Publications by authors named "Daniel A Mulrooney"

91 Publications

Kidney Function after Treatment for Childhood Cancer: A Report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Survivors of childhood cancer may be at increased risk for treatment-related kidney dysfunction. Although associations with acute kidney toxicity are well described, evidence informing late kidney sequelae is less robust.

Methods: To define the prevalence of and risk factors for impaired kidney function among adult survivors of childhood cancer who had been diagnosed ≥10 years earlier, we evaluated kidney function (eGFR and proteinuria). We abstracted information from medical records about exposure to chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation treatment and evaluated the latter as the percentage of the total kidney volume treated with ≥5 Gy (V5), ≥10 Gy (V10), ≥15 Gy (V15), and ≥20 Gy (V20). We also used multivariable logistic regression models to assess demographic and clinical factors associated with impaired kidney function and Elastic Net to perform model selection for outcomes of kidney function.

Results: Of the 2753 survivors, 51.3% were men, and 82.5% were non-Hispanic White. Median age at diagnosis was 7.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-13.2), and mean age was 31.4 years (IQR, 25.8-37.8) at evaluation. Time from diagnosis was 23.2 years (IQR, 17.6-29.7). Approximately 2.1% had stages 3-5 CKD. Older age at evaluation; grade ≥2 hypertension; increasing cumulative dose of ifosfamide, cisplatin, or carboplatin; treatment ever with a calcineurin inhibitor; and volume of kidney irradiated to ≥5 or ≥10 Gy increased the odds for stages 3-5 CKD. Nephrectomy was significantly associated with stages 3-5 CKD in models for V15 or V20.

Conclusions: We found that 2.1% of our cohort of childhood cancer survivors had stages 3-5 CKD. These data may inform screening guidelines and new protocol development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020060849DOI Listing
March 2021

Late outcomes in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Leukemia 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Cumulative burden of chronic health conditions and neurocognitive and physical function were examined among survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT; n = 66) or conventional therapy (CT; n = 67). Survivors and controls underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, and health conditions were graded using a modified version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. By age 40 years, HCT and CT survivors had an average 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-20.1) and 9.3 (7.7-11.1) grade 1-4 conditions versus 3.8 (3.3-4.2) in community controls. Compared to controls, HCT survivors had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (45.5% vs. 18.3%), hypercholesterolemia (47.0% vs. 30.9%), hypothyroidism (27.3% vs. 4.0%), and primary hypogonadism (p < 0.001). CT survivors had a higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy (11.9% vs. 2.7%) and hypertension (53.7% vs. 44.3%). Neurocognitive impairment was elevated across all domains compared to controls but did not differ by treatment modality. Compared to controls, a higher proportion of HCT survivors had impairments in strength and endurance; whereas flexibility and mobility impairments were noted among CT survivors. Despite successful advances in childhood AML therapy, many therapeutic exposures remain unchanged. These findings support ongoing investigations of novel therapies and strategies to ameliorate the risk of late morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01134-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Pain and functional outcomes in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort study.

Cancer 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Although survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of chronic pain, the impact of pain on daily functioning is not well understood.

Methods: A total of 2836 survivors (mean age, 32.2 years [SD, 8.5 years]; mean time since diagnosis, 23.7 years [SD, 8.2 years]) and 343 noncancer community controls (mean age, 35.5 years [SD, 10.2 years]) underwent comprehensive medical, neurocognitive, and physical performance assessments, and completed measures of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and social functioning. Multinomial logistic regression models, using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), examined associations between diagnosis, treatment exposures, chronic health conditions, and pain. Relative risks (RRs) between pain and neurocognition, physical performance, social functioning, and HRQOL were examined using modified Poisson regression.

