Publications by authors named "Daniel E Cohen"

41 Publications

T-cell Activation Is Correlated With Monocyte Activation in HCV/HIV Coinfection and Declines During HCV Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 18;8(4):ofab079. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Pathology, VA Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Immune activation markers associate with morbidity and mortality in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We investigated how T-cell and monocyte activation are related over the course of HCV direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy during HCV/HIV coinfection.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5329 participants and a single-site separate cohort treated with DAAs were analyzed for central memory (CM)/effector memory (EM) T-cell subsets, monocyte subsets, and cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR expression) before, during, and after therapy.

Results: Before therapy, classical and inflammatory monocyte subset HLA-DR expression positively correlated with absolute counts and frequencies of CD38HLA-DR-expressing CD4 and CD8 T cells and corresponding CM and EM subsets. After therapy initiation, CD38HLA-DR co-expression on CD4 and CD8 memory T cells decreased by 12 weeks and 36 weeks, and plasma sCD14 positively correlated with CD38HLA-DR CD4 and CD4CM T-cell frequencies. Monocyte subset activation remained similar over time.

Conclusions: During HCV/HIV coinfection, memory T-cell activation is associated with monocyte subset activation, consistent with related underlying mechanisms. Following therapy initiation, memory T-cell, but not monocyte, activation decreased. Residual CD4 T-cell activation after therapy completion is associated with sCD14, potentially linking the remaining CD4 T-cell activation to residual factors driving activation in antiretroviral therapy-controlled HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043262PMC
April 2021

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy in Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-HCV Genotype 1 Coinfection Resulting in High Rate of Sustained Virologic Response and Variable in Normalization of Soluble Markers of Immune Activation.

J Infect Dis 2020 09;222(8):1334-1344

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antivirals are highly effective. Less is known about changes in markers of immune activation in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in whom a sustained virologic response (SVR) is achieved.

Methods: We conducted a nonrandomized clinical trial of 12 or 24 weeks of paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PrOD) with or without ribavirin in persons with HCV-1/HIV coinfection suppressed with antiretroviral therapy. Plasma HCV, soluble CD14 (sCD14), interferon-inducible protein 10, soluble CD163 (sCD163), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 18, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), autotaxin (ATX), and Mac2-binding protein (Mac2BP) were measured over 48 weeks.

Results: Participants were treated with PrOD for 12 (n = 9) or 24 (n = 36) weeks; the SVR rate at 12 weeks was 93%. At baseline, cirrhosis was associated with higher ATX and MCP-1, female sex with higher ATX and IL-6, older age with higher Mac2BP, higher body mass index with higher ATX, and HIV-1 protease inhibitor use with higher sCD14 levels. In those with SVR, interferon-inducible protein 10, ATX, and Mac2BP levels declined by week 2, interleukin 18 levels declined by the end of treatment, sCD14 levels did not change, and sCD163, MCP-1, and IL-6 levels changed at a single time point.

Conclusions: During HIV/HCV coinfection, plasma immune activation marker heterogeneity is in part attributable to age, sex, cirrhosis, body mass index, and/or type of antiretroviral therapy. HCV treatment with paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir is highly effective and is associated with variable rate and magnitude of decline in markers of immune activation.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02194998.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749191PMC
September 2020

Intrahepatic Viral Kinetics During Direct-Acting Antivirals for Hepatitis C in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection: The AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5335S Substudy.

J Infect Dis 2020 07;222(4):601-610

Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Background: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) have revolutionized outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection.

Methods: We examined early events in liver and plasma through A5335S, a substudy of trial A5329 (paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir, with ribavirin) that enrolled chronic genotype 1a HCV-infected persons coinfected with suppressed HIV: 5 of 6 treatment-naive enrollees completed A5335S.

Results: Mean baseline plasma HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) = 6.7 log10 IU/mL and changed by -4.1 log10 IU/mL by Day 7. In liver, laser capture microdissection was used to quantify HCV. At liver biopsy 1, mean %HCV-infected cells = 25.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4%-42.9%), correlating with plasma HCV RNA (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.9); at biopsy 2 (Day 7 in 4 of 5 participants), mean %HCV-infected cells = 1.0% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.7%) (P < .05 for change), and DAAs were detectable in liver. Plasma C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) concentrations changed by mean = -160 pg/mL per day at 24 hours, but no further after Day 4.

Conclusions: We conclude that HCV infection is rapidly cleared from liver with DAA leaving <2% HCV-infected hepatocytes at Day 7. We extrapolate that HCV eradication could occur in these participants by 63 days, although immune activation might persist. Single-cell longitudinal estimates of HCV clearance from liver have never been reported previously and could be applied to estimating the minimum treatment duration required for HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377286PMC
July 2020

Long-term safety and efficacy results in hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected patients receiving ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir ± ribavirin in the TOPAZ-I and TOPAZ-II trials.

J Viral Hepat 2020 05 17;27(5):497-504. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Private Practice, Bakersfield, CA, USA.

The 3-DAA regimen consisting of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV) ± ribavirin (RBV) has shown high sustained virologic response rates (~95%) in phase 3 clinical trials including >2300 HCV genotype 1-infected patients. Real-world evidence studies have confirmed the effectiveness of OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection and are consistent with clinical trial results. TOPAZ-I and TOPAZ-II are ongoing phase 3b trials, assessing safety, efficacy and long-term progression of liver disease and clinical outcomes for up to 5 years post-treatment in patients treated with OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV. High rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) were achieved regardless of presence or absence of cirrhosis.In this report, we assessed the long-term progression of liver disease and incidence of clinical outcomes up to 3 years of post-treatment follow-up in patients with chronic HCV GT1 infection who were treated with (OBV/PTV/r + DSV) ± RBV in the TOPAZ-I and TOPAZ-II studies. Improvements were observed in liver disease markers including FIB-4, METAVIR and Child-Pugh scores as well as platelet counts. Clinical outcomes related to long-term progression of liver disease such as liver decompensation were infrequent (<1%). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurred in 1.4% of cirrhotic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13261DOI Listing
May 2020

Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir±ribavirin for chronic HCV infection in US veterans with psychiatric disorders.

J Med Virol 2019 Dec 12. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Gastroenterology Section, VA Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are more common among US veterans receiving care through Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers than among the general population. Historically, HCV therapies had lower efficacy rates in VA patients, possibly due to common comorbidities such as psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. The direct-acting antivirals ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r+DSV)±ribavirin (RBV) are approved in the US for HCV genotype 1 (GT1)-infected adults with or without cirrhosis. This study prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of OBV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV in VA patients with HCV GT1 infection. TOPAZ-VA was a phase 3b, open-label trial. Adult US veterans with HCV GT1 infection, without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, were eligible for enrollment. Patients with GT1a infection received OBV/PTV/r +DSV+RBV for 12 weeks or 24 weeks (for those with cirrhosis); GT1b-infected patients without cirrhosis received OBV/PTV/r +DSV for 12 weeks; those with cirrhosis received OBV/PTV/r +DSV with RBV. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12); safety was also assessed. Ninety-nine patients were enrolled at 10 sites from May through November 2015. The majority were male (96%), white (60%), and with GT1a infection (68%); 49% reported ongoing psychiatric disorders. Overall, 94% (93/99) achieved SVR12; three patients had a virologic failure. The most common AEs were fatigue (28%), headache (20%), and nausea (15%); six patients discontinued treatment due to AEs. In US veterans with HCV GT1 infection, OBV/PTV/r +DSV±RBV yielded a 94% overall SVR12 rate and was well tolerated. The presence of psychiatric disorders and/or injection drug use did not impact efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687116PMC
December 2019

Raltegravir pharmacokinetics before and during treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection: AIDS Clinical Trials Group sub-study A5334s.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 01 12;86(1):132-142. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Aims: AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5334s evaluated the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir before and during combined administration of ombitasvir, paritaprevir/ritonavir, plus dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV) and weight-based ribavirin in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected adults. The pharmacokinetics of OBV/PTV/r + DSV during raltegravir coadministration were also characterized.

Methods: Adults living with HIV/HCV coinfection receiving steady-state raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) with 2 nucleos(t)ide analogues were enrolled. Pharmacokinetics of raltegravir were assessed prior to HCV therapy, and 4 weeks later following initiation of OBV/PTV/r (25/150/100 mg) once daily + DSV (250 mg) twice daily. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the following: raltegravir pharmacokinetics with HCV therapy (week 4) vs before HCV therapy (week 0); OBV/PTV/r and DSV pharmacokinetics vs historical healthy controls; raltegravir pharmacokinetics at week 0 vs historical control adults living with HIV.

Results: Eight of 11 participants had decreased raltegravir exposures after initiation of HCV therapy. The GMRs (90% CI) for maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve of raltegravir with vs without HCV therapy were 0.68 (0.38-1.19) and 0.82 (0.58-1.17), respectively. Comparing OBV/PTV/r pharmacokinetics in healthy controls, A5334s study participants demonstrated generally lower maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve values by 41-82% and 4-73%, respectively. Raltegravir exposures tended to be higher in A5334s study participants compared to adults living with HIV.

Conclusions: The majority of participants' plasma raltegravir exposures were lower after initiation of HCV therapy in coinfected adults; however, confidence intervals were wide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983509PMC
January 2020

Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with peginterferon-α2a plus ribavirin in treatment-experienced patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection.

Hepat Med 2019 13;11:35-40. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: This international, phase 2, open-label, multicenter study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01609933) was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enhanced regimen consisting of the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir administered for 24 weeks, combined with pegylated interferon-α2a plus ribavirin (pegIFN-α2a/RBV) for 48 weeks, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection who had experienced virologic failure with a prior DAA regimen. This study was undertaken at a time when options were limited for the retreatment of patients who had failed prior DAA therapy.

Methods And Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled; the majority were male (78%) and White (94%), and the median age was 54.5 years. Twelve weeks after the last dose of study drug, sustained virologic response was achieved in 81.3% of patients. Five patients prematurely discontinued the study drugs and one patient relapsed. Safety and tolerability were similar to prior studies of pegIFN-α2a/RBV alone.

Conclusion: Given the availability of highly efficacious DAA regimens that are both IFN- and RBV-free, this regimen is no longer relevant in today's HCV treatment landscape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HMER.S189158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386203PMC
February 2019

Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir with or without sofosbuvir for patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who failed a prior course of direct-acting antiviral therapy.

J Med Virol 2019 07 19;91(7):1307-1312. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

GastroOne, Germantown, Tennessee.

Introduction: Despite high efficacy of current direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a small portion of patients fail treatment. QUARTZ-I was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter, two-part study that assessed the safety and efficacy of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) with dasabuvir (DSV) with or without the addition of sofosbuvir (SOF) and/or ribavirin (RBV) in DAA treatment-experienced adults with chronic HCV GT1 infection.

Materials And Methods: Genotype 1 HCV-infected patients with or without compensated cirrhosis had prior treatment failure to any DAA (part 1) or ledipasvir/SOF (part 2). Patients received OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± SOF with or without RBV for 12 or 24 weeks. The primary endpoint of this study is the percentage of patients achieving sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12).

Results: In part 1 of the study, 95.5% (21/22) of patients achieved SVR12, and in part 2, the SVR12 rate was 85.7% (6/7). Most adverse events (AEs) were mild and moderate in severity. Two serious AEs occurred and were assessed as not being related to study drug, of which one resulted in study drug discontinuation. Two patients experienced grade 3 elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and no other grade ≥3 laboratory abnormalities were observed.

Conclusion: The multi-targeted regimen of OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± SOF with or without RBV was effective in the treatment of patients who failed previous DAA regimens including NS3/4A protease and NS5A and NS5B polymerase inhibitors. These results provide a promising outcome for patients that traditionally had limited treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25448DOI Listing
July 2019

Efficacy and Safety of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir in Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 or 4 Infection and Advanced Kidney Disease.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Feb 9;4(2):257-266. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in patients with end-stage renal disease. We investigated the safety and efficacy of ombitasvir (OBV)/paritaprevir (PTV)/ritonavir (r) ± dasabuvir (DSV) ± ribavirin (RBV) in 2 phase 3, open-label, multicenter studies in patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: RUBY-I, Cohort 2 enrolled treatment-naïve or -experienced patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1a or 1b infection, with or without cirrhosis. Patients received 12 weeks (24 weeks for GT1a patients with cirrhosis) of OBV/PTV/r + DSV; all GT1a patients received RBV. RUBY-II enrolled treatment-naïve patients with GT1a or GT4 infection without cirrhosis. All patients received 12 weeks of RBV-free treatment: OBV/PTV/r + DSV for GT1a-infected patients; OBV/PTV/r for GT4-infected patients. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12).

Results: RUBY-I, Cohort 2 and RUBY-II enrolled 66 patients, including 50 (76%) on dialysis; 15 (23%) had compensated cirrhosis. Overall, the SVR12 rate was 95% (63/66); 1 patient had virologic failure. There were 3 discontinuations due to adverse events. Seventy-three percent (27/37) of patients receiving RBV had adverse events leading to RBV dose modification. The RBV-free RUBY-II study had no hemoglobin-associated adverse events.

Conclusion: Treatment with OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV was well tolerated and patients with HCV GT1 or 4 infection and stage 4 or 5 CKD had high SVR12 rates, including patients with compensated cirrhosis and/or prior treatment experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2018.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365406PMC
February 2019

Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir With or Without Ribavirin in Patients With Kidney Disease.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Feb 16;4(2):245-256. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Mount Sinai Beth Israel, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a high-priority population for treatment.

Methods: We performed a pooled efficacy and safety analysis that included HCV genotype 1-infected patients with compensated liver disease and CKD stages 1 to 3 who received the all-oral 3-direct-acting antiviral regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV) in 11 phase 3 clinical trials. Sustained virologic response rates at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and renal-associated AEs are reported. Mean changes from baseline in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated to assess changes in renal function. Factors associated with improved eGFR were assessed by stepwise logistic regression analysis of data from 7 trials in which baseline urinalysis was collected.

Results: SVR12 rates in patients with stage 1, 2, and 3 CKD were 97% (439/453), 98% (536/547), and 97% (32/33), respectively, with OBV/PTV/r + DSV; and, 96% (1172/1221), 96% (1208/1254), and 93% (55/59), respectively, with OBV/PTV/r + DSV + RBV. Overall rates of serious AEs and renal AEs were 3% (95/3567) and 2% (56/3567), respectively. Factors associated with an eGFR increase of ≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m were baseline proteinuria, body mass index, nonblack race, and history of diabetes.

Conclusion: OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV achieved high SVR rates and was generally well tolerated irrespective of CKD stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2018.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365509PMC
February 2019

Efficacy and Safety of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir and Dasabuvir ± Ribavirin for HCV in Brazilian Adults with Advanced Fibrosis.

Ann Hepatol 2018 Oct;17(6):959-968

Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Division, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction And Aim: Approximately 650,000 people in Brazil have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ombitasvir (OBV)/paritaprevir (PTV)/ritonavir (r) plus dasabuvir (DSV) with/without ribavirin (RBV) in an openlabel multicenter phase 3b trial in treatment-naive or interferon (IFN) treatment-experienced Brazilian patients with advanced hepatic fibrosis (METAVIR F3/4) and HCV genotype (GT) 1 infection.

Material And Methods: All patients received coformulated OBV/PTV/r daily + DSV twice daily (3-DAA). GT1a-infected patients received 3-DAA plus RBV for 12 weeks, except for prior pegIFN/RBV nonresponders with cirrhosis who were treated for 24 weeks. GT1b-infected patients received 3-DAA alone (F3) or in combination with RBV (F4) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response (HCV RNA < 15 IU/mL) at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12).

Results: The study enrolled 222 patients, 214 achieved an SVR12 (96.4%; 95% CI, 93.1-98.2%), one GT1a-infected patient experienced virologic breakthrough, six (5 GT1a) relapsed, and one was lost to follow-up. SVR12 was achieved in 111/ 112 (99.1%) GT1b-infected patients, including 42/43 (97.7%) noncirrhotic, and 69/69 (100%) cirrhotic patients; and in 103/110 (93.6%) GT1a-infected patients, including 44/46 (95.7%) noncirrhotic and 59/64 (92.2%) cirrhotic patients. Overall there was a low rate of serious adverse events (n = 6, 2.7%). One patient experienced a treatment-related serious adverse event and one patient discontinued treatment because of an adverse event.

Discussion: The results confirm that the 3-DAA regimen with/without RBV is well tolerated and had a favorable safety profile and is efficacious in GT1-infected patients with advanced fibrosis (METAVIR F3/4).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0012.7196DOI Listing
October 2018

Dynamic changes in innate immune responses during direct-acting antiviral therapy for HCV infection.

J Viral Hepat 2019 03 3;26(3):362-372. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Liver Center and Gastrointestinal Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

The role of the endogenous interferon (IFN) system has been well characterized during IFN-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; less is known for direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). In this phase 3b open-label study, we assessed changes in IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in non-cirrhotic treatment-naïve or pegIFN/RBV-experienced HCV-GT1a-infected patients receiving paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir + ribavirin (PrOD + R) for 12 weeks. ISG expression was quantified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells at baseline, treatment weeks (TW)2, TW4, TW8, end of treatment (EOT) and at post-treatment week 12. Paired sera were used to assess IFN-α/IFN-related chemokines/cytokines. Twenty-five patients were enrolled. Overall sustained virologic response (SVR)12 was 92% (no virologic failure [VF]) and 100% for those completing the study protocol. Two patients were excluded from the ISG analysis due to lack of post-treatment samples. The majority of ISGs were downregulated at TW2-TW4 (nadir TW4); however, a relative increase was observed at TW8-EOT, although levels were lower than baseline. This downregulation was accompanied by increases in IFN-α/IFN-related chemokines, a finding not observed with T 1/2-related cytokines. Following SVR, ISG expression returned to TW2 levels. In conclusion, PrOD + R for 12 weeks was well-tolerated with no VF. Our data demonstrate dynamic alterations in innate immune profiles during highly potent IFN-free DAA therapy. The downregulation of ISG post-therapy suggests reversal of the "exhausted" ISG phenotype following SVR, and the rise in ISGs and IFN-α/IFN-responsive chemokines late during therapy suggests resetting of IFN responsiveness that may be relevant in determining duration of or immunological sequelae from DAA therapy, including HBV reactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13041DOI Listing
March 2019

Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir With or Without Dasabuvir and With or Without Ribavirin for Adolescents With HCV Genotype 1 or 4.

Hepatol Commun 2018 Nov 5;2(11):1311-1319. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Pediatrics University of California San Francisco San Francisco CA.

In adults, treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with ombitasvir (OBV)/paritaprevir (PTV)/ritonavir (r) with or without dasabuvir (DSV) and ±ribavirin (RBV) results in high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR). However, these regimens have not been investigated in adolescents. This ongoing, open-label, phase 2/3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of OBV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV treatment for 12 weeks in adolescents infected with HCV genotype (GT) 1 without cirrhosis (part 1) and the safety and efficacy of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV treatment for 12 or 24 weeks in adolescents infected with GT1 or GT4 without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis (parts 1 and 2). Patients were 12-17 years of age and treatment naive or interferon experienced. Treatment regimens were based on HCV GT and cirrhosis status. Endpoints were SVR at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12), adverse events (AEs), and pharmacokinetic parameters. Thirty-eight adolescents were enrolled, 66% were female patients, and 76% were White; 42%, 40%, and 18% of patients had HCV GT1a, GT1b, and GT4 infections, respectively. Median age was 15 years (range, 12-17 years), and 1 patient had cirrhosis. The SVR12 rate was 100% (38/38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 90.8%-100%). No treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormalities were reported. No serious AEs occurred on treatment, and no AEs led to study drug discontinuation. The most common AEs were headache (21%), fatigue (18%), nasopharyngitis (13%), pruritus (13%), and upper respiratory tract infection (11%). Intensive pharmacokinetic results showed OBV, PTV, DSV, and ritonavir drug exposures were comparable to those seen in adults. Treatment with OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV was well tolerated and highly efficacious in adolescents with HCV GT1 or GT4 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211326PMC
November 2018

Effects of chronic kidney disease stage 4, end-stage renal disease, or dialysis on the plasma concentrations of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir in patients with chronic HCV infection: pharmacokinetic analysis of the phase 3 RUBY-I and RUBY-II trials.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 5;75(2):207-216. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, AbbVie Inc., 1 North Waukegan Road, North Chicago, IL, 60064, USA.

Purpose: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, dasabuvir, and ribavirin in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 (CKD4) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), including those on dialysis, in the open-label phase 3 RUBY-I and RUBY-II studies.

Methods: Patients (n = 18 CKD4, n = 68 ESRD) received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once daily ± dasabuvir 250 mg twice daily ± ribavirin 200 mg once daily for 12 or 24 weeks. Intensive pharmacokinetic samples were collected from ten patients; sparse samples were collected from all patients. Arterial and venous samples were collected from three patients during hemodialysis. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was estimated using noncompartmental analyses for intensive data, and steady-state trough concentrations (C) were obtained from the sparse data. Pharmacokinetic results from RUBY-I and RUBY-II were compared empirically to historical data.

Results: The AUC values of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir were comparable between CKD4 and ESRD patients and were within the range of values observed in historical studies; dialysis had no effect on drug exposures. Ribavirin was extracted during hemodialysis but had similar exposures on dialysis and non-dialysis days. Individual steady-state C values for each drug overlapped between CKD4 and ESRD patients, and values in both groups were similar to historical values.

Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir were not altered by renal impairment or dialysis, suggesting these agents can be administered to HCV-infected CKD4 or ESRD patients, including those on dialysis, without dose adjustment.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT02207088 (RUBY-I) and NCT02487199 (RUBY-II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-018-2566-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Reduced ITPase activity and favorable IL28B genetic variant protect against ribavirin-induced anemia in interferon-free regimens.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(5):e0198296. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases/Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Genetic variants of inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) that confer reduced ITPase activity are associated with protection against ribavirin(RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia in peginterferon(IFN)/RBV-based treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Patients with reduced ITPase activity showed improved treatment efficacy when treated with IFN/RBV. In addition, a genetic polymorphism near the IL28B gene is associated with an improved response to IFN/RBV treatment. RBV has been an important component of IFN-containing regimens, and is currently recommended in combination with several IFN-free regimens for treatment of harder to cure HCV infections.

Aim: To evaluate whether genetic variations that reduce ITPase activity impact RBV-induced anemia in IFN-free/RBV regimens.

Methods: In this study, genetic analyses were conducted in the PEARL-IV trial to investigate the effect of activity-reducing ITPA variants as well as IL28B polymorphism on anemia, platelet (PLT) counts, and virologic response in HCV genotype1a-infected patients treated with the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir±RBV.

Results: Reduction in ITPase activity and homozygosity for the IL28Brs12979860 CC genotype protected against RBV-induced anemia. In patients receiving RBV, reduced ITPase activity was associated with reduced plasma RBV concentration and higher PLT counts. ITPase activity had no impact on response to DAA treatment, viral kinetics, or baseline IP-10 levels.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that genetics of ITPA and IL28B may help identify patients protected from RBV-induced anemia when treated with IFN-free regimens. Our work demonstrates for the first time that IL28B genetics may also have an impact on RBV-induced anemia. This may be of particular significance in patients with difficult-to-cure HCV infections, such as patients with decompensated cirrhosis where RBV-containing regimens likely will continue to be recommended.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198296PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5979032PMC
November 2018

Hepatic Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics With Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir Plus Dasabuvir Treatment and Variable Ribavirin Dosage.

J Infect Dis 2018 01;217(3):474-482

INSERM U955.

Background: It is unknown whether ribavirin (RBV) coadministration modifies the early rate of decline of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in the liver versus plasma compartments, specifically.

Methods: This partially randomized, open-label, phase 2 study enrolled treatment-naive, noncirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 1a. Patients were randomized 1:1 into Arms A and B, and then enrolled in Arm C. Patients received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir for 12 weeks with either: no RBV for the first 2 weeks followed by weight-based dosing thereafter (Arm A), weight-based RBV for all 12 weeks (Arm B), or low-dose RBV (600 mg) once daily for all 12 weeks. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) was used to determine HCV RNA decline within liver.

Results: Baseline HCV RNA was higher and declined more rapidly in plasma than liver; however, RBV dosing did not impact either median plasma or liver HCV RNA decline during the first 2 weeks of treatment. Liver-to-plasma drug concentrations were variable over time. The most common adverse event was pain associated with FNA.

Conclusions: Coadministration of RBV had minimal visible impact on the plasma or liver kinetics of HCV RNA decline during the first 2 weeks of treatment, regardless of RBV dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853515PMC
January 2018

Effect of Hepatitis C Treatment with Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/R + Dasabuvir on Renal, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Extrahepatic Manifestations: A Post-Hoc Analysis of Phase 3 Clinical Trials.

Infect Dis Ther 2017 Dec 22;6(4):515-529. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: We analyzed phase 3 trial data of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D) ± ribavirin (RBV) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients to investigate the impact of 3D ± RBV on renal, cardiovascular and metabolic extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), including persistency 52 weeks post treatment and differential impact by EHM disease severity.

Methods: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting triglyceride and fasting glucose values from clinical trials were used to assess renal, cardiovascular and metabolic EHMs, respectively. Two placebo-controlled trials were used to study the effect of treatment, while the pooled sample of treated patients was used to study the persistency and differential effect of treatment by baseline EHM disease severity, as defined by baseline values of respective EHM biomarkers. Changes in EHM outcomes from baseline were assessed with mixed models adjusting for patient baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.

Results: Treatment with 3D ± RBV resulted in statistically significant declines from baseline of triglycerides and glucose and no statistical change in eGFR. By 52 weeks post treatment patients with elevated triglycerides (-35.3 mg/dl), pre-diabetes (-4.4 mg/dl), diabetes (-34.2 mg/dl) and CKD stage 3 (+1.6 ml/min/1.73 m) at baseline experienced a statistically significant improvement in their respective EHM values. Patients with CKD stages 2, 4 and 5 experienced no statistically significant change in eGFR from baseline.

Conclusion: Treatment with 3D ± RBV resulted in improvement or no worsening of cardiovascular, metabolic and renal EHM markers, especially in patients with severe EHMs at baseline, which persisted until 52 weeks post treatment.

Funding: Abbvie Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-017-0171-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700891PMC
December 2017

Application of Exposure-Response Analyses to Establish the Pharmacodynamic Similarity of a Once-Daily Regimen to an Approved Twice-Daily Dosing Regimen for the Treatment of HCV Infection.

AAPS J 2017 09 6;19(5):1523-1535. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, AbbVie Inc, North Chicago, Illinois, USA.

The triple direct-acting antiviral (3-DAA) regimen (two co-formulated tablets of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir once daily and one tablet of dasabuvir twice daily) for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection has been reformulated for once-daily administration containing all three active DAAs (3QD regimen). Two bioequivalence studies compared the 3-DAA and 3QD regimens. In study 1, fed, single-, and multiple-dose crossover comparisons revealed exposures for drug components that were slightly outside the bioequivalence criteria, i.e., 21 to 29% lower dasabuvir C , paritaprevir C , and ritonavir C . In study 2, fed and fasted single-dose crossover comparisons demonstrated a large impact of food on exposures, confirming the product's labeling requirement for administration only with food, and revealed a lack of bioequivalence under fasting conditions. Exposure-response analyses using efficacy data from phase 2/3 studies of the 3-DAA regimen demonstrated that the lower dasabuvir C for the 3QD regimen (under fed condition) would have minimal impact on sustained virologic response at week 12 post-treatment (SVR). Thus, the pharmacodynamic similarity between the regimens was established and the analyses provided the basis for regulatory approval of the 3QD regimen to treat patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-017-0115-3DOI Listing
September 2017

Safety of the 2D/3D direct-acting antiviral regimen in HCV-induced Child-Pugh A cirrhosis - A pooled analysis.

J Hepatol 2017 10 21;67(4):700-707. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University London, London, UK.

Background & Aims: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis are a high-priority population for treatment. To help inform the benefit-risk profile of the all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r±DSV) in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, we undertook a comprehensive review of AbbVie-sponsored clinical trials enrolling patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis.

Methods: Twelve phase II or III clinical trials of the 2-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r±ribavirin (RBV) or the 3-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV that included patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis were reviewed; patients who completed treatment by November 16, 2015 were included in a pooled, post hoc safety assessment. The number and percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, and TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were reported.

Results: In 1,066 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, rates of serious TEAEs and TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation were 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1-6.8) and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2), respectively. Thirteen patients (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-2.1) had a TEAE that was consistent with hepatic decompensation. The most frequent TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were ascites (n=8), esophageal variceal hemorrhage (n=4), and hepatic encephalopathy (n=2).

Conclusions: This pooled analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis confirms the safety of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this population. These results support the use of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this high-priority population. Lay summary: This pooled safety analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with compensated cirrhosis, receiving treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with or without dasabuvir, with or without ribavirin, shows that the rate of hepatic decompensation events was similar to previously reported rates in untreated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.06.011DOI Listing
October 2017

Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir plus dasabuvir for 8 weeks in previously untreated patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection without cirrhosis (GARNET): a single-arm, open-label, phase 3b trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 07 14;2(7):494-500. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Toronto Centre for Liver Disease, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Clinical studies have shown high rates of sustained virological response (hepatitis C virus [HCV] RNA <15 IU/mL) at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12) in patients with genotype 1b infection with and without cirrhosis who received coformulated ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, plus dasabuvir, without ribavirin, for 12 weeks. In this study, we aimed to assess 8-week treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, plus dasabuvir, without ribavirin in patients infected with HCV genotype 1b without cirrhosis.

Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 3b study (GARNET) in 20 hospitals or clinics in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Spain, and the UK, to assess the safety and efficacy of an 8-week treatment duration of once-daily oral ombitasvir 25 mg, paritaprevir 150 mg, and ritonavir 100 mg, plus twice-daily oral dasabuvir 250 mg in previously untreated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection without cirrhosis (as assessed by liver biopsy, transient elastography, or serum markers). Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with more than 1000 IU/mL HCV RNA, and a laboratory result at screening indicating infection with HCV genotype 1b subtype only. Patients were excluded if they had evidence of HCV genotype or subtype other than genotype 1b, if they tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen or anti-HIV antibody at screening, or if they had previously been treated for HCV. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with SVR12; the primary endpoint and safety were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02582632.

Findings: Patients were screened between Nov 24, 2015, and March 1, 2016, and 166 patients were enrolled. 163 (98%) of 166 enrolled patients had HCV genotype 1b infection, and three (2%) of 166 had other genotypes or subtypes (genotype 1a, genotype 1d, and genotype 6). All enrolled patients received at least one dose of study drugs. 162 (98% [95% CI 95·3-99·9]) of 166 patients achieved SVR12. One patient discontinued treatment on day 45 due to adverse events. Most adverse events were mild in severity, and the most common adverse events were headache (35 [21%] of 166) and fatigue (28 [17%] of 166). Two (1%) of 166 patients had serious adverse events; neither were considered related to study drug treatment.

Interpretation: Treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, plus dasabuvir, without ribavirin, for 8 weeks was efficacious and well tolerated. 8-week treatment options for previously untreated patients with HCV genotype 1b infection without cirrhosis are limited; shortening the treatment duration might reduce the burden associated with medical visits and procedures, thereby improving access to care and enabling the treatment of more patients.

Funding: AbbVie.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(17)30071-7DOI Listing
July 2017

HCV core antigen as an alternate test to HCV RNA for assessment of virologic responses to all-oral, interferon-free treatment in HCV genotype 1 infected patients.

J Virol Methods 2017 07 27;245:14-18. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

National Reference Center for Viral Hepatitis B C and D Department of Virology Hôpital Henri Mondor Université Paris-Est and INSERM U955, Créteil, France.

In light of the advances in HCV therapy, simplification of diagnosis confirmation, pre- treatment diagnostic workup and treatment monitoring is required to ensure broad access to interferon-free therapies. HCV core antigen (HCV cAg) testing is rapid, giving results in approximately 60min, and less expensive than HCV RNA methods. While extensive data on the analytical performance of HCV cAg relative to RNA or comparisons in longitudinal studies of patients on interferon based (response guided) therapy there is very limited data on the relative performance of HCV cAg in diagnosis and monitoring patients receiving all-oral interferon free regimens. Furthermore, there is no data in the literature that describes the specificity of HCV cAg in patients with resolved HCV infection i.e. anti-HCV positive/HCV RNA negative. In this study a total of 1201 plasma samples from the 411 HCV genotype 1 subjects with a HCV RNA viral load >50,000IU/ml who enrolled in a clinical trial with ombitasvir, ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir and dasabuvir, with or without ribavirin were retrospectively tested in a blinded fashion with HCV cAg test and results were compared to HCV RNA levels. The specificity of the HCV cAg test was also evaluated in anti-HCV positive but HCV RNA negative samples. Overall concordance between HCV cAg and HCV RNA was 98.6% while concordance in pre-treatment samples was 99.5% (409/411; n=2 HCV RNA pos. with viral loads>3 Mill IU/ml but HCV cAg neg.) and 99.24% in post treatment week 12 samples (391/394; n=2 HCV RNA pos.<25IU/ml and n=1 HCV RNA pos. 2180IU/ml). Specificity in anti-HCV positive HCV RNA negative samples tested was 100%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.03.002DOI Listing
July 2017

Efficacy of Direct-Acting Antiviral Combination for Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection and Severe Renal Impairment or End-Stage Renal Disease.

Gastroenterology 2016 Jun 11;150(7):1590-1598. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Texas Liver Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in patients with end-stage renal disease, highly efficacious, well-tolerated, direct-acting antiviral regimens have not been extensively studied in this population. We investigated the safety and efficacy of ombitasvir co-formulated with paritaprevir and ritonavir, administered with dasabuvir (with or without ribavirin) in a prospective study of patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We performed a single-arm, multicenter study of treatment-naïve adults with HCV genotype 1 infection, without cirrhosis and with CKD stage 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 15-30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) or stage 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or requiring hemodialysis). Twenty patients were given ombitasvir co-formulated with paritaprevir and ritonavir, administered with dasabuvir for 12 weeks. Patients with HCV genotype 1a infections also received ribavirin (n = 13), whereas those with genotype 1b infection did not (n = 7). The primary end point was sustained virologic response (serum HCV RNA <25 IU/mL) 12 weeks after treatment ended (SVR12). We collected data on on-treatment adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and laboratory abnormalities.

Results: All 20 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment. Eighteen of the 20 patients achieved SVR12 (90%; 95% confidence interval: 69.9-97.2). One patient death after the end of the treatment (unrelated to the treatment) and 1 relapse accounted for the 2 non-SVRs. Adverse events were primarily mild or moderate, and no patient discontinued treatment due to an AE. Four patients experienced serious AEs; all were considered unrelated to treatment. Ribavirin therapy was interrupted in 9 patients due to anemia; 4 received erythropoietin. No blood transfusions were performed.

Conclusions: In a clinical trial, the combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, administered with dasabuvir, led to an SVR12 in 90% of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and stage 4 or 5 CKD. The regimen is well tolerated, though RBV use may require a reduction or interruption to manage anemia. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02207088.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.078DOI Listing
June 2016

Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r and dasabuvir plus ribavirin in HCV genotype 1-infected patients on methadone or buprenorphine.

J Hepatol 2015 Aug 1;63(2):364-9. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, United States.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with a history of injection drug use have low rates of initiation and completion of interferon-based therapies. This study evaluated efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a 12-week all-oral regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir+ribavirin in HCV genotype 1-infected patients on stable opioid replacement therapy.

Methods: This was a phase II, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study in treatment-naïve or peginterferon/ribavirin treatment-experienced HCV genotype 1-infected patients on methadone or buprenorphine±naloxone. Patients received 12weeks of co-formulated ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (25mg/150mg/100mg once daily) and dasabuvir (250mg twice daily)+weight-based ribavirin. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment.

Results: Thirty-eight non-cirrhotic patients on chronic methadone (n=19) or buprenorphine (n=19) were enrolled. A total of 37 patients (97.4%) had a sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment. No patient had a viral breakthrough or relapse. One patient discontinued due to serious adverse events unrelated to study drug (cerebrovascular accident and sarcoma). The most frequent adverse events were nausea, fatigue, and headache. Eight patients had on-treatment hemoglobin concentrations <10g/dl. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated no clinically meaningful impact of methadone or buprenorphine on ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, dasabuvir, or dasabuvir M1 metabolite exposures. No dose adjustments of methadone or buprenorphine were required.

Conclusions: The interferon-free regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir+ribavirin for 12weeks was well tolerated and achieved sustained virologic response in 97.4% of patients on opioid substitution therapy in this study. This all-oral regimen may provide an effective alternative to interferon-based therapies for HCV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2015.03.029DOI Listing
August 2015

Importance of very early HCV RNA kinetics for prediction of treatment outcome of highly effective all oral direct acting antiviral combination therapy.

J Virol Methods 2015 Mar 18;214:29-32. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Henri Mondor Hospital, Créteil, France.

Interferon-free combination therapies lead to rapid suppression of HCV RNA early during treatment. The potential to predict virologic response and failure as well as to guide treatment duration with measurement of HCV RNA very early during treatment by highly sensitive assays is not well known. In 11 IL28B CC (rs12979860) patients infected with HCV genotype 1, who received DAA combination therapy with the NS3 protease inhibitor ABT-450/r together with the non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor ABT-072 and ribavirin for 12 weeks, HCV RNA was assessed frequently by the RealTime HCV (ART) and the High-Pure-System/Cobas TaqMan (HPS) assays during and after treatment. Overall, at 33 of 131 time points during treatment residual HCV RNA was detectable by ART but undetectable by HPS while the converse was observed in only two samples. Of the two patients who experienced virologic relapse, one patient had residual viremia at week 6 of treatment by ART only while the other patient never had undetectable HCV RNA by the ART assay. However, residual viremia was also observed by ART as late as therapy weeks 9, 10 and 12 in patients with subsequent sustained virologic response. In patients with sustained response no viremia was observed at multiple time points during post-treatment follow up by either assay. The higher sensitivity of the ART in comparison to the HPS assay may be associated with more frequent detection of residual viremia during highly effective, interferon-free combination therapies. However, the significance of this finding in predicting virologic failure appears to be limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.11.027DOI Listing
March 2015

Phase 2b trial of interferon-free therapy for hepatitis C virus genotype 1.

N Engl J Med 2014 Jan;370(3):222-32

From the Digestive Disease Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle (K.V.K.); Texas Liver Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (E.L., F.P.); AbbVie, North Chicago (D.E.C., W.X., T.P.-M., G.L., L.L., A.K., T.P., B.B.); University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (D.R.N.); J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany (S.Z.); University of Colorado Denver, Aurora (G.T.E.); Indiana University, Indianapolis (P.K.); Queen Mary, University of London, Barts Health, London (G.R.F.); and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (M.S.S.).

Background: An interferon-free combination of the protease inhibitor ABT-450 with ritonavir (ABT-450/r), the nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor ABT-333, and ribavirin showed efficacy against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a pilot study involving patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The addition of another potent agent, the NS5A inhibitor ABT-267, may improve efficacy, especially in difficult-to-treat patients. This study was designed to evaluate multiple regimens of direct-acting antiviral agents and ribavirin in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not received therapy previously or who had no response to prior therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

Methods: In this phase 2b, open-label study with 14 treatment subgroups, 571 patients without cirrhosis who had not received treatment previously or who had not had a response to prior therapy were randomly assigned to a regimen of ABT-450/r, combined with ABT-267 or ABT-333 or both, for 8, 12, or 24 weeks and received at least one dose of therapy. All the subgroups but 1 also received ribavirin (dose determined according to body weight). The primary end point was sustained virologic response at 24 weeks after the end of treatment. The primary efficacy analysis compared rates between previously untreated patients who received three direct-acting antiviral agents and ribavirin for 8 weeks and those who received the same therapy for 12 weeks.

Results: Among previously untreated patients who received three direct-acting antiviral agents (with the ABT-450/r dose administered as 150 mg of ABT-450 and 100 mg of ritonavir) plus ribavirin, the rate of sustained virologic response at 24 weeks after treatment was 88% among those who received the therapy for 8 weeks and 95% among those who received the therapy for 12 weeks (difference, -7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -19 to 5; P=0.24). The rates of sustained virologic response across all treatment subgroups ranged from 83 to 100%. The most frequent adverse events were fatigue, headache, nausea, and insomnia. Eight patients (1%) discontinued treatment owing to adverse events.

Conclusions: In this phase 2b study, all-oral regimens of antiviral agents and ribavirin were effective both in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not received therapy previously and in those who had not had a response to prior therapy. (Funded by AbbVie; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01464827.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1306227DOI Listing
January 2014

A phase 2a trial of 12-week interferon-free therapy with two direct-acting antivirals (ABT-450/r, ABT-072) and ribavirin in IL28B C/C patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1.

J Hepatol 2013 Jul 22;59(1):18-23. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

The Texas Liver Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, United States.

Background & Aims: ABT-450 (combined with low-dose ritonavir, ABT-450/r) is a potent HCV NS3 protease inhibitor, and ABT-072 is a non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the peginterferon-free combination of ABT-450/r and ABT-072 with ribavirin in treatment-naïve patients with IL28B CC genotype, infected with HCV genotype 1.

Methods: This was a phase 2a, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study in 11 treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic HCV GT1-infected patients with IL28B rs12979860 genotype CC. Patients received ABT-450/r 150/100 mg once daily and ABT-072 400 mg once daily with weight-based ribavirin 1000-1200 mg/day dosed twice daily for 12 weeks.

Results: Eight (73%) patients were male, 9 (82%) were Caucasian (including 3 who self-identified as Hispanic); mean baseline HCV RNA was 6.9 log₁₀ IU/ml (range 6.5-7.3 log₁₀ IU/ml). All 11 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment and maintained HCV RNA <25 IU/ml from weeks 4 through 12 of treatment. Ten patients (91%) achieved sustained virologic response 24 weeks post-treatment, with a second patient relapsing 36 weeks post-treatment. There were no deaths, serious or severe adverse events, or premature discontinuations. Adverse events were mostly mild and the most frequent were headache, fatigue, nausea, and dry skin.

Conclusions: A 12-week regimen of ABT-450/r and ABT-072 with ribavirin was well tolerated with 9/11 patients achieving sustained virologic response through 36 weeks of post-treatment observation. These findings suggest that peginterferon-free regimens may have the potential to cure a high proportion of HCV genotype 1-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2013.02.009DOI Listing
July 2013

Exploratory study of oral combination antiviral therapy for hepatitis C.

N Engl J Med 2013 Jan;368(1):45-53

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition (MC7878), 7703 Floyd Curl Dr., San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Background: There is a need for interferon-free treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate ABT-450, a potent HCV NS3 protease inhibitor, combined with low-dose ritonavir (ABT-450/r), in addition to ABT-333, a nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor, and ribavirin, for the treatment of HCV infection.

Methods: We conducted a 12-week, phase 2a, open-label study involving patients who had HCV genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis. All patients received ABT-333 (400 mg twice daily) and ribavirin (1000 to 1200 mg per day) and one of two daily doses of ABT-450/r. Groups 1 and 2 included previously untreated patients; group 1 received 250 mg of ABT-450 and 100 mg of ritonavir, and group 2 received 150 mg and 100 mg, respectively. Group 3, which included patients who had had a null or partial response to previous therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin, received daily doses of 150 mg of ABT-450 and 100 mg of ritonavir. The primary end point was an undetectable level of HCV RNA from week 4 through week 12 (extended rapid virologic response).

Results: A total of 17 of the 19 patients in group 1 (89%) and 11 of the 14 in group 2 (79%) had an extended rapid virologic response; a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment was achieved in 95% and 93% of the patients, respectively. In group 3, 10 of 17 patients (59%) had an extended rapid virologic response, and 8 (47%) had a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy; 6 patients had virologic breakthrough, and 3 had a relapse. Adverse events included abnormalities in liver-function tests, fatigue, nausea, headache, dizziness, insomnia, pruritus, rash, and vomiting.

Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that 12 weeks of therapy with a combination of a protease inhibitor, a nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor, and ribavirin may be effective for treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection. (Funded by Abbott; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01306617.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1208809DOI Listing
January 2013

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization, behavioral risk factors, and skin and soft-tissue infection at an ambulatory clinic serving a large population of HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

Clin Infect Dis 2009 Jul;49(1):118-21

Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 795 outpatients, many of whom were human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men, to characterize risk of skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares and perianal colonization. Multivariate analysis revealed that perianal colonization, drug use, and prior SSTIs were strongly associated with development of an SSTI. Of the patients who were colonized with MRSA at study entry, 36.7% developed an SSTI during the ensuing 12 months, compared with 8.1% of persons who were not colonized with MRSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/599608DOI Listing
July 2009

A once-daily lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen is noninferior to twice-daily dosing and results in similar safety and tolerability in antiretroviral-naive subjects through 48 weeks.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009 Apr;50(5):474-81

Therapeutic Concepts, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-dosed twice daily has demonstrated durable efficacy in antiretroviral-naive and protease inhibitor (PI) -experienced patients. Study M05-730 compared LPV/r tablets dosed once daily vs. twice daily in antiretroviral-naive subjects.

Methods: Six hundred sixty-four subjects were randomized to LPV/r soft gel capsules (SGCs) once daily, SGC twice daily, tablets once daily, and tablets twice daily, all with tenofovir and emtricitabine once daily. At week 8, all SGC-treated subjects were switched to tablets, maintaining randomized dose frequency. The primary efficacy analysis used an intent-to-treat, noncompleter = failure approach to assess noninferiority of the LPV/r once-daily group compared with the twice-daily group.

Results: At week 48, 77% of once-daily-dosed subjects vs. 76% of twice-daily-dosed subjects had HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter (P = 0.715; 95% confidence interval for difference: 5% to 8%). Response rates were numerically similar between the once-daily and twice-daily groups among subjects with baseline HIV-1 RNA > or = 100,000 copies per milliliter (75% once daily vs. 74.6% twice daily; P > 0.999) or when analyzed by baseline CD4+ T-cell count (<50, 50 to <200, and > or = 200 cells/mm3). Rates of discontinuation and adverse events, including diarrhea, were similar between arms. Among subjects with protocol-defined virologic rebound through week 48, no new PI resistance mutations were detected.

Conclusions: At 48 weeks, the antiviral response in the LPV/r once-daily group was noninferior to the twice-daily group when coadministered with tenofovir and emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive subjects. Efficacy was comparable between the once-daily and twice-daily groups regardless of baseline HIV-1 RNA or CD4+ T-cell count. Safety and tolerability of once-daily and twice-daily dosing was also comparable. No new PI resistance mutations were detected upon virologic rebound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819c2937DOI Listing
April 2009

Immunological rebound after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naive patients.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2008 Mar;24(3):499-504

Division of Digestive Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

Large clinical trials have repeatedly proven the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in achieving virological suppression; however, subsequent increases in CD4 cell counts (i.e., immunological rebound) do not always follow. Thus, it remains unclear to what extent persons living with HIV/AIDS may expect significant increases in CD4 cell count upon HAART initiation, particularly outside of the highly structured environment of a clinical trial. We analyzed the patterns of CD4 and plasma viral load (PVL) change in 170 HIV-infected individuals who were ART naive and initiated HAART between 1997 and 2003. Immunological success (>50 CD4 cells/mm(3) increase) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Of individuals, 80% experienced a confirmed CD4 cell count increase of >50 cells/mm(3) after HAART initiation. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with pre-HAART PVL >or=100,000 copies/ml were more likely to achieve immunological success when compared with patients with baseline PVL <10,000 copies/ml, suggesting that individuals with the highest HIV viral load levels may benefit the most from HAART initiation. Future studies of immunological rebound are warranted to further define and characterize immune responses to HAART in diverse populations in order to optimize guidelines for initiation of treatment and assessment of successful responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2007.0099DOI Listing
March 2008