Publications by authors named "Daniel Duprez"

210 Publications

Inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference: non-persistence and association with incident cardiovascular disease in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Hum Hypertens 2022 Mar 16. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Family Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

We investigated inter-arm systolic blood pressure (sIAD) difference, reproducibility, and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that higher sIAD values have low prevalence and nonpersistence over years, but that CVD risk is higher starting from the time of first high absolute sIAD. In Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants (n = 6725, 53% female, 45-84 years old), Doppler systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements were made in both arms (10-minute interval) thrice over 9.5 years. Proportional hazards for CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) over 16.4 years were tested according to time-varying absolute inter-arm difference with covariates: (1) age, gender, race, and clinic; (2) model 1 plus height, heart rate, BP, antihypertensives, BMI, smoking status, lipids, lipid lowering medication, and diabetes. High sIAD was not persistent across exams. Maximum absolute sIAD ≥ 15 mmHg was found at least once in 815 persons. Maximum absolute sIAD had a graded relationship with incident stroke or PAD: 6.2% events; model 2 hazard ratio per 10 mmHg 1.34 (95% CI, 1.15-1.56) and this risk was approximately doubled for maximum absolute sIAD ≥ 15 mmHg vs 0-4 mmHg. Total CVD risk (18.4% events) was increased only for maximum absolute sIAD ≥25 mmHg. Associations with incident CVD did not differ for higher SBP in left vs right arm. A higher maximum absolute sIAD at any exam was associated with greater risk for stroke and PAD especially for values ≥ 15 mmHg, and ≥25 mmHg for other CVD. Measuring SBP between arms may help identify individuals at risk for CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00669-xDOI Listing
March 2022

Simple Nutrient-Based Rules vs. a Nutritionally Rich Plant-Centered Diet in Prediction of Future Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: Prospective Observational Study in the US.

Nutrients 2022 Jan 21;14(3). Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.

To better understand nutrition paradigm shift from nutrients to foods and dietary patterns, we compared associations of a nutrient-based blood cholesterol-lowering diet vs. a food-based plant-centered diet with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Participants were 4701 adults aged 18-30 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, followed for clinical events from 1985 and 86 to 2018. A plant-centered diet was represented by higher A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS). A blood cholesterol-lowering diet was represented by lower Keys Score. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR). Higher APDQS showed a nutrient-dense composition that is low in saturated fat but high in fiber, vitamins and minerals. Keys Score and APDQS changes were each inversely associated with concurrent plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) change. Over follow-up, 116 CHD and 80 stroke events occurred. LDL-C predicted CHD, but not stroke. APDQS, but not Keys Score, predicted lower risk of CHD and of stroke. Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for each 1-SD higher APDQS were 0.73 (0.55-0.96) for CHD and 0.70 (0.50-0.99) for stroke. Neither low dietary fat nor low dietary carbohydrate predicted these events. Our findings support the ongoing shift in diet messages for cardiovascular prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14030469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8837984PMC
January 2022

Atrial Fibrillation and Hypertension: "Quo Vadis".

Curr Hypertens Rev 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA | Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA | Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Hypertension is one of the most well-established risk factors for atrial fibrillation. Long-standing untreated hypertension leads to structural remodeling and electrophysiologic alterations causing an atrial myopathy that forms a vulnerable substrate for the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Hypertension-induced hemodynamic, inflammatory, hormonal, and autonomic changes all appear to be important contributing factors. Furthermore, hypertension is also associated with several atrial fibrillation-related comorbidities. As such, hypertension may represent an important target for therapy in atrial fibrillation. Clinicians should be aware of pitfalls of the blood pressure measurement in atrial fibrillation. While the auscultatory method is preferred, the use of automated devices appears to be an acceptable method in the ambulatory setting. There are pathophysiologic bases and emerging clinical evidence suggesting the benefit of renin-angiotensin system inhibition in risk reduction of atrial fibrillation development particularly in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular dysfunction. A better understanding of hypertension's pathophysiologic link to atrial fibrillation may lead to the development of novel therapies for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation. Finally, future studies are needed to address optimal blood pressure goal to minimize the risk of atrial fibrillation-related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573402118666220112122403DOI Listing
January 2022

Association of Abdominal Aorta Calcium and Coronary Artery Calcium with Incident Cardiovascular and Coronary Heart Disease Events in Black and White Middle-Aged People: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 12 7;10(24):e023037. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine University of Minnesota Minneapolis MN.

Background Assessing coronary artery calcium (CAC) is among AHA/ACC prevention guidelines for people at least 40 years old at intermediate risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). To study enhanced risk stratification, we investigated the predictive value of abdominal aorta calcium (AAC) relative to CAC for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CHD events in Black and White early middle-aged participants, initially free of overt CVD. Methods and Results In the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study, a multi-center, community-based, longitudinal cohort study of CVD risk, the CAC and AAC scores were assessed in 3011 participants in 2010-2011 with follow-up until 2019 for incident CVD and CHD events. Distributions and predictions, overall and by race, were computed. During the 8-year follow-up, 106 incident CVD events (55 were CHD) occurred. AAC scores tended to be much higher than CAC scores. AAC scores were higher in Black women than in White women. CAC predicted CVD with HR 1.77 (1.52-2.06) and similarly for AAC, while only CAC predicted CHD. After adjustment for risk factors and calcium in the other arterial bed, the association of CAC with CVD was independent of risk factors and AAC, while the association of AAC with CVD was greatly attenuated. However, AAC predicted incident CVD when CAC was 0. Prediction did not vary by race. Conclusions AAC predicted CVD nearly as strongly as CAC and could be especially useful as a diagnostic tool when it is an incidental finding or when no CAC is found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.023037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9075251PMC
December 2021

Early cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities as a guide to future morbid events.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 09 4;28(11):1214-1221. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Aims: Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of a battery of 10 non-invasive tests of cardiovascular structural and functional health on the future risk of cardiovascular morbid events.

Methods And Results: A total of 1900 asymptomatic adults concerned about their risk for cardiovascular disease underwent non-invasive assessment with 10 tests of vascular and cardiac structure and function. A disease score (DS) was calculated for each individual based on these 10 tests. Follow-up (mean 9.2 years) for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was available for 1442 individuals (mean age 53.2 years, 48.2% women). Those in the lowest DS tertile (0-2) experienced 0.16 cardiovascular events per 100 patient-years (PY), those in the middle tertile (3-5) experienced 0.86 events per 100 PY, and those in the highest tertile (6+) experienced 1.3 events per 100 PY (p < .001). Sensitivity analysis, assuming a neutral effect of DS on projected events in subjects not followed, did not alter statistical significance. Risk assessment using the Framingham risk score (FRS) also predicted morbid events but the two methods differed in identifying individuals at high risk. The net reclassification index was improved by 0.11 (p = 0.01) when DS was added to FRS.

Conclusions: Assessing the biological disease process in the arteries and heart of asymptomatic adults provides a guide to the risk of a future cardiovascular morbid event. Larger and longer studies are needed to determine whether risk factor algorithms, the severity of the biological process or some combination is the optimal method for identifying individuals in need of intervention to delay morbid events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320901416DOI Listing
September 2021

Plant-Centered Diet and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease During Young to Middle Adulthood.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 4;10(16):e020718. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health University of Minnesota-Twin Cities Minneapolis MN.

Background The association between diets that focus on plant foods and restrict animal products and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is inconclusive. We investigated whether cumulative intake of a plant-centered diet and shifting toward such a diet are associated with incident CVD. Methods and Results Participants were 4946 adults in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) prospective study. They were initially 18 to 30 years old and free of CVD (1985-1986, exam year [year 0]) and followed until 2018. Diet was assessed by an interviewer-administered, validated diet history. Plant-centered diet quality was assessed using the A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS), in which higher scores indicate higher consumption of nutritionally rich plant foods and limited consumption of high-fat meat products and less healthy plant foods. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios of CVD associated with both time-varying average APDQS and a 13-year change in APDQS score (difference between the year 7 and year 20 assessments). During the 32-year follow-up, 289 incident CVD cases were identified. Both long-term consumption and a change toward such a diet were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.28-0.81) when comparing the highest quintile of the time-varying average ADPQS with lowest quintiles. The 13-year change in APDQS was associated with a lower subsequent risk of CVD, with a hazard ratio of 0.39 (95% CI, 0.19-0.81) comparing the extreme quintiles. Similarly, strong inverse associations were found for coronary heart disease and hypertension-related CVD with either the time-varying average or change APDQS. Conclusions Consumption of a plant-centered, high-quality diet starting in young adulthood is associated with a lower risk of CVD by middle age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475033PMC
August 2021

Variable and Severe Phenotypic Expression of the "Lebanese Allele" in Two Sisters with Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2021 21;17:415-419. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

The "Lebanese allele" { c.2043 C>A (p.cys681X)} is a nonsense mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor () gene that results in a truncated non-functioning LDLR protein. We report two sisters of Lebanese descent who presented with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and were both heterozygous for the Lebanese allele, but had very distinct LDL-C levels and clinical phenotypes. Whereas one of the sisters had LDL-C in the expected range of Heterozygous FH (HeFH) with the Lebanese allele (LDL-C of 292 mg/dl), the other sister had a more severe LDL-C phenotype in the Homozygous FH (HoFH) range (LDL-C of 520 mg/dl) along with manifest atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, she did not demonstrate a compound heterozygote or double heterozygote status. We discuss different mechanisms that are purported to play a role in modifying the phenotype of FH, including different variants and polygenic modifiers. HeFH patients with the Lebanese allele can have a wide spectrum of LDL-C levels that range from the typical heterozygous to homozygous phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S314704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312315PMC
August 2021

Serum Urate Trajectory in Young Adulthood and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events by Middle Age: CARDIA Study.

Hypertension 2021 11 7;78(5):1211-1218. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (N.M., D.R.J.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516664PMC
November 2021

A Plant-Centered Diet and Markers of Early Chronic Kidney Disease during Young to Middle Adulthood: Findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Cohort.

J Nutr 2021 09;151(9):2721-2730

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Few studies have evaluated whether plant-centered diets prevent progression of early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Objectives: We examined the association between plant-centered diet quality and early CKD markers.

Methods: We prospectively examined 2869 black and white men and women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study free of diagnosed kidney failure in 2005-2006 [examination year 20 (Y20); mean age: 45.3 ± 3.6  y]. CKD marker changes from Y20 to 2015-2016 (Y30) were considered, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; serum creatinine), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and both. Diet was assessed through interviewer-administered diet histories at Y0, Y7, and Y20, and plant-centered diet quality was quantified with the A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS). Linear regression models were used to examine the association of APDQS and subsequent 10-y changes in CKD markers.

Results: After adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and diet factors, we found that higher APDQS was related to less adverse changes in CKD markers in the subsequent 10-y period. Compared with the lowest APDQS quintile, the highest quintile was associated with an attenuated increase in lnACR (-0.25 mg/g; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.13 mg/g; P-trend < 0.001), whereas the highest quintile was associated with an attenuated decrease in eGFR (4.45 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2; 95% CI: 2.46, 6.43 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2). There was a 0.50 lower increase in combined CKD markers [ln(ACR) z score - eGFR z score] when comparing the extreme quintiles. Associations remained similar after further adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, and obesity as potential mediating factors. The attenuated worsening CKD marker changes associated with higher APDQS strengthened across increasing initial CKD category; those with the best diet and microalbuminuria in Y10-Y20 returned to high normal albuminuria (all P-interaction < 0.001).

Conclusions: Individuals who consumed plant-centered, high-quality diets were less likely to experience deterioration of kidney function through midlife, especially among participants with initial stage characterized as mild CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417917PMC
September 2021

Plasma ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA Concentrations and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Nutr 2021 06;151(6):1479-1486

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Current literature examining the prospective relation of circulating omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited to predominantly white populations.

Objectives: We investigated the association of circulating n-3 and n-6 PUFAs with incident AF in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Methods: A total of 6229 participants (mean age = 62 y; 53% female; 39% white, 27% black, 22% Hispanic, and 12% Chinese) who were free of baseline AF and with plasma phospholipid PUFAs measured at baseline using GC were prospectively followed for the development of AF. Incident AF was ascertained using International Classification of Diseases-9 codes from hospital discharge records and Medicare claims data with follow-up through 2014. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the risk of incident AF.

Results: During a median follow-up of 12.9 y, 813 (13%) participants developed AF. Each higher SD increment in arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) concentrations was associated with an 11% decreased risk of incident AF (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.96). Similarly, higher overall n-6 PUFA concentrations were also associated with a reduced AF risk (HR per SD increment: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.00). Although no significant overall associations were observed for any individual n-3 PUFAs, higher circulating concentrations of DHA (22:6n-3) and EPA (20:5n-3) were associated with a decreased AF risk in blacks and Hispanics (DHA only) but not whites or Chinese Americans.

Conclusions: In a multiethnic cohort of individuals free of baseline cardiovascular disease, higher plasma concentrations of n-6 PUFAs, particularly AA, were associated with a reduced risk of incident AF. Important differences in AF risk were also noted across race/ethnicity for the n-3 PUFAs DHA and EPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243886PMC
June 2021

The association between indices of blood pressure waveforms (PTC1 and PTC2) and incident heart failure.

J Hypertens 2021 04;39(4):661-666

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Objectives: The radial artery pulse waveform is a continuous measure of pressure throughout the cardiac cycle, and thus can provide more information than just systolic and diastolic blood pressures. New indices based on a Windkessel model of the waveform, PTC1 and PTC2, are related to arterial compliance and add information for prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction) but their association with heart failure is unknown.

Methods: Among 6229 adults (mean age 62 years) from four race/ethnic groups who were initially free of clinical cardiovascular disease and heart failure in 2000-2002, we evaluated the associations of baseline PTC1 and PTC2 with incident heart failure.

Results: Mean ± standard deviation PTC1 and PTC2 were 394 ± 334 and 94 ± 46 ms, respectively. During a median of 15.7 years follow-up, there were 357 heart failure events (148 with reduced, 150 with preserved, and 59 with unknown ejection fraction). After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the hazard ratio for heart failure per 1 standard deviation higher PTC2 was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.63--0.85). Higher PTC2 was also significantly associated with lower risk of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (hazard ratio = 0.67; 95% confidence interval: 0.56--0.80). There was no evidence of a significant association between PTC2 and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or between PTC1 and heart failure.

Conclusion: The PTC2 measure of the radial artery pulse waveform may represent a novel phenotype related to heart failure, especially heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177733PMC
April 2021

Cardiovascular Outcomes and Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Inhibitors: Current Data and Future Prospects.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2020 7;16:403-418. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and poses an ongoing challenge with the aging population. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an established risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and the expert consensus is the use of statin therapy (if tolerated) as first line for LDL-C reduction. However, patients with ASCVD may experience recurrent ischemic events despite receiving maximally tolerated statin therapy, including those whose on-treatment LDL-C remains ≥70 mg/dL, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, high-risk subgroups with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, and those who have an intolerance to statin therapy. Optimal therapeutic strategies for this unmet need should deploy aggressive lipid lowering to minimize the contribution of dyslipidemia to their CV risk, particularly for very high-risk populations with additional risk factors beyond hypercholesterolemia and established ASCVD. To understand the current clinical climate and guidelines regarding ASCVD, we primarily searched PubMed for articles published in English regarding lipid-lowering therapies and CV risk reduction, including emerging therapies, and CV outcomes trials with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. This review discusses the findings of recent clinical trial evidence for CV risk reduction with cholesterol-lowering therapies, with a focus on CV outcomes trials with PCSK9 inhibitors, and considers the impact of the study results for secondary prevention and future strategies in patients with hypercholesterolemia and CV risk despite maximally tolerated statin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S261719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548340PMC
November 2020

Walnut consumption and cardiac phenotypes: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 01 5;31(1):95-101. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background And Aims: Observational studies and clinical trials have shown cardiovascular benefits of nut consumption, including walnuts. However, the relations of walnut consumption with systolic and diastolic function, risk factors for heart failure, are unknown. We examined the associations of walnut consumption with cardiac structure and function parameters in black and white adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

Methods And Results: After exclusions, the study population included 3341 participants. Dietary intake was assessed using the CARDIA Diet History questionnaire at baseline, year 7 and year 20 exams. Cardiac structure and function were measured by echocardiography at year 25. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the associations of walnut consumption with blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and cardiac phenotypes, adjusting for age, sex, race, lifestyle habits, and clinical characteristics. We found the majority of walnut consumers compared to non-consumers were females, whites, and more highly educated, and had lower waist circumference, diastolic BP, and heart rate, and higher diet quality score. Even though cardiac structure and function measures were generally within normal ranges among participants, walnut consumers had significantly better values for diastolic function parameters A wave, E/A ratio, septal and lateral e' than non-consumers. Further adjustment for body mass index and diabetes status did not materially change the significance between walnut consumer groups. Systolic function parameters did not differ by walnut group.

Conclusion: Compared to non-consumers, walnut consumption is associated with better diastolic dysfunction in young to middle-aged adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8574984PMC
January 2021

Coronary artery calcium progresses rapidly and discriminates incident cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease regardless of diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Atherosclerosis 2020 10 5;310:75-82. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background And Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores in discriminating incident CVD events among subpopulations of CKD, particularly those without diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we identified 4 groups based on present/absent CKD/diabetes (CKD-/DM-, n = 5308; CKD-/DM+, n = 586, CKD+/DM-, n = 620; CKD+/DM+, n = 266). Baseline and follow-up CAC (Agatston units) measurements, and association between CAC and incident CVD events in median follow-up of 13 years were evaluated using proportional hazards regression adjusting for demographics, clinical, biomarker variables.

Results: Prevalence of CKD and DM in the cohort was 13% and 12.5% respectively. Annual progression in adjusted median CAC score was 24.8%, 27.9%, 26.7%, 36.8% and unadjusted cumulative incident CVD rates were 12.6%, 22.3%, 23.1%, 39.8% for CKD-/DM-, CKD-/DM+, CKD+/DM-, CKD+/DM+, respectively. After full adjustment (CKD-/DM-referent), hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI) for incident CVD events were 1.25 (1.01-1.53) CKD-/DM+, 1.10 (0.90-1.33) CKD+/DM- and 2.18 (1.73-2.76) CKD+/DM+. Using CKD-/DM-/baseline CAC = 0 referent, adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident CVD in CKD+/DM- were 1.30 (0.81-2.07), 2.05 (1.4-2.99), and 4.15 (2.94-5.86) for baseline CAC = 0, 1-100, and >300 Agatston units respectively while for CKD+/DM+, adjusted HRs were 3.15 (2.04-4.86), 3.56 (2.26-5.62), 7.90 (5.35-11.67), respectively.

Conclusions: CAC provides incremental prognostic information to predict incident CVD events in CKD regardless of DM. Moreover, baseline CAC categories discriminate incident CVD among CKD without DM, which may have implications in individualizing approach to primary prevention in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.07.026DOI Listing
October 2020

Free fatty acids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Clin Lipidol 2020 Jul - Aug;14(4):531-541. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, but research among generally healthy adults, females, and racially/ethnically diverse populations is lacking.

Objective: The primary aim of this project was to investigate prospective associations between fasting FFAs and coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD incidence and CVD-specific and all-cause mortality in a generally healthy age, sex, and racially/ethnically heterogeneous population.

Methods: This study was conducted in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort using baseline (2000-2002) fasting FFAs and outcome data through 2015 (N = 6678). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for associations between FFAs and CHD, CVD, CVD-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality. Interactions by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and metabolic syndrome were evaluated by stratification and cross-product terms. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between FFAs, and inflammatory and endothelial activation biomarkers were evaluated using linear regression (analytic N range: 964-6662).

Results: FFA levels were not associated with CHD or CVD incidence. Higher FFAs were associated with CVD-specific and all-cause mortality, but associations were attenuated in fully adjusted models with a borderline significant association remaining only for all-cause mortality (fully adjusted, per standard deviation increase hazard ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.14). Associations did not differ by age, sex, race/ethnicity, or metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: Fasting FFAs were not associated with CHD, CVD, or CVD-specific mortality and were modestly associated with all-cause mortality, regardless of age, sex, race/ethnicity, or metabolic syndrome status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2020.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492411PMC
August 2021

Added sugar intake is associated with pericardial adipose tissue volume.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 12 28;27(18):2016-2023. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center USA.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of pericardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue volume with added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes. We hypothesized that both added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with pericardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue volumes in black and white men and women enrolled in the prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

Methods And Results: Dietary intake was assessed by diet history at baseline, year 7 and year 20 examinations in 3070 participants aged 18-30 and generally healthy at baseline. After 25 years follow-up, participants underwent a computed tomography scan of chest and abdomen; the computed tomography scans were read, and pericardial adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes were calculated. Quintiles were created for the average of baseline, year 7 and year 20 added sugar and for the average of sugar-sweetened beverages. General linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of pericardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue volumes across quintiles of added sugar and across quintiles of sugar-sweetened beverage intakes adjusted for potential confounding factors. In a multivariable model, pericardial adipose tissue volume was higher across increasing quintiles of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes ( = 0.001 and  < 0.001, respectively). A similar relation was observed for visceral adipose tissue ( < 0.001 for both added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages).

Conclusions: Long-term intakes of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher pericardial adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes. Because these ectopic fat depots are associated with greater risk of disease incidence, these findings support limiting intakes of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320931303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283962PMC
December 2020

Association of obesity with arterial stiffness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Vasc Med 2020 08 2;25(4):309-318. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Arterial stiffness (AS) and obesity are recognized as important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between AS and obesity. AS was defined as high augmentation index (AIx) and low elasticity (C1, large artery elasticity; C2, small artery elasticity) in participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis at baseline. We compared AIx, C1, and C2 by body mass index (BMI) (< 25, 25-29.9, 30-39.9, ⩾ 40 kg/m) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (< 0.85, 0.85-0.99, ⩾ 1). The obesity-AS association was tested across 10-year age intervals. Among 6177 participants (62 ± 10 years old, 52% female), a significant inverse relationship was observed between obesity and AS. After adjustments for CVD risk factors, participants with a BMI > 40 kg/m had 5.4% lower AIx (mean difference [Δ] = -0.82%; 95% CI: -1.10, -0.53), 15.4% higher C1 (Δ = 1.66 mL/mmHg ×10; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.33), and 40.2% higher C2 (Δ = 1.49 mL/mmHg ×100; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.83) compared to those with a BMI < 25 kg/m (all for trend < 0.001). Participants with a WHR ⩾ 1 had 5.6% higher C1 (∆ = 0.92 mL/mmHg ×10; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.37) compared to those with a WHR < 0.85. The WHR had a significant interaction with age on AIx and C2, but not with BMI; the inverse relationships of the WHR with AIx and C2 were observed only in participants < 55 years between the normal (WHR < 0.85) and the overweight (0.85 ⩽ WHR < 0.99) groups. Different associations of WHR and BMI with arterial stiffness among older adults should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X20918940DOI Listing
August 2020

Defining the Optimal Dialysis Regimen for Improving Left Ventricular Structure and Function: An Urgent Need.

J Card Fail 2020 06 17;26(6):492-493. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota School of Medline. Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.05.004DOI Listing
June 2020

A prospective controlled study of metabolic and physiologic effects of kidney donation suggests that donors retain stable kidney function over the first nine years.

Kidney Int 2020 07 3;98(1):168-175. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Nephrology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

While there have been numerous studies of living kidney donors, most have been retrospective without suitable controls and have yielded conflicting results. To clarify this we studied 205 living donor candidates and 203 controls having no medical conditions precluding donation. Before and at six months, one, two, three, six, and nine years after donation we measured iohexol glomerular filtration rate, clinic blood pressure, urine protein excretion and metabolic parameters reported to be affected by kidney function. We measured 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure at three, six, and nine years and at six and nine years blood pressure after treadmill exercise, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and arterial elasticity. Between six months and nine years, the mean (95% confidence interval) change in glomerular filtration rate was significantly different among 133 donors 0·02 (-0·16-0·20) mL/min/1·73m/year versus -1·26 (-1·52--1·00) mL/min/1·73m/year in 113 healthy controls. Blood pressure, urine protein, urine albumin, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and lipoproteins were not different in controls versus donors; but parathyroid hormone, homocysteine and uric acid remained higher at nine years. At six and nine years carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was not different, but the mean small artery elasticity was significantly lower in 141 donors 6·1 mL/mmHg x100, versus 113 controls 7·1 mL/mmHg x100, and 6·1 mL/mmHg x100 in 137 donors versus 7·6 mL/mmHg x100 in 112 controls at six and nine years, respectively [significant adjusted difference of 1·1 mL/mmHg x100]. Thus, donors remain healthy with stable kidney function for the first nine years, but differences in metabolic and vascular parameters could be harbingers of adverse outcomes requiring future interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.01.017DOI Listing
July 2020

Coronary Artery Calcium for Personalized Allocation of Aspirin in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in 2019: The MESA Study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

Circulation 2020 05 1;141(19):1541-1553. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (M.C.-A., J.W.M., Z.D., R.S.B., O.D., K.N., M.J.B.).

Background: Recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Primary Prevention Guidelines recommended considering low-dose aspirin therapy only among adults 40 to 70 years of age who are at higher atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk but not at high risk of bleeding. However, it remains unclear how these patients are best identified. The present study aimed to assess the value of coronary artery calcium (CAC) for guiding aspirin allocation for primary prevention by using 2019 aspirin meta-analysis data on cardiovascular disease relative risk reduction and bleeding risk.

Methods: The study included 6470 participants from the MESA Study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). ASCVD risk was estimated using the pooled cohort equations, and 3 strata were defined: <5%, 5% to 20%, and >20%. All participants underwent CAC scoring at baseline, and CAC scores were stratified as =0, 1 to 99, ≥100, and ≥400. A 12% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular disease events was used for the 5-year number needed to treat (NNT) calculations, and a 42% relative risk increase in major bleeding events was used for the 5-year number needed to harm (NNH) estimations.

Results: Only 5% of MESA participants would qualify for aspirin consideration for primary prevention according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines and using >20% estimated ASCVD risk to define higher risk. Benefit/harm calculations were restricted to aspirin-naive participants <70 years of age not at high risk of bleeding (n=3540). The overall NNT with aspirin to prevent 1 cardiovascular disease event was 476 and the NNH was 355. The NNT was also greater than or similar to the NNH among estimated ASCVD risk strata. Conversely, CAC≥100 and CAC≥400 identified subgroups in which NNT was lower than NNH. This was true both overall (for CAC≥100, NNT=140 versus NNH=518) and within ASCVD risk strata. Also, CAC=0 identified subgroups in which the NNT was much higher than the NNH (overall, NNT=1190 versus NNH=567).

Conclusions: CAC may be superior to the pooled cohort equations to inform the allocation of aspirin in primary prevention. Implementation of current 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline recommendations together with the use of CAC for further risk assessment may result in a more personalized, safer allocation of aspirin in primary prevention. Confirmation of these findings in experimental settings is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.045010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217722PMC
May 2020

Major cardiac events for adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1999: report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

BMJ 2020 01 15;368:l6794. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Objective: To investigate the impact of modifications to contemporary cancer protocols, which minimize exposures to cardiotoxic treatments and preserve long term health, on serious cardiac outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: 27 institutions participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Participants: 23 462 five year survivors (6193 (26.4%) treated in the 1970s, 9363 (39.9%) treated in the 1980s, and 7906 (33.6%) treated in the 1990s) of leukemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcomas, and bone sarcomas diagnosed prior to age 21 years between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999. Median age at diagnosis was 6.1 years (range 0-20.9) and 27.7 years (8.2-58.3) at last follow-up. A comparison group of 5057 siblings of cancer survivors were also included.

Main Outcome Measures: Cumulative incidence and 95% confidence intervals of reported heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias by treatment decade. Events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Multivariable subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios by decade, and mediation analysis examined risks with and without exposure to cardiotoxic treatments.

Results: The 20 year cumulative incidence of heart failure (0.69% for those treated in the 1970s, 0.74% for those treated in the 1980s, 0.54% for those treated in the 1990s) and coronary artery disease (0.38%, 0.24%, 0.19%, respectively), decreased in more recent eras (P<0.01), though not for valvular disease (0.06%, 0.06%, 0.05%), pericardial disease (0.04%, 0.02%, 0.03%), or arrhythmias (0.08%, 0.09%, 0.13%). Compared with survivors with a diagnosis in the 1970s, the risk of heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease decreased in the 1980s and 1990s but only significantly for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.92 and 0.53, 0.36 to 0.77, respectively). The overall risk of coronary artery disease was attenuated by adjustment for cardiac radiation (0.90, 0.78 to 1.05), particularly among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (unadjusted for radiation: 0.77, 0.66 to 0.89; adjusted for radiation: 0.87, 0.69 to 1.10).

Conclusions: Historical reductions in exposure to cardiac radiation have been associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Additional follow-up is needed to investigate risk reductions for other cardiac outcomes.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01120353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l6794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190022PMC
January 2020

PTC1 and PTC2: New Indices of Blood Pressure Waveforms and Cardiovascular Disease.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 07;189(7):726-734

Systolic and diastolic blood pressures provide information about cardiovascular disease (CVD) but are only extremes of the pressure waveform during the cardiac cycle. We developed summaries of the pressure decay, called PTC1 and PTC2, that are related to arterial compliance and to an existing proprietary summary that has been shown to predict CVD. We derived the summaries from a Windkessel model (consisting of a decaying exponential plus a dampened cosine, with an intercept so they are independent of calibration with blood pressure, unlike the proprietary measures), and we estimated them using nonlinear least squares with standard, free software. Among 6,228 adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, initially free of CVD in 2000-2002, mean PTC2 was 94 (standard deviation, 46) milliseconds. During median 15-year follow-up, there were 911 CVD events (including 609 incidents of coronary heart disease and 270 strokes). One-standard-deviation higher PTC2 was associated with 17% (95% confidence interval: 10, 24) lower CVD risk, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Results were similar for PTC1. PTC1 and PTC2 are relatively straightforward to compute and add information beyond traditional risk factors for prediction of CVD. Our work enables others to replicate and extend our results with waveforms from any suitable device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608079PMC
July 2020

Collagen biomarkers are associated with decline in renal function independently of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Study.

J Hypertens 2019 12;37(12):2398-2403

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Objective: We studied associations of circulating collagen type I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) with long-term renal function decline.

Methods: In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we included 2492 participants initially aged 45-84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), excluding people with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or urine albumin/creatinine (UAC) at least 30 mg/g. The primary outcome in median 9.4-year follow-up was renal function decline (≥30% decline in eGFR between any two exams or incident UAC ≥ 30 mg/g). The associations of baseline plasma ICTP and PIIINP with renal function decline were estimated using Poisson regression, adjusting for baseline variables race/ethnicity, sex, age, and continuous eGFR and UAC, with further adjustment for CVD risk factors and medications.

Results: Baseline serum ICTP was 3.27 ± 1.43 μg/l and PIIINP was 5.43 ± 1.85 μg/l. Mean baseline eGFR was 91.5 ± 18.4 ml/min per 1.73 m. Renal function decline occurred in 19.5% during 9.4-year follow-up. The renal function decline outcome was positively associated with serum ICTP and PIIINP: relative incidence density (95% confidence interval) per SD 1.22 (1.11-1.33) and 1.27 (1.16-1.40), respectively. Additional adjustment for other risk factors did not greatly alter findings.

Conclusion: High collagen biomarker concentrations in serum were associated with future decline in renal function in people initially free of CVD and with normal eGFR, consistent with collagen production signaling renal decline. The continuous association observed for ICTP which, unlike PIIINP, is filtered by the kidney, may owe to its double status as a sensitive marker of glomerular function and collagen degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002207DOI Listing
December 2019

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Structural/Functional Properties of the Thoracic Ascending Aorta: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Cardiology 2019;142(3):180-188. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Structural and functional properties of the proximal thoracic aorta have important implications in clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with proximal aortic size and aortic stiffness in a multi-ethnic community-based cohort.

Methods: The sample included the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Sleep Ancillary study participants without known CVD who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The main exposure variable was OSA severity based on the polysomnography-derived apnea hypopnea index (AHI; normal, AHI <5/h; mild, 5≤ AHI <15/h; moderate to severe, AHI ≥15/h). The study outcomes were ascending aortic diameter (AoD, cm), aortic pulse wave velocity (AoPWV, m/s), and ascending aortic distensibility (AAD, %/mm Hg). Analyses were performed in the overall sample and in sex-specific strata, adjusted for multiple potential confounders.

Results: The 708 participants were 55.9% female and on average 68 years old (54-93 years). There was a significant trend (p < 0.0001) of greater mean (SD) AoD across the three OSA groups: normal (n = 87), 3.13 cm (0.35); mild (n = 215), 3.25 (0.34); moderate to severe (n = 406), 3.37 (0.36). In adjusted analysis, participants with moderate to severe OSA had a greater mean AoD compared with the normal group: adjusted mean difference (95% CI), 0.12 cm (0.05, 0.20), p = 0.002. This AoD gradient was observed in women but not in men (p for interaction = 0.02). No differences were found in AoPWV or AAD among the OSA groups.

Conclusion: In a diverse community-based cohort, moderate to severe OSA (vs. no OSA) was associated with a larger ascending AoD in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712423PMC
December 2019

Association Between Statin Use and Sex Hormone in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 10;104(10):4600-4606

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: Based on the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines, the number of individuals eligible for statin therapy to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk has greatly expanded. Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, which can impair gonadal steroidogenesis. We evaluated the effect of statins on endogenous sex hormones in a large epidemiological study.

Methods: A total of 6814 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants underwent the baseline examination. Of these, 6171 had measurements of serum sex hormones available: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), SHBG, estradiol, and total and bioavailable testosterone. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationship of statin use with each sex hormone.

Results: A total of 345 women (17.4%) and 464 men (14.7%) were statin users (mean age, 67 years; 41% white, 29% black, 11% Chinese, and 19% Hispanic). Among the users vs nonusers of statins, the mean SHBG was 3.54 nmol/L (P < 0.01) lower in women and 3.37 nmol/L (P < 0.001) lower in men; the mean DHEA was 1.06 nmol/L (P < 0.05) lower in women and 0.70 nmol/L (P < 0.01) lower in men, after adjustment for potential confounders. With further propensity score adjustment, the mean DHEA and SHBG levels were 0.67 nmol/L (P < 0.05) and 3.49 nmol/L (P < 0.001) lower, respectively, for statin users vs nonusers. No statistically significant association was noted between estradiol, total testosterone, and bioavailable testosterone and statin use.

Conclusion: Statin users have lower levels of SHBG and DHEA. This is especially relevant owing to the increasing use of statin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2019-00530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736052PMC
October 2019

Association of C2, a derivative of the radial artery pressure waveform, with new onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the MESA study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 05 17;18(1):62. Epub 2019 May 17.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Although microvascular dysfunction is known to result from diabetes, it might also lead to diabetes. Lower values of C2, a derivative of the radial artery pressure waveform, indicate microvascular dysfunction and predict hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We studied the association of C2 with incident diabetes in subjects free of overt CVD.

Methods: Among multi-ethnic participants (n = 5214), aged 45-84 years with no diabetes, C2 was derived from the radial artery pressure waveform. Incident diabetes (N = 651) was diagnosed as new fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or antidiabetic medicine over ~ 10 years. The relative incidence density (RID) for incident diabetes per standard deviation (SD) of C2 was studied during ~ 10 years follow-up using four levels of adjustment.

Results: Mean C2 at baseline was 4.58 ± 2.85 mL/mmHg × 100. The RID for incident diabetes per SD of C2 was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.99, P = 0.03). After adjustment for demographics plus body size, the corresponding RID was 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89, P < 0.0001); body mass index (BMI) was the dominant covariate here. After adjustment for demographics plus cardiovascular risk factors, the RID was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89, 1.07, P = 0.63). After adjustment for all the parameters in the previous models, the RID was 0.87 (95% CI 0.78, 0.96, P = 0.006).

Conclusions: In a multi-ethnic sample free of overt CVD and diabetes at baseline, C2 predicted incident diabetes after adjustment for demographics, BMI and CVD risk factors. Differences in arterial blood pressure wave morphology may indicate a long-term risk trajectory for diabetes, independently of body size and the classical risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0868-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524236PMC
May 2019

Withdrawal Notice: Atrial Fibrillation and Hypertension: “Quo Vadis”

Curr Hypertens Rev 2019 05 2. Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. United States.

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor of the journal Current Hypertension Reviews: Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused. The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php .

Bentham Science Disclaimer: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573402115666190502142824DOI Listing
May 2019

Race-Based Differences in Lipoprotein(a)-Associated Risk of Carotid Atherosclerosis.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 03;39(3):523-529

From the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (B.T.S., A.B.K., M.Y.T.).

Objective- Lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)] is a well-described risk factor for atherosclerosis, but Lp(a)-associated risk may vary by race/ethnicity. We aimed to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies Lp(a)-related risk of carotid atherosclerotic plaque outcomes among black, white, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals. Approach and Results- Carotid plaque presence and score were assessed by ultrasonography at baseline (n=5155) and following a median 9.4 year period (n=3380) in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants. Lp(a) concentrations were measured by immunoassay and examined as a continuous and categorical variable using clinically-based cutoffs, 30 and 50 mg/dL. Lp(a) was related to greater risk of prevalent carotid plaque at baseline in whites alone (all P<0.001): per log unit (relative risk, 1.05); Lp(a)≥30 mg/dL (relative risk, 1.16); and Lp(a)≥50 mg/dL (relative risk, 1.20). Lp(a) levels over 50 mg/dL were associated with a higher plaque score at baseline in whites (all P<0.001) and Hispanics ( P=0.04). In prospective analyses, whites with Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL were found to have greater risk of plaque progression (relative risk, 1.12; P=0.03) and higher plaque scores (all P<0.001) over the 9.4-year follow-up. Race-based differences between whites and black participants were significant for cross-sectional associations and for carotid plaque score following the 9.4 year study period. Conclusions- Race was found to be a modifying variable in Lp(a)-related risk of carotid plaque, and Lp(a) levels may have greater influence on plaque burden in whites than in black individuals. Borderline results in Hispanics suggest that elevated Lp(a) may increase the risk of carotid plaque, but follow-up studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.312267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393189PMC
March 2019

Problematic eating behaviors and attitudes predict long-term incident metabolic syndrome and diabetes: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 03 12;52(3):304-308. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Problematic relationship to eating and food (PREF) captures a broad range of unhealthy eating behaviors. We previously reported that higher BMI is associated with PREF and graded by the number of PREF endorsed. In this study, we prospectively examined the association between PREF and metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

Method: Eight PREF behaviors were assessed and summed to form the PREF score in 3800 black and white adults (age 27-41 years) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Diagnoses of incident metabolic syndrome and diabetes were made through 15 years of follow-up. Logistic regression estimated the association with metabolic syndrome. Proportional hazards regression estimated the association with diabetes.

Results: The odds ratio of metabolic syndrome was 1.25 per PREF point through 5 years of follow-up (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) and 1.17 per point from 5 to 10 years of follow-up (95% CI: 1.08-1.27). Hazard of diabetes was 1.20 per PREF point through 15 years of follow-up (95% CI: 1.12-1.28). Both associations attenuated after adjustment for BMI.

Discussion: Among participants with PREF, higher scores associate with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, with partial attenuation after adjustment for BMI. Early identification of PREF in middle-aged adults may reduce the burden of metabolic health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408221PMC
March 2019
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