Results: Approximately 18% of survivors (95% CI, 16.1%-18.9%) versus 8% of controls (95% CI, 5.0%-10.9%) reported moderate to very severe pain with moderate to extreme daily interference (P < .001). Severe and life-threatening chronic health conditions were associated with an increased likelihood of pain with interference (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.62-2.54). Pain with daily interference was found to be associated with an increased risk of impaired neurocognition (attention: RR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.46-2.41]; and memory: RR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.25-2.17]), physical functioning (aerobic capacity: RR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.84-2.84]; and mobility: RR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.42-2.06]), social functioning (inability to hold a job and/or attend school: RR, 4.46 [95% CI, 3.45-5.76]; and assistance with routine and/or personal care needs: RR, 5.64 [95% CI, 3.92-8.10]), and HRQOL (physical: RR, 6.34 [95% CI, 5.04-7.98]; and emotional: RR, 2.83 [95% CI, 2.28-3.50]).

Conclusions: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of pain and associated functional impairments. Survivors should be screened routinely for pain and interventions targeting pain interference are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33303DOI Listing
December 2020

Genetic variants associated with therapy-related cardiomyopathy among childhood cancer survivors of African ancestry.

Cancer Res 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.

Cardiomyopathy occurs at significantly higher rates in survivors of childhood cancer than the general population, but few studies have evaluated racial or ethnic disparities, and none have assessed potential genetic factors contributing to this outcome. In this study, childhood cancer survivors of African ancestry exposed to cardiotoxic therapies (anthracyclines and/or heart radiation) (n=246) were compared to cardiotoxic-exposed survivors of European ancestry (n=1645) in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. Genetic variants were examined using whole-genome sequencing data among survivors of African ancestry, first based on ejection fraction (EF) as a continuous outcome, followed by clinical history of cardiomyopathy. Survivors of African ancestry showed 1.53- and 2.47-fold risks of CTCAE grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 cardiomyopathy than survivors of European ancestry. A novel locus at 1p13.2 showed significant association with EF [rs6689879*C: EF reduction=4.2%; P=2.8×10-8] in 246 survivors of African ancestry, which was successfully replicated in 1645 survivors of European ancestry but with attenuated magnitude (EF reduction=0.4%; P=0.042). In survivors of African ancestry, rs6689879*C showed a 5.43-fold risk of cardiomyopathy and 1.31-fold risk in those of European ancestry. Among survivors of African ancestry with rs6689879*C and CTCAE grade 2-4 cardiomyopathy, the PHTF1 promoter region was hypomethylated. Similar results were observed in survivors of European ancestry, albeit with reduced magnitudes of hypomethylation among those with rs6689879*C and CTCAE grade 2-4 cardiomyopathy. PHTF1 was upregulated in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from patients with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These findings have potential implications for long-term cardiac surveillance and up-front cancer care for patients of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2675DOI Listing
December 2020

Childhood Neurotoxicity and Brain Resilience to Adverse Events during Adulthood.

Ann Neurol 2021 Mar 31;89(3):534-545. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Objective: This study used childhood cancer survivors as a novel model to study whether children who experience central nervous system (CNS) injury are at higher risk for neurocognitive impairment associated with subsequent late onset chronic health conditions (CHCs).

Methods: Adult survivors of childhood cancer (n = 2,859, ≥10 years from diagnosis, ≥18 years old) completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery and clinical examination. Neurocognitive impairment was defined as age-adjusted z score < 10th percentile. Participants impaired on ≥3 tests had global impairment. CHCs were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.3 (grade 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe/disabling; 4, life-threatening) and were combined into a severity/burden score by frequency and grade (none/low, medium, high, and very high). A total of 1,598 survivors received CNS-directed therapy including cranial radiation, intrathecal methotrexate, or neurosurgery. Logistic regression estimated the odds of neurocognitive impairment associated with severity/burden score and grade 2 to 4 conditions, stratified by CNS treatment.

Results: CNS-treated survivors performed worse than non-CNS-treated survivors on all neurocognitive tests and were more likely to have global neurocognitive impairment (46.9% vs 35.3%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for demographic and treatment factors, there was a dose-response association between severity/burden score and global neurocognitive impairment, but only among CNS-treated survivors (high odds ratio [OR] = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42-3.53; very high OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 2.30-7.17). Cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions were associated with processing speed, executive function, and memory impairments in CNS-treated but not non-CNS-treated survivors who were impacted by neurologic conditions.

Interpretation: Reduced cognitive/brain reserve associated with CNS-directed therapy during childhood may make survivors vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects of cardiopulmonary conditions during adulthood. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:534-545.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897299PMC
March 2021

The Contribution of Stress and Distress to Cardiovascular Health in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Feb 24;30(2):286-294. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that is not fully explained by cancer-directed therapies. We examined the contribution of emotional stress and distress to cardiac health in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

Methods: Participants included 3,267 adult survivors enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study [median (range) 29.9 (18.1-64.5) years of age; 7.7 (0-24.8) years at diagnosis; 48.4% female]. Survivors completed comprehensive medical assessments and standardized measures of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and perceived stress. Cardiovascular-related conditions included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmia, myocardial infarction (severity graded 0-4), and metabolic syndrome (yes/no). Multivariable modified Poisson models examined associations between symptoms of stress/distress and cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal associations between stress/distress and new-onset cardiovascular outcomes, defined as a change from grade ≤1 at initial evaluation to grade ≥2 at follow-up (median 3.9 years) were examined in 1,748 participants.

Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, stress/distress was associated with hypertension [risk ratio (RR) = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.43], dyslipidemia (RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.61), and metabolic syndrome (RR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.54) independent of known cardiovascular risk factors. In longitudinal models, stress/distress was associated with new-onset dysrhythmia (RR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.21-6.78), perceived stress with hypertension (RR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04-1.95), and PTSS and anxiety with dyslipidemia (RR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.13-2.62; RR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01-2.35, respectively).

Conclusions: Stress/distress is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among childhood cancer survivors.

Impact: Improving psychological health may serve as a potential intervention target for optimizing cardiac health among childhood cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872134PMC
February 2021

Cardiac biomarkers and association with subsequent cardiomyopathy and mortality among adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort.

Cancer 2021 Feb 27;127(3):458-466. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Survivors of childhood cancer exposed to cardiotoxic therapies are at significant cardiovascular risk. The utility of cardiac biomarkers for identifying the risk of future cardiomyopathy and mortality is unknown.

Methods: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were assessed in 1213 adults 10 or more years from a childhood cancer diagnosis; 786 were exposed to anthracycline chemotherapy and/or chest-directed radiation therapy (RT). NT-proBNP values above age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentiles were considered abnormal. Generalized linear models estimated cross-sectional associations between abnormal NT-proBNP and anthracycline or chest RT doses as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A Poisson distribution estimated rates and a Cox proportional hazards model estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for future cardiac events and death.

Results: At a median age of 35.5 years (interquartile range, 29.8-42.5 years), NT-proBNP and cTnT were abnormal in 22.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Exposure to chest RT and exposure to anthracycline chemotherapy were each associated with a dose-dependent increased risk for abnormal NT-proBNP (P for trend <.0001). Among exposed survivors with no history of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events-graded cardiomyopathy and with normal systolic function, survivors with abnormal NT-proBNP had higher rates per 1000 person-years of cardiac mortality (2.93 vs 0.96; P < .0001) and future cardiomyopathy (32.10 vs 15.98; P < .0001) and an increased risk of future cardiomyopathy (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.28-4.08) according to a multivariable assessment.

Conclusions: Abnormal NT-proBNP values were prevalent and, among survivors who were exposed to cardiotoxic therapy but did not have a history of cardiomyopathy or current systolic dysfunction, identified those at increased risk for future cardiomyopathy. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this novel finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855049PMC
February 2021

Generalizability of "GWAS Hits" in Clinical Populations: Lessons from Childhood Cancer Survivors.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 10 17;107(4):636-653. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

With mounting interest in translating genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits from large meta-analyses (meta-GWAS) in diverse clinical settings, evaluating their generalizability in target populations is crucial. Here, we consider long-term survivors of childhood cancers from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, and we show the limited generalizability of 1,376 robust SNP associations reported in the general population across 12 complex anthropometric and cardiometabolic phenotypes (n = 2,231; observed-to-expected replication ratio = 0.70, p = 6.2 × 10). An examination of five comparable phenotypes in a second independent cohort of survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study corroborated the overall limited generalizability of meta-GWAS hits to survivors (n = 4,212; observed-to-expected replication ratio = 0.55, p = 5.6 × 10). Finally, in direct comparisons of survivor samples against independent equivalently powered general population samples from the UK Biobank, we consistently observed lower meta-GWAS hit replication rates and poorer polygenic risk score predictive performance in survivor samples for multiple phenotypes. As a possible explanation, we found that meta-GWAS hits were less likely to be replicated in survivors who had been exposed to cancer therapies that are associated with phenotype risk. Examination of complementary DNA methylation data in a subset of survivors revealed that treatment-related methylation patterns at genomic sites linked to meta-GWAS hits may disrupt established genetic signals in survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536574PMC
October 2020

Cost-Effectiveness of the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group Screening Guidelines to Prevent Heart Failure in Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2020 11 14;38(33):3851-3862. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Survivors of childhood cancer treated with anthracyclines and/or chest-directed radiation are at increased risk for heart failure (HF). The International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group (IGHG) recommends risk-based screening echocardiograms, but evidence supporting its frequency and cost-effectiveness is limited.

Patients And Methods: Using the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and St Jude Lifetime Cohort, we developed a microsimulation model of the clinical course of HF. We estimated long-term health outcomes and economic impact of screening according to IGHG-defined risk groups (low [doxorubicin-equivalent anthracycline dose of 1-99 mg/m and/or radiotherapy < 15 Gy], moderate [100 to < 250 mg/m or 15 to < 35 Gy], or high [≥ 250 mg/m or ≥ 35 Gy or both ≥ 100 mg/m and ≥ 15 Gy]). We compared 1-, 2-, 5-, and 10-year interval-based screening with no screening. Screening performance and treatment effectiveness were estimated based on published studies. Costs and quality-of-life weights were based on national averages and published reports. Outcomes included lifetime HF risk, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Strategies with ICERs < $100,000 per QALY gained were considered cost-effective.

Results: Among the IGHG risk groups, cumulative lifetime risks of HF without screening were 36.7% (high risk), 24.7% (moderate risk), and 16.9% (low risk). Routine screening reduced this risk by 4% to 11%, depending on frequency. Screening every 2, 5, and 10 years was cost-effective for high-risk survivors, and every 5 and 10 years for moderate-risk survivors. In contrast, ICERs were > $175,000 per QALY gained for all strategies for low-risk survivors, representing approximately 40% of those for whom screening is currently recommended.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that refinement of recommended screening strategies for IGHG high- and low-risk survivors is needed, including careful reconsideration of discontinuing asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction and HF screening in low-risk survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676889PMC
November 2020

Association of Hearing Impairment With Neurocognition in Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2020 09;6(9):1363-1371

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Importance: Despite advancements in cancer therapy and supportive care, childhood cancer survivors remain at risk for chronic morbidities associated with disease and treatment, such as hearing impairment (HI) and neurocognitive deficits. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to objectively measure hearing and neurocognitive function in a large cohort of long-term survivors of childhood cancer stratified by treatment exposures.

Objective: To assess the association of HI with neurocognitive function and the factors in HI that mediate neurocognitive outcomes in survivors of childhood cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data analyzed in this cross-sectional study were collected for the period April 25, 2007, to June 30, 2017, from participants in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE), an ongoing study that quantifies the long-term health outcomes of survivors of childhood cancer. Participants included those treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, Tennessee) for childhood cancer who survived 5 or more years after their original diagnosis and who were eligible for audiologic and neurocognitive testing. Hearing outcomes were coded using the Chang Ototoxicity Grading Scale. Data analysis was performed from March 22, 2019, to March 5, 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Hearing and neurocognitive function. Survivors were grouped by hearing sensitivity (normal hearing [Chang grade 0], mild HI [Chang grades 1a, 1b, and 2a], or severe HI [Chang grade ≥2b]) and stratified by treatment exposure (platinum-only exposure group [treated with cisplatin and/or carboplatin chemotherapy], cochlear radiotherapy [RT] exposure group [treated with cochlear RT with or without platinum-based chemotherapy], or no exposure group [no platinum-based chemotherapy or cochlear RT]). Multivariable log-binomial models were adjusted for age at diagnosis, time since diagnosis, sex, and relevant treatment exposures.

Results: A total of 1520 survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed, among whom 814 were male survivors (53.6%), the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 29.4 (7.4-64.7) years, and the median (IQR) time since diagnosis was 20.4 (6.1-53.8) years. Prevalence and risk of severe HI among survivors were higher in survivors in the platinum-only (n = 107 [34.9%]; relative risk [RR], 1.68 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37]) or cochlear RT (n = 181 [38.3%]; RR, 2.69 [95% CI, 2.02-3.57) exposure group compared with those in the no exposure group (n = 65 [8.8%]). Severe HI was associated with deficits in verbal reasoning skills (no exposure group RR, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.50-2.43]; platinum-only exposure group RR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.21-3.08]; cochlear RT exposure group RR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.46-2.75]), verbal fluency (no exposure group RR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.19-2.91]; platinum-only exposure group RR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.24-2.71]; cochlear RT exposure group RR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.09-1.94]), visuomotor speed (no exposure group RR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.07-3.25]; platinum-only exposure group RR, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.92-4.99]; cochlear RT exposure group RR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.11-1.78]), and mathematics skills (no exposure group RR, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.18-3.04]; platinum-only exposure group RR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.05-2.53]; cochlear RT exposure group RR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.18]), compared with survivors with normal hearing or with mild HI.

Conclusions And Relevance: Results of this study suggest that severe HI in childhood cancer survivors is associated with neurocognitive deficits independent of the neurotoxic treatment received. Early screening and intervention for HI may facilitate the development and maintenance of neurocognitive function and identify individuals at risk for impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393588PMC
September 2020

Long-term renal function after treatment for unilateral, nonsyndromic Wilms tumor. A report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 10 24;67(10):e28271. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, and Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: The impact of specific treatment modalities on long-term renal function and blood pressure among adult survivors of Wilms tumor (WT) has not been well documented.

Methods: Among 40 WT survivors and 35 noncancer controls, we estimated the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equations with and without cystatin C, obtained 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure readings, and, among survivors only, measured Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) plasma clearance. Survivors were treated with unilateral nephrectomy and nonnephrotoxic chemotherapy. Twenty received whole abdomen radiation therapy (WART) [median -16.5 Gray (Gy)], and 20 received no radiation therapy. Pairwise comparisons between survivors treated with and without WART, and each group to controls were performed using two-sample t tests.

Results: Twenty-six (65%) WT survivors were female, and 33 (83%) were non-Hispanic white. GFR estimated with creatinine or creatinine + cystatin C was decreased among irradiated survivors compared with controls. No irradiated or unirradiated participant had an eGFR (creatinine + cystatin C) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m . The prevalence of hypertension was significantly increased among unirradiated (25%) and irradiated survivors (35%) compared with controls (0%). Of the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters evaluated, only mean sleep period diastolic blood pressure load of those who received WART was significantly different from that of controls.

Conclusions: Chronic kidney disease was infrequent in long-term survivors of unilateral nonsyndromic WT, whether treated with WART or no radiation. The prevalence of hypertension was increased in both groups compared with controls, emphasizing the need for ongoing monitoring of renal and cardiovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735383PMC
October 2020

Cumulative Burden of Chronic Health Conditions in Adult Survivors of Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma: A Report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Aug 4;29(8):1627-1638. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Adult survivors of childhood osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are at risk of developing therapy-related chronic health conditions. We characterized the cumulative burden of chronic conditions and health status of survivors of childhood bone sarcomas.

Methods: Survivors ( = 207) treated between 1964 and 2002 underwent comprehensive clinical assessments (history/physical examination, laboratory analysis, and physical and neurocognitive testing) and were compared with community controls ( = 272). Health conditions were defined and graded according to a modified version of the NCI's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and the cumulative burden estimated.

Results: Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma survivors [median age 13.6 years at diagnosis (range 1.7-24.8); age at evaluation 36.6 years (20.7-66.4)] demonstrated an increased prevalence of cardiomyopathy (14.5%; < 0.005) compared with controls. Nearly 30% of osteosarcoma survivors had evidence of hypertension. By age 35 years, osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma survivors had, on average, 12.0 (95% confidence interval, 10.2-14.2) and 10.6 (8.9-12.6) grade 1-4 conditions and 4.0 (3.2-5.1) and 3.5 (2.7-4.5) grade 3-4 conditions, respectively, compared with controls [3.3 (2.9-3.7) grade 1-4 and 0.9 (0.7-1.0) grade 3-4]. Both survivor cohorts exhibited impaired 6-minute walk test, walking efficiency, mobility, strength, and endurance ( < 0.0001). Accumulation of ≥4 grade 3-4 chronic conditions was associated with deficits in executive function [RR: osteosarcoma 1.6 (1.0-2.4), = 0.049; Ewing sarcoma 2.0 (1.2-3.3), = 0.01] and attention [RR: osteosarcoma 2.3 (1.2-4.2); = 0.008].

Conclusions: Survivors of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma experience a high cumulative burden of chronic health conditions, with impairments of physical function and neurocognition.

Impact: Early intervention strategies may ameliorate the risk of comorbidities in bone sarcoma survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415713PMC
August 2020

Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 07 8;67(7):e28388. Epub 2020 May 8.

Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CAD) is possible following treatment for childhood cancer. The aims of our analyses were to compare the prevalence of CAD between adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and controls, compare exercise response among survivors with and without CAD, and identify treatment-related risk factors for CAD.

Procedure: Participants were treated for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1980 and 2003 (N = 338). A comparison group matched for race/ethnicity, age, and sex was also recruited (N = 325). Resting heart rate (HR) was assessed via electrocardiogram, and heart rate recovery (HRR) and exercise capacity were evaluated with submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Results: CAD was present in 33.7% of survivors and 27.6% of controls (P = 0.09). Although mean resting HR did not differ between survivors and controls (74 ± 12 vs 72 ± 12 beats per minute (bpm), P = 0.07), survivors had lower mean HRR than controls (22 ± 9 vs 25 ± 10 bpm; P < 0.001). Survivors with CAD had lower peak exercise tolerance (25.7 ± 6.5 vs 21.2 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001) than those without. Survivors treated with cyclophosphamide in combination with vincristine ≥38 mg/m and/or glucocorticoids ≥10 000 mg/m were 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24) times more likely to have CAD than those without this treatment. Obese survivors were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.31-2.40) times more likely to have CAD than nonobese survivors (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: CAD was present in over one third of survivors and was associated with lower exercise capacity. Obese survivors and those exposed to cyclophosphamide with high doses of vincristine and/or corticosteroids were at greatest risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302420PMC
July 2020

Protein Supplementation and Resistance Training in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 10;52(10):2069-2077

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Muscle weakness, low lean body mass, and poor physical performance are prevalent among adult survivors of childhood cancer (survivors). We evaluated the feasibility and effects of resistance training with and without protein supplementation on lean body mass and muscle strength among survivors.

Methods: This double-blind placebo-controlled trial enrolled survivors ≥18 to <45 yr old. Participants were randomized to resistance training with protein supplement (21 g whey protein per day, 90 kcal) (RT + S) or resistance training with placebo (sucrose, 90 kcal) (RT + P). Participants received educational materials, access to a local fitness center, and a tailored resistance training program with tapered supervision. Participant retention and adherence were used to evaluate feasibility. Lean body mass and muscle strength were assessed at baseline and 24 wk, using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and dynamometer testing or one-repetition maximum testing, respectively. Mean changes were compared with two-way ANOVA.

Results: Of 70 participants randomized, 57 completed the 24-wk intervention (24 in RT + S, 33 in RT + P). The RT + S group completed 74.8% and the RT + P group completed 67.0% of exercise sessions. Mean ± SD age for those who completed was 33.1 ± 7.0 yr, 67% were White and 47% female. There were no differences in change in lean mass (RT + S, 1.05 ± 2.34 kg; RT + P, 0.13 ± 2.19 kg; P = 0.10) or strength (grip RT + S, 1.65 ± 4.17 kg; RT + P, 1.63 ± 4.47 kg; P = 0.98; mean leg press RT + S, 58.4 ± 78.8 kg; RT + P, 51.0 ± 65.1 kg; P = 0.68) between groups. Both lean mass (P = 0.03) and strength (grip P = 0.003, leg press P < 0.001) increased over time.

Conclusions: Supervised resistance training among survivors with protein supplementation is feasible but not more effective at increasing total lean body mass than resistance training alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494597PMC
October 2020

Longitudinal pain and pain interference in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Cancer 2020 Jun 30;126(12):2915-2923. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence and risk of pain, pain interference, and recurrent pain in adult survivors of childhood cancer in comparison with siblings.

Methods: This study analyzed longitudinal data from survivors (n = 10,012; 48.7% female; median age, 31 years [range, 17-57 years]; median time since diagnosis, 23 years) and siblings (n = 3173) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Survivors were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986 at 1 of 26 participating sites. Associations between risk factors (demographics, cancer-related factors, and psychological symptoms) and pain, pain interference, and recurrent pain (5 years apart) were assessed with multinomial logistic regression. Path analyses examined cross-sectional associations between risk factors and pain outcomes.

Results: Twenty-nine percent of survivors reported moderate to severe pain, 20% reported moderate to extreme pain interference, and 9% reported moderate to severe recurrent pain. Female sex, a sarcoma/bone tumor diagnosis, and severe/life-threatening chronic medical conditions were associated with recurrent pain. Depression and anxiety were associated with increased risk for all pain outcomes. Poor vitality mediated the effects of anxiety on high pain and pain interference (root mean square error of approximation, 0.002).

Conclusions: A large proportion of adult survivors report moderate to severe pain and pain interference more than 20 years after their diagnosis. Increased screening and early intervention for pain interference and recurrent pain are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245551PMC
June 2020

Major cardiac events for adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1999: report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

BMJ 2020 01 15;368:l6794. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Objective: To investigate the impact of modifications to contemporary cancer protocols, which minimize exposures to cardiotoxic treatments and preserve long term health, on serious cardiac outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: 27 institutions participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Participants: 23 462 five year survivors (6193 (26.4%) treated in the 1970s, 9363 (39.9%) treated in the 1980s, and 7906 (33.6%) treated in the 1990s) of leukemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcomas, and bone sarcomas diagnosed prior to age 21 years between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999. Median age at diagnosis was 6.1 years (range 0-20.9) and 27.7 years (8.2-58.3) at last follow-up. A comparison group of 5057 siblings of cancer survivors were also included.

Main Outcome Measures: Cumulative incidence and 95% confidence intervals of reported heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias by treatment decade. Events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Multivariable subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios by decade, and mediation analysis examined risks with and without exposure to cardiotoxic treatments.

Results: The 20 year cumulative incidence of heart failure (0.69% for those treated in the 1970s, 0.74% for those treated in the 1980s, 0.54% for those treated in the 1990s) and coronary artery disease (0.38%, 0.24%, 0.19%, respectively), decreased in more recent eras (P<0.01), though not for valvular disease (0.06%, 0.06%, 0.05%), pericardial disease (0.04%, 0.02%, 0.03%), or arrhythmias (0.08%, 0.09%, 0.13%). Compared with survivors with a diagnosis in the 1970s, the risk of heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease decreased in the 1980s and 1990s but only significantly for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.92 and 0.53, 0.36 to 0.77, respectively). The overall risk of coronary artery disease was attenuated by adjustment for cardiac radiation (0.90, 0.78 to 1.05), particularly among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (unadjusted for radiation: 0.77, 0.66 to 0.89; adjusted for radiation: 0.87, 0.69 to 1.10).

Conclusions: Historical reductions in exposure to cardiac radiation have been associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Additional follow-up is needed to investigate risk reductions for other cardiac outcomes.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01120353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l6794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190022PMC
January 2020

Neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in adult survivors of childhood soft-tissue sarcoma: A report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort.

Cancer 2020 04 8;126(7):1576-1584. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined long-term neurocognitive outcomes in survivors of childhood soft-tissue sarcoma.

Methods: A total of 150 survivors (41% of whom were female with a mean current age of 33 years [SD, 8.9 years] and a time since diagnosis of 24 years [SD, 8.7 years]) and 349 community controls (56% of whom were female with a mean current age of 35 years [SD, 10.2 years]) completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing, echocardiography, electrocardiography, pulmonary function tests, endocrine evaluation, and physical examination. Patient-reported outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and social attainment were collected. Survivors were compared with norms and controls on neurocognitive outcomes using general linear models, and on HRQOL and social attainment using modified Poisson models. The impacts of treatment and chronic health conditions on outcomes were examined using multivariable general linear models (effect size was expressed as unstandardized β estimates that reflected the unit of change from a mean of 0 and an SD of 1) and modified Poisson models (effect size expressed as relative risks).

Results: Compared with controls and population norms, survivors demonstrated lower performance on measures of verbal reasoning (mean z score, -0.45 [SD, 1.15]; P < .001) mathematics (mean z score, -0.63 [SD, 1.07]; P < .001), and long-term memory (mean z score, -0.37 [SD, 1.14]; P < .001). Cumulative anthracycline exposure (per 100 mg/m ) was found to be associated with poorer verbal reasoning (β = -0.14 z scores; P = .04), reading (β = -0.09 z score; P = .04), and patient-reported vitality (relative risk, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.59). Neurologic and neurosensory chronic conditions were associated with poorer mathematics (neurologic conditions: β = -0.63 z score [P = 0.02]; and hearing impairment: β = -0.75 z scores [P < 0.01]). Better cognitive performance was associated with higher social attainment.

Conclusions: Long-term survivors of soft-tissue sarcoma are at risk of neurocognitive problems and poor HRQOL associated with anthracycline treatment and chronic health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104616PMC
April 2020

Diabetes mellitus among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Cancer 2020 02 12;126(4):870-878. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Greater than one-half of children who are treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develop ≥1 treatment-related medical conditions in their lifetime, many of which are known risk factors for diabetes mellitus. In the current study, the authors evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among clinically assessed adult survivors of childhood ALL METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective evaluation of data from survivors of ALL and community controls who were enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2016. Participants were adults with ≥10 years of survival of childhood ALL and community controls who completed clinical and laboratory evaluations. Data for the current analysis were abstracted from medical records. Exposures evaluated herein included chemotherapy and radiation exposures and medical history, including drug-induced diabetes mellitus.

Results: Of 1360 eligible adults who were ≥10-year survivors of childhood ALL, a total of 1044 completed the evaluations; these individuals had a mean age of 33.97±9.14 years and 50.86% were male. The 368 controls, 45.65% of whom were male, had a mean age of 35.33±10.21 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was found in approximately 7.47% of survivors and 3.80% of controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.11-3.87). In adjusted models, among survivors, older age (OR, 1.05 for each additional year; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08), body mass index ≥30 kg/m (OR, 7.40; 95% CI, 2.61-20.97), and drug-induced diabetes mellitus occurring during ALL therapy (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.53-8.61) were found to be associated with T2DM.

Conclusions: