Publications by authors named "Daniel Del Toro"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

FLRT2 and FLRT3 Cooperate in Maintaining the Tangential Migratory Streams of Cortical Interneurons during Development.

J Neurosci 2021 Sep 23;41(35):7350-7362. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Lleida Biomedical Research Institute, University of Lleida, Lleida 25198, Spain

Neuron migration is a hallmark of nervous system development that allows gathering of neurons from different origins for assembling of functional neuronal circuits. Cortical inhibitory interneurons arise in the ventral telencephalon and migrate tangentially forming three transient migratory streams in the cortex before reaching the final laminar destination. Although migration defects lead to the disruption of inhibitory circuits and are linked to aspects of psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, the molecular mechanisms controlling cortical interneuron development and final layer positioning are incompletely understood. Here, we show that mouse embryos with a double deletion of and genes encoding cell adhesion molecules exhibit an abnormal distribution of interneurons within the streams during development, which in turn, affect the layering of somatostatin+ interneurons postnatally. Mechanistically, FLRT2 and FLRT3 proteins act in a noncell-autonomous manner, possibly through a repulsive mechanism. In support of such a conclusion, double knockouts deficient in the repulsive receptors for FLRTs, Unc5B and Unc5D, also display interneuron defects during development, similar to the / mutants. Moreover, FLRT proteins are chemorepellent ligands for developing interneurons , an effect that is in part dependent on FLRT-Unc5 interaction. Together, we propose that FLRTs act through Unc5 receptors to control cortical interneuron distribution in a mechanism that involves cell repulsion. Disruption of inhibitory cortical circuits is responsible for some aspects of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. These defects include interneuron migration during development. A crucial step during this process is the formation of three transient migratory streams within the developing cortex that determine the timing of interneuron final positioning and the formation of functional cortical circuits in the adult. We report that FLRT proteins are required for the proper distribution of interneurons within the cortical migratory streams and for the final laminar allocation in the postnatal cortex. These results expand the multifunctional role of FLRTs during nervous system development in addition to the role of FLRTs in axon guidance and the migration of excitatory cortical neurons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0380-20.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412983PMC
September 2021

FLRTing Neurons in Cortical Migration During Cerebral Cortex Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 17;8:578506. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

During development, two coordinated events shape the morphology of the mammalian cerebral cortex, leading to the cortex's columnar and layered structure: the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and cortical migration. Pyramidal neurons originating from germinal zones migrate along radial glial fibers to their final position in the cortical plate by both radial migration and tangential dispersion. These processes rely on the delicate balance of intercellular adhesive and repulsive signaling that takes place between neurons interacting with different substrates and guidance cues. Here, we focus on the function of the cell adhesion molecules fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins (FLRTs) in regulating both the radial migration of neurons, as well as their tangential spread, and the impact these processes have on cortex morphogenesis. In combining structural and functional analysis, recent studies have begun to reveal how FLRT-mediated responses are precisely tuned - from forming different protein complexes to modulate either cell adhesion or repulsion in neurons. These approaches provide a deeper understanding of the context-dependent interactions of FLRTs with multiple receptors involved in axon guidance and synapse formation that contribute to finely regulated neuronal migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.578506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527468PMC
September 2020

Structural Basis of Teneurin-Latrophilin Interaction in Repulsive Guidance of Migrating Neurons.

Cell 2020 01 9;180(2):323-339.e19. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. Electronic address:

Teneurins are ancient metazoan cell adhesion receptors that control brain development and neuronal wiring in higher animals. The extracellular C terminus binds the adhesion GPCR Latrophilin, forming a trans-cellular complex with synaptogenic functions. However, Teneurins, Latrophilins, and FLRT proteins are also expressed during murine cortical cell migration at earlier developmental stages. Here, we present crystal structures of Teneurin-Latrophilin complexes that reveal how the lectin and olfactomedin domains of Latrophilin bind across a spiraling beta-barrel domain of Teneurin, the YD shell. We couple structure-based protein engineering to biophysical analysis, cell migration assays, and in utero electroporation experiments to probe the importance of the interaction in cortical neuron migration. We show that binding of Latrophilins to Teneurins and FLRTs directs the migration of neurons using a contact repulsion-dependent mechanism. The effect is observed with cell bodies and small neurites rather than their processes. The results exemplify how a structure-encoded synaptogenic protein complex is also used for repulsive cell guidance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.12.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978801PMC
January 2020

Regulation of Cerebral Cortex Folding by Controlling Neuronal Migration via FLRT Adhesion Molecules.

Cell 2017 05;169(4):621-635.e16

Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), 80336 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

The folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex into sulci and gyri is thought to be favored by the amplification of basal progenitor cells and their tangential migration. Here, we provide a molecular mechanism for the role of migration in this process by showing that changes in intercellular adhesion of migrating cortical neurons result in cortical folding. Mice with deletions of FLRT1 and FLRT3 adhesion molecules develop macroscopic sulci with preserved layered organization and radial glial morphology. Cortex folding in these mutants does not require progenitor cell amplification but is dependent on changes in neuron migration. Analyses and simulations suggest that sulcus formation in the absence of FLRT1/3 results from reduced intercellular adhesion, increased neuron migration, and clustering in the cortical plate. Notably, FLRT1/3 expression is low in the human cortex and in future sulcus areas of ferrets, suggesting that intercellular adhesion is a key regulator of cortical folding across species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.012DOI Listing
May 2017

Super-complexes of adhesion GPCRs and neural guidance receptors.

Nat Commun 2016 Apr 19;7:11184. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.

Latrophilin adhesion-GPCRs (Lphn1-3 or ADGRL1-3) and Unc5 cell guidance receptors (Unc5A-D) interact with FLRT proteins (FLRT1-3), thereby promoting cell adhesion and repulsion, respectively. How the three proteins interact and function simultaneously is poorly understood. We show that Unc5D interacts with FLRT2 in cis, controlling cell adhesion in response to externally presented Lphn3. The ectodomains of the three proteins bind cooperatively. Crystal structures of the ternary complex formed by the extracellular domains reveal that Lphn3 dimerizes when bound to FLRT2:Unc5, resulting in a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 (FLRT2:Unc5D:Lphn3). This 1:1:2 complex further dimerizes to form a larger 'super-complex' (2:2:4), using a previously undescribed binding motif in the Unc5D TSP1 domain. Molecular dynamics simulations, point-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry demonstrate the stability and molecular properties of these complexes. Our data exemplify how receptors increase their functional repertoire by forming different context-dependent higher-order complexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838878PMC
April 2016

Structural basis of latrophilin-FLRT interaction.

Structure 2015 Apr 26;23(4):774-81. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. Electronic address:

Latrophilins, receptors for spider venom α-latrotoxin, are adhesion type G-protein-coupled receptors with emerging functions in synapse development. The N-terminal region binds the endogenous cell adhesion molecule FLRT, a major regulator of cortical and synapse development. We present crystallographic data for the mouse Latrophilin3 lectin and olfactomedin-like (Olf) domains, thereby revealing the Olf β-propeller fold and conserved calcium-binding site. We locate the FLRT-Latrophilin binding surfaces by a combination of sequence conservation analysis, point mutagenesis, and surface plasmon resonance experiments. In stripe assays, we show that wild-type Latrophilin3 and its high-affinity interactor FLRT2, but not the binding-impaired mutants we generated, promote HeLa cell adhesion. In contrast, cortical neurons expressing endogenous FLRTs are repelled by wild-type Latrophilin3 and not by the binding-impaired mutant. Taken together, we present molecular level insights into Latrophilin structure, its FLRT-binding mechanism, and a role for Latrophilin and FLRT that goes beyond a simply adhesive interaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2015.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396693PMC
April 2015

FLRT structure: balancing repulsion and cell adhesion in cortical and vascular development.

Neuron 2014 Oct 22;84(2):370-85. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), 80336 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4210639PMC
October 2014

FLRT3 is a Robo1-interacting protein that determines Netrin-1 attraction in developing axons.

Curr Biol 2014 Mar 20;24(5):494-508. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, CSIC and Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03550 Sant Joan d'Alacant, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Guidance molecules are normally presented to cells in an overlapping fashion; however, little is known about how their signals are integrated to control the formation of neural circuits. In the thalamocortical system, the topographical sorting of distinct axonal subpopulations relies on the emergent cooperation between Slit1 and Netrin-1 guidance cues presented by intermediate cellular targets. However, the mechanism by which both cues interact to drive distinct axonal responses remains unknown.

Results: Here, we show that the attractive response to the guidance cue Netrin-1 is controlled by Slit/Robo1 signaling and by FLRT3, a novel coreceptor for Robo1. While thalamic axons lacking FLRT3 are insensitive to Netrin-1, thalamic axons containing FLRT3 can modulate their Netrin-1 responsiveness in a context-dependent manner. In the presence of Slit1, both Robo1 and FLRT3 receptors are required to induce Netrin-1 attraction by the upregulation of surface DCC through the activation of protein kinase A. Finally, the absence of FLRT3 produces defects in axon guidance in vivo.

Conclusions: These results highlight a novel mechanism by which interactions between limited numbers of axon guidance cues can multiply the responses in developing axons, as required for proper axonal tract formation in the mammalian brain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.042DOI Listing
March 2014

FLRT2 and FLRT3 act as repulsive guidance cues for Unc5-positive neurons.

EMBO J 2011 Jun 14;30(14):2920-33. Epub 2011 Jun 14.

Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz, Martinsried, Germany.

Netrin-1 induces repulsive axon guidance by binding to the mammalian Unc5 receptor family (Unc5A-Unc5D). Mouse genetic analysis of selected members of the Unc5 family, however, revealed essential functions independent of Netrin-1, suggesting the presence of other ligands. Unc5B was recently shown to bind fibronectin and leucine-rich transmembrane protein-3 (FLRT3), although the relevance of this interaction for nervous system development remained unclear. Here, we show that the related Unc5D receptor binds specifically to another FLRT protein, FLRT2. During development, FLRT2/3 ectodomains (ECDs) are shed from neurons and act as repulsive guidance molecules for axons and somata of Unc5-positive neurons. In the developing mammalian neocortex, Unc5D is expressed by neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which display delayed migration to the FLRT2-expressing cortical plate (CP). Deletion of either FLRT2 or Unc5D causes a subset of SVZ-derived neurons to prematurely migrate towards the CP, whereas overexpression of Unc5D has opposite effects. Hence, the shed FLRT2 and FLRT3 ECDs represent a novel family of chemorepellents for Unc5-positive neurons and FLRT2/Unc5D signalling modulates cortical neuron migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2011.189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3160250PMC
June 2011

Altered cholesterol homeostasis contributes to enhanced excitotoxicity in Huntington's disease.

J Neurochem 2010 Oct 12;115(1):153-67. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Immunologia i Neurociències, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Recent findings suggest that altered cholesterol homeostasis may contribute to the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). To understand the underlying mechanisms, here we used a combination of two-photon microscopy, epifluorescence, and biochemical methods to visualize and quantify lipid distribution in cell cultures expressing mutant huntingtin. Such expression promotes lipid imbalance, and cholesterol accumulation in cellular and murine models and in HD-affected human brains. Interestingly, cells expressing mutant huntingtin also showed higher content of ordered domains in their plasma membranes. These findings correlated with high levels of caveolin-1 and glycosphingolipid GM1, two well-defined markers of cholesterol-enriched domains, at the cell surface. In addition, cells expressing mutant huntingtin showed increased localization of NMDA receptors with cholesterol-enriched domains, contributing to increased NMDA receptor susceptibility to excitotoxic insults. Treatment with simvastatin or β-cyclodextrin, two cholesterol-lowering drugs, reduced the content of ordered domains at the cell surface, which in turn, protected cells against NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that mutant huntingtin produces accumulation of cholesterol and alters its cellular distribution that contributes to NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity. Administration of drugs that recover this effect, such as simvastatin could be beneficial for the treatment of HD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06912.xDOI Listing
October 2010

Mutant huntingtin impairs post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomes by delocalizing optineurin/Rab8 complex from the Golgi apparatus.

Mol Biol Cell 2009 Mar 14;20(5):1478-92. Epub 2009 Jan 14.

Departament de Biologia Cellular, Immunologia i Neurociències, Facultat de Medicina, IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain.

Huntingtin regulates post-Golgi trafficking of secreted proteins. Here, we studied the mechanism by which mutant huntingtin impairs this process. Colocalization studies and Western blot analysis of isolated Golgi membranes showed a reduction of huntingtin in the Golgi apparatus of cells expressing mutant huntingtin. These findings correlated with a decrease in the levels of optineurin and Rab8 in the Golgi apparatus that can be reverted by overexpression of full-length wild-type huntingtin. In addition, immunoprecipitation studies showed reduced interaction between mutant huntingtin and optineurin/Rab8. Cells expressing mutant huntingtin produced both an accumulation of clathrin adaptor complex 1 at the Golgi and an increase of clathrin-coated vesicles in the vicinity of Golgi cisternae as revealed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, inverse fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis for lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor showed that the optineurin/Rab8-dependent post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomes was impaired in cells expressing mutant huntingtin or reducing huntingtin levels by small interfering RNA. Accordingly, these cells showed a lower content of cathepsin D in lysosomes, which led to an overall reduction of lysosomal activity. Together, our results indicate that mutant huntingtin perturbs post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomal compartments by delocalizing the optineurin/Rab8 complex, which, in turn, affects the lysosomal function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e08-07-0726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2649260PMC
March 2009

Calcineurin is involved in the early activation of NMDA-mediated cell death in mutant huntingtin knock-in striatal cells.

J Neurochem 2008 Jun 24;105(5):1596-612. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Excitotoxicity has been proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in the specific loss of striatal neurons that occurs in Huntington's disease. Here, we studied the role of calcineurin in the vulnerability of striatal neurons expressing mutant huntingtin to excitotoxicity. To this end, we induced excitotoxicity by adding NMDA to a striatal precursor cell line expressing full-length wild-type (STHdh(Q7/Q7)) or mutant (STHdh(Q111/Q111)) huntingtin. We observed that cell death appeared earlier in STHdh(Q111/Q111) cells than in STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells. Interestingly, these former cells expressed higher levels of calcineurin A that resulted in a greater increase of its activity after NMDA receptor stimulation. Moreover, transfection of full-length mutant huntingtin in different striatal-derived cells (STHdh(Q7/Q7), M213 and primary cultures) increased calcineurin A protein levels. To determine whether high levels of calcineurin A might account for the earlier activation of cell death in mutant huntingtin knock-in cells, wild-type cells were transfected with calcineurin A. Calcineurin A-transfected STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells displayed a significant increase in cell death compared with that recorded in green fluorescent protein-transfected cells after NMDA treatment. Notably, addition of the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 produced a more robust reduction in cell death in mutant huntingtin knock-in cells than it did in wild-type cells. These results suggest that high levels of calcineurin A could account for the increased vulnerability of striatal cells expressing mutant huntingtin to excitotoxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05252.xDOI Listing
June 2008

Mutant huntingtin impairs the post-Golgi trafficking of brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not its Val66Met polymorphism.

J Neurosci 2006 Dec;26(49):12748-57

Departament de Biologia Cel.lular i Anatomia Patològica, Facultat de Medicina, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism is associated with the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease. In view of these data and the involvement of huntingtin in intracellular trafficking, we examined the intracellular transport and release of Val66Val BDNF (Val-BDNF) and Val66Met BDNF (Met-BDNF) in transfected striatal knock-in cells expressing wild-type or mutant full-length huntingtin. Colocalization studies with specific markers for endoplasmic reticulum showed no differences between the Val-BDNF and Met-BDNF and were not modified by mutant huntingtin. However, post-Golgi trafficking was altered by mutant huntingtin dependent on the BDNF form. Thus, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and inverse FRAP analysis showed retention of Met-BDNF in the Golgi apparatus with respect to Val-BDNF in wild-type cells. Strikingly, mutant huntingtin diminished post-Golgi trafficking of Val-BDNF, whereas Met-BDNF was not modified. Accordingly, a reduction in the number of transport vesicles was only observed in mutant huntingtin cells transfected with Val-BDNF but not Met-BDNF. Moreover, mutant huntingtin severely affected the KCl-evoked release of Val-BDNF, although it had little effect on Met-BDNF regulated release. The constitutive release of Val-BDNF or Met-BDNF in mutant cells was only slightly reduced. Interestingly, mutant huntingtin only perturbed post-Golgi trafficking of proteins that follow the regulated secretory pathway (epidermal growth factor receptor or atrial natriuretic factor), whereas it did not change those that follow the constitutive pathway (p75(NTR)). We conclude that mutant huntingtin differently affects intracellular transport and release of Val-BDNF and Met-BDNF. In addition, our findings reveal a new role for huntingtin in the regulation of the post-Golgi trafficking of the regulated secretory pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3873-06.2006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6674849PMC
December 2006
-->