Publications by authors named "Daniel E Afar"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of budigalimab with rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients with small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 25;28:100405. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cancer Care Center, Blacktown Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Agents targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been approved as monotherapy for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In preclinical models, the combined targeting of PD-1 and delta-like protein 3 resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. Herein, we report results from the expansion arm of study NCT03000257 evaluating the combination of the anti-PD-1 antibody budigalimab and the targeted antibody-drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) in patients with previously treated SCLC.

Materials And Methods: This expansion arm of a multicenter, open-label, multi-arm, first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial enrolled adult patients with progressive SCLC. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. Patients received budigalimab 375 mg via intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, and Rova-T was administered as a dose of 0.3 mg/kg intravenously, on day 1 of the first and third 3-week cycle.

Results: As of October 2019, 31 patients with SCLC were enrolled and treated with budigalimab plus Rova-T. The combination was tolerated, with the most common treatment-emergent adverse events (in >30%) being pleural effusion, fatigue, and cough. The overall response rate was 24.1%, with one confirmed complete response and six confirmed partial responses. The overall response rate in patients with high delta-like protein 3 expression was similar (21.1%). The median progression-free survival was 3.48 months.

Conclusion: Combination therapy with budigalimab and Rova-T had promising efficacy and appeared to be tolerated in patients with SCLC. Although Rova-T development has been discontinued, development of budigalimab combined with other anticancer agents is ongoing.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03000257 Statement on originality of the work The manuscript represents original work and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere nor previously published. Statement of prior presentation Data from this study were previously presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2021.100405DOI Listing
May 2021

First-in-human phase 1 study of budigalimab, an anti-PD-1 inhibitor, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

START Madrid-FJD, Hospital Universitario Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Budigalimab is a humanized, recombinant immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). We present the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic data from patients enrolled in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) expansion cohorts of the phase 1 first-in-human study of budigalimab monotherapy (NCT03000257; registered 15 December 2016).

Patients And Methods: Patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC or locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC naive to PD-1/PD-1-ligand inhibitors were enrolled; patients were not selected on the basis of oncogene driver mutations or PD-L1 status. Budigalimab was administered at 250 mg intravenously Q2W or 500 mg intravenously Q4W until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoints were safety and PK; the secondary endpoint was efficacy. Exploratory endpoints included biomarker assessments.

Results: In total, 81 patients were enrolled (HNSCC: N = 41 [PD-L1 positive: n = 19]; NSCLC: N = 40 [PD-L1 positive: n = 16]); median treatment duration was 72 days (range, 1-617) and 71 days (range, 1-490) for the HNSCC and NSCLC cohorts, respectively. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse event was anemia (HNSCC: n = 9, 22%; NSCLC: n = 5, 13%). Both dosing regimens had comparable drug exposure and increased interferon gamma-induced chemokines, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10. Objective response rates were 13% (90% CI, 5.1-24.5) in the HNSCC cohort and 19% (90% CI, 9.2-32.6) in the NSCLC cohort. Median progression-free survival was 3.6 months (95% CI, 1.7-4.7) and 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.7-3.7) in the HNSCC and NSCLC cohorts.

Conclusions: The safety, efficacy and biomarker profiles of budigalimab are similar to other PD-1 inhibitors. Development of budigalimab in combination with novel anticancer agents is ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02973-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Model Informed Dosing Regimen and Phase I Results of the Anti-PD-1 Antibody Budigalimab (ABBV-181).

Clin Transl Sci 2021 01 26;14(1):277-287. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Next Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Budigalimab is a humanized, recombinant, Fc mutated IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor, currently in phase I clinical trials. The safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics (PDs), and budigalimab dose selection from monotherapy dose escalation and multihistology expansion cohorts were evaluated in patients with previously treated advanced solid tumors who received budigalimab at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks (Q2W) in dose escalation, including Japanese patients that received 3 and 10 mg/kg Q2W. PK modeling and PK/PD assessments informed the dosing regimen in expansion phase using data from body-weight-based dosing in the escalation phase, based on which patients in the multihistology expansion cohort received flat doses of 250 mg Q2W or 500 mg every four weeks (Q4W). Immune-related adverse events (AEs) were reported in 11 of 59 patients (18.6%), of which 1 of 59 (1.7%) was considered grade ≥ 3 and the safety profile of budigalimab was consistent with other PD-1 targeting agents. No treatment-related grade 5 AEs were reported. Four responses per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 were reported in the dose escalation cohort and none in the multihistology expansion cohort. PK of budigalimab was approximately dose proportional and sustained > 99% peripheral PD-1 receptor saturation was observed by 2 hours postdosing, across doses. PK/PD and safety profiles were comparable between Japanese and Western patients, and exposure-safety analyses did not indicate any trends. Observed PK and PD-1 receptor saturation were consistent with model predictions for flat doses and less frequent regimens, validating the early application of PK modeling and PK/PD assessments to inform the recommended dose and regimen, following dose escalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877859PMC
January 2021

First-in-Human Phase I Study of ABBV-838, an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting SLAMF7/CS1 in Patients with Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 05 22;26(10):2308-2317. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

CHU de Nantes, Hôtel Dieu - HME, Nantes Cedex 1, France.

Purpose: ABBV-838 is an antibody-drug conjugate targeting a unique epitope of CD2 subset 1, a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on multiple myeloma cells. This phase I/Ib first-in-human, dose-escalation study (trial registration ID: NCT02462525) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of ABBV-838 in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM).

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients (≥18 years) received ABBV-838 (3+3 design) intravenously starting from 0.6 mg/kg up to 6.0 mg/kg for 3-week dosing intervals (Q3W). Patients could continue ABBV-838 for up to 24 months. Assessment of alternate dosing intervals (Q1W and Q2W) was conducted in parallel.

Results: As of March 2017, 75 patients received at least one dose of ABBV-838. The most common any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) were neutropenia and anemia (28.0% each), fatigue (26.7%), and nausea (25.3%). Grade 3/4/5 TEAEs were reported in 73.3% of patients across all treatment groups; most common were neutropenia (20.0%), anemia (18.7%), and leukopenia (13.3%). Grade 3/4/5 ABBV-838-related TEAEs were reported by 40.0% of patients across all treatment groups. Overall, 4.0% of patients experienced TEAEs leading to death, none ABBV-838 related. The MTD was not reached; the selected recommended dose for the expansion cohort was 5.0 mg/kg Q3W. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that exposure was approximately dose proportional. The overall response rate was 10.7%; very good partial responses and partial responses were achieved by 2 (2.7%) and 6 (8.0%) patients, respectively.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that ABBV-838 is safe and well-tolerated in patients with RRMM with a very limited efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1431DOI Listing
May 2020

Phase I trial of anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody elotuzumab in combination with bortezomib in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2012 Jun 30;30(16):1960-5. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and efficacy of elotuzumab in combination with bortezomib in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM).

Patients And Methods: Elotuzumab (2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2) IV) were administered on days 1 and 11 and days 1, 4, 8, and 11, respectively, in 21-day cycles by using a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Patients with stable disease or better after four cycles could continue treatment until disease progression or unexpected toxicity. Responses were assessed during each cycle by using European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria.

Results: Twenty-eight patients with a median of two prior therapies were enrolled; three patients each received 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg of elotuzumab and 19 received 20 mg/kg (six during dose escalation and 13 during an expansion phase). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during cycle 1 of the dose-escalation phase, and the MTD was not reached up to the maximum planned dose of 20 mg/kg. The most frequent grade 3 to 4 adverse events (AEs) were lymphopenia (25%) and fatigue (14%). Two elotuzumab-related serious AEs of chest pain and gastroenteritis occurred in one patient. An objective response (a partial response or better) was observed in 13 (48%) of 27 evaluable patients and in two (67%) of three patients refractory to bortezomib. Median time to progression was 9.46 months.

Conclusion: The combination of elotuzumab and bortezomib was generally well-tolerated and showed encouraging activity in patients with relapsed/refractory MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.37.7069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874204PMC
June 2012

A phase 1, multicenter, open-label, dose escalation study of elotuzumab in patients with advanced multiple myeloma.

Blood 2012 Jul 19;120(3):552-9. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R St, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

This multicenter, first-in-human study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody elotuzumab. A standard 3 + 3 design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose; dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during cycle 1. Thirty-five patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were treated with intravenous elotuzumab at doses ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients who achieved at least stable disease after 4 treatments could receive another 4 treatments. No maximum tolerated dose was identified up to the maximum planned dose of 20 mg/kg. The most common adverse events, regardless of attribution, were cough, headache, back pain, fever, and chills. Adverse events were generally mild to moderate in severity, and adverse events attributed to study medication were primarily infusion-related. Plasma elotuzumab levels and terminal half-life increased with dose whereas clearance decreased, suggesting target-mediated clearance. CS1 on bone marrow-derived plasma cells was reliably saturated (≥ 95%) at the 10-mg/kg and 20-mg/kg dose levels. Using the European Group for Bone and Marrow Transplantation myeloma response criteria, 9 patients (26.5%) had stable disease. In summary, elotuzumab was generally well tolerated in this population, justifying further exploration of this agent in combination regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-06-360552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4467882PMC
July 2012

Combinatorial efficacy of anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody elotuzumab (HuLuc63) and bortezomib against multiple myeloma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2009 Sep 1;8(9):2616-24. Epub 2009 Sep 1.

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, Little Rock AR 72205, USA.

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for multiple myeloma, a malignancy of plasma cells, has not been clinically efficacious in part due to a lack of appropriate targets. We recently reported that the cell surface glycoprotein CS1 (CD2 subset 1, CRACC, SLAMF7, CD319) was highly and universally expressed on myeloma cells while having restricted expression in normal tissues. Elotuzumab (formerly known as HuLuc63), a humanized mAb targeting CS1, is currently in a phase I clinical trial in relapsed/refractory myeloma. In this report we investigated whether the activity of elotuzumab could be enhanced by bortezomib, a reversible proteasome inhibitor with significant activity in myeloma. We first showed that elotuzumab could induce patient-derived myeloma cell killing within the bone marrow microenvironment using a SCID-hu mouse model. We next showed that CS1 gene and cell surface protein expression persisted on myeloma patient-derived plasma cells collected after bortezomib administration. In vitro bortezomib pretreatment of myeloma targets significantly enhanced elotuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, both for OPM2 myeloma cells using natural killer or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and for primary myeloma cells using autologous natural killer effector cells. In an OPM2 myeloma xenograft model, elotuzumab in combination with bortezomib exhibited significantly enhanced in vivo antitumor activity. These findings provide the rationale for a clinical trial combining elotuzumab and bortezomib, which will test the hypothesis that combining both drugs would result in enhanced immune lysis of myeloma by elotuzumab and direct targeting of myeloma by bortezomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748787PMC
September 2009

CS1 promotes multiple myeloma cell adhesion, clonogenic growth, and tumorigenicity via c-maf-mediated interactions with bone marrow stromal cells.

Blood 2009 Apr 4;113(18):4309-18. Epub 2009 Feb 4.

LeBow Institute for Myeloma Therapeutics and Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

CS1 is highly expressed on tumor cells from the majority of multiple myeloma (MM) patients regardless of cytogenetic abnormalities or response to current treatments. Furthermore, CS1 is detected in MM patient sera and correlates with active disease. However, its contribution to MM pathophysiology is undefined. We here show that CS1 knockdown using lentiviral short-interfering RNA decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT, and STAT3, suggesting that CS1 induces central growth and survival signaling pathways in MM cells. Serum deprivation markedly blocked survival at earlier time points in CS1 knockdown compared with control MM cells, associated with earlier activation of caspases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and proapoptotic proteins BNIP3 and BIK. CS1 knockdown further delayed development of MM tumor and prolonged survival in mice. Conversely, CS1 overexpression promoted myeloma cell growth and survival by significantly increasing myeloma adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and enhancing myeloma colony formation in semisolid culture. Moreover, CS1 increased c-maf-targeted cyclin D2-dependent proliferation, -integrin beta7/alphaE-mediated myeloma adhesion to BMSCs, and -vascular endothelial growth factor-induced bone marrow angiogenesis in vivo. These studies provide direct evidence of the role of CS1 in myeloma pathogenesis, define molecular mechanisms regulating its effects, and further support novel therapies targeting CS1 in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-10-183772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2676088PMC
April 2009

