to OR (AUC 0.59). Risk score differences between those who did and did not experience discharge to SNF/rehab, 90-day readmission, and PJI reached significance (P < .01). Predicted length of stay performed adequately, only overestimating by 0.2 days on average (rho = 0.25, P < .001).

Conclusion: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator has fair utility in predicting discharge to SNF/rehab, but limited usefulness for 90-day readmission, return to OR, DVT, and PJI. Although length of stay predictions are similar to actual outcomes, statistical correlation remains relatively weak.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.08.008DOI Listing
January 2018
-->