CS1, a potential new therapeutic antibody target for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 May;14(9):2775-84

Clinical Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: We generated a humanized antibody, HuLuc63, which specifically targets CS1 (CCND3 subset 1, CRACC, and SLAMF7), a cell surface glycoprotein not previously associated with multiple myeloma. To explore the therapeutic potential of HuLuc63 in multiple myeloma, we examined in detail the expression profile of CS1, the binding properties of HuLuc63 to normal and malignant cells, and the antimyeloma activity of HuLuc63 in preclinical models.

Experimental Design: CS1 was analyzed by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry of multiple myeloma samples and numerous normal tissues. HuLuc63-mediated antimyeloma activity was tested in vitro in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays and in vivo using the human OPM2 xenograft model in mice.

Results: CS1 mRNA was expressed in >90% of 532 multiple myeloma cases, regardless of cytogenetic abnormalities. Anti-CS1 antibody staining of tissues showed strong staining of myeloma cells in all plasmacytomas and bone marrow biopsies. Flow cytometric analysis of patient samples using HuLuc63 showed specific staining of CD138+ myeloma cells, natural killer (NK), NK-like T cells, and CD8+ T cells, with no binding detected on hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells. HuLuc63 exhibited significant in vitro ADCC using primary myeloma cells as targets and both allogeneic and autologous NK cells as effectors. HuLuc63 exerted significant in vivo antitumor activity, which depended on efficient Fc-CD16 interaction as well as the presence of NK cells in the mice.

Conclusions: These results suggest that HuLuc63 eliminates myeloma cells, at least in part, via NK-mediated ADCC and shows the therapeutic potential of targeting CS1 with HuLuc63 for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433038PMC
May 2008

Anti-CS1 humanized monoclonal antibody HuLuc63 inhibits myeloma cell adhesion and induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in the bone marrow milieu.

Blood 2008 Aug 28;112(4):1329-37. Epub 2007 Sep 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Currently, no approved monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies exist for human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we characterized cell surface CS1 as a novel MM antigen and further investigated the potential therapeutic utility of HuLuc63, a humanized anti-CS1 mAb, for treating human MM. CS1 mRNA and protein was highly expressed in CD138-purified primary tumor cells from the majority of MM patients (more than 97%) with low levels of circulating CS1 detectable in MM patient sera, but not in healthy donors. CS1 was expressed at adhesion-promoting uropod membranes of polarized MM cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to CS1 inhibited MM cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). HuLuc63 inhibited MM cell binding to BMSCs and induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against MM cells in dose-dependent and CS1-specific manners. HuLuc63 triggered autologous ADCC against primary MM cells resistant to conventional or novel therapies, including bortezomib and HSP90 inhibitor; and pretreatment with conventional or novel anti-MM drugs markedly enhanced HuLuc63-induced MM cell lysis. Administration of HuLuc63 significantly induces tumor regression in multiple xenograft models of human MM. These results thus define the functional significance of CS1 in MM and provide the preclinical rationale for testing HuLuc63 in clinical trials, either alone or in combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-08-107292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2515112PMC
August 2008

Epithelial membrane protein-1 is a biomarker of gefitinib resistance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Aug 8;102(33):11858-63. Epub 2005 Aug 8.

Louis Warschaw Prostate Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

We describe a molecular resistance biomarker to gefitinib, epithelial membrane protein-1 (EMP-1). Gefitinib is a small-molecule inhibitor that competes for the ATP-binding site on EGF receptor (EGFR) and has been approved for patients with advanced lung cancers. Treatment with gefitinib has resulted in clinical benefit in patients, and, recently, heterozygous somatic mutations within the EGFR catalytic domain have been identified as a clinical correlate to objective response to gefitinib. However, clinical resistance to gefitinib limits the utility of this therapeutic to a fraction of patients, and objective clinical responses are rare. We aimed to assess the molecular phenotype and mechanism of in vivo gefitinib resistance in xenograft models and in patient samples. We generated in vivo gefitinib-resistance models in an adenocarcinoma xenograft model by serially passaging tumors in nude mice in presence of gefitinib until resistance was acquired. EMP-1 was identified as a surface biomarker whose expression correlated with acquisition of gefitinib resistance. EMP-1 expression was further correlated with lack of complete or partial response to gefitinib in lung cancer patient samples as well as clinical progression to secondary gefitinib resistance. EMP-1 expression and acquisition of gefitinib clinical resistance was independent of gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR somatic mutations. This report suggests the role of the adhesion molecule, EMP-1, as a biomarker of gefitinib clinical resistance, and further suggests a probable cross-talk between this molecule and the EGFR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0502113102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1187965PMC
August 2005

Preclinical validation of anti-TMEFF2-auristatin E-conjugated antibodies in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2004 Aug;3(8):921-32

Protein Design Labs, Inc., 34801 Campus Drive, Fremont, CA 94555, USA.

Current treatments for advanced stage, hormone-resistant prostate cancer are largely ineffective, leading to high patient mortality and morbidity. To fulfill this unmet medical need, we used global gene expression profiling to identify new potential antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targets that showed maximal prostate cancer-specific expression. TMEFF2, a gene encoding a plasma membrane protein with two follistatin-like domains and one epidermal growth factor-like domain, had limited normal tissue distribution and was highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis using a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to human TMEFF2 showed significant protein expression in 74% of primary prostate cancers and 42% of metastatic lesions from lymph nodes and bone that represented both hormone-naïve and hormone-resistant disease. To evaluate anti-TMEFF2 mAbs as potential ADCs, one mAb was conjugated to the cytotoxic agent auristatin E via a cathepsin B-sensitive valine-citrulline linker. This ADC, Pr1-vcMMAE, was used to treat male severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing xenografted LNCaP and CWR22 prostate cancers expressing TMEFF2. Doses of 3 to 10 mg/kg of this specific ADC resulted in significant and sustained tumor growth inhibition, whereas an isotype control ADC had no significant effect. Similar efficacy and specificity was shown with huPr1-vcMMAE, a humanized anti-TMEFF2 ADC. No overt in vivo toxicity was observed with either murine or human ADC, despite significant cross-reactivity of anti-TMEFF2 mAb with the murine TMEFF2 protein, implying minimal toxicity to other body tissues. These data support the further evaluation and clinical testing of huPr1-vcMMAE as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of metastatic and hormone-resistant prostate cancer.
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August 2004

E-selectin up-regulation allows for targeted drug delivery in prostate cancer.

Cancer Res 2003 Oct;63(19):6387-94

Protein Design Labs, Inc., 34801 Campus Drive, Fremont, CA 94555, USA.

We have used the Eos Hu03 GeneChip array, which represents over 92% of the transcribed human genome, to measure gene expression in a panel of normal and diseased human tissues. This analysis revealed that E-selectin mRNA is selectively overexpressed in prostate cancer epithelium, a finding that correlated strongly with E-selectin protein expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against E-selectin that blocked function failed to impede cancer cell growth, suggesting that overexpression of E-selectin was not essential for cell growth. However, a novel auristatin E-based antibody drug conjugate (ADC), E-selectin antibody valine-citrulline monomethyl-auristatin E, was a potent and selective agent against E-selectin-expressing cancer cell lines in vitro, with the degree of cytotoxicity varying with surface antigen density. Interestingly, sensitivity to the ADC differed among cell lines from different tissues expressing similar amounts of E-selectin and was found to correlate with sensitivity to free auristatin E. Furthermore, E-selectin-expressing tumors grown as xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice were responsive to treatment with E-selectin antibody valine-citrulline monomethyl-auristatin E in vivo, with more than 85% inhibition of tumor growth observed in treated mice. These findings demonstrate that an E-selectin-targeting ADC has potential as a prostate cancer therapy and validates a genomics-based paradigm for the identification of cancer-specific antigens suitable for targeted therapy.
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October 2003

Expression of the zinc transporter ZnT4 is decreased in the progression from early prostate disease to invasive prostate cancer.

Oncogene 2003 Sep;22(38):6005-12

Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Australia.

We have utilized oligonucleotide microarrays to identify novel genes of potential clinical and biological importance in prostate cancer. RNA from 74 prostate cancers and 164 normal body samples representing 40 different tissues were analysed using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray representative of over 90% of the expressed human genome. The gene for the zinc transporter ZnT4 was one of several genes that displayed significantly higher expression in prostate cancer compared to normal tissues from other organs. A polyclonal antipeptide antibody was used to demonstrate ZnT4 expression in the epithelium of all 165 elements of benign and 326 elements of localized prostate cancers examined and in nine of 10 advanced prostate cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, decreased intensity of ZnT4 immunoreactivity occurred in the progression from benign to invasive localized prostate cancer and to metastatic disease. Immunofluorescence analysis and surface biotinylation studies of cells expressing ZnT4 localised the protein to intracellular vesicles and to the plasma membrane. These findings are consistent with a role for ZnT4 in vesicular transport of zinc to the cell membrane and potentially in efflux of zinc in the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206797DOI Listing
September 2003

Use of a SCID mouse model to select for a more aggressive strain of prostate cancer.

Anticancer Res 2003 May-Jun;23(3B):2245-52

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy to affect men and has a propensity for metastasizing to bone. To better mimic the biology of metastatic prostate cancer, we have developed a model that utilizes both human prostate cancer and human bone in the SCID mouse.

Materials And Methods: Injection of a xenograft of human prostate cancer, LAPC-4, near a human bone core that was previously implanted within the hindlimb of a SCID mouse allowed for the selection of a more aggressive subset of cells, known as LAPC-4(2) (read as "LAPC-4 squared").

Results: As compared to LAPC-4 cells, these "bone-selected" LAPC-4(2) cells form tumors more rapidly, develop PSA-positive serum at an earlier time-point as well as with higher levels, develop androgen independence, and metastasize to human bone after orthotopic injection.

Conclusion: The selection of a more aggressive subset of prostate cancer cells that have developed androgen independence and the propensity to metastasize is of paramount importance as these are the cellular characteristics that are clinically linked to morbidity. Analysis of these "bone-selected" cells may lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis behind the conversion of low-grade prostate carcinoma to its more deadly, metastatic form.
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August 2003

Survival analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of prostate cancers identifies new prognostic targets of disease relapse.

Cancer Res 2003 Jul;63(14):4196-203

Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia.

Current models of prostate cancer classification are poor at distinguishing between tumors that have similar histopathological features but vary in clinical course and outcome. Here, we applied classical survival analysis to genome-wide gene expression profiles of prostate cancers and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels from each patient, to identify prognostic markers of disease relapse that provide additional predictive value relative to PSA concentration. Three of approximately 200 probesets showing strongest correlation with relapse were identified as the gene for the putative calcium channel protein, trp-p8, with loss of trp-p8 mRNA expression associated with a significantly shorter time to PSA relapse-free survival. We observed subsequently that trp-p8 is lost in the transition to androgen independence in a prostate cancer xenograft model and in prostate cancer tissue from patients treated preoperatively with antiandrogen therapy, suggesting that trp-p8 is androgen regulated, and its loss may be associated with more advanced disease. The identification of trp-p8 and other proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathway that are associated with prostate cancer outcome, both here and in other published work, suggests an integral role for this pathway in prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, our findings demonstrate that multivariable survival analysis can be applied to gene expression profiles of prostate cancers with censored follow-up data and used to identify molecular markers of prostate cancer relapse with strong predictive power and relevance to the etiology of this disease.
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July 2003

Recognition of multiple substrate motifs by the c-ABL protein tyrosine kinase.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2002 Feb;5(1):83-91

UC Davis Cancer Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Using a combinatorial peptide library that is based on the one-bead one-peptide approach we identified 14 peptide substrates for the c-ABL protein tyrosine kinase, which define three distinct consensus sequence groups. This is distinct from many serine/threonine kinases, which often phosphorylate only one major consensus sequence. The three consensus sequences accurately predict phosphorylation sites in cellular ABL substrates proven to play a role in cell signaling. Our data suggest that protein tyrosine kinases have evolved to recognize multiple substrate motifs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207023330516DOI Listing
February 2002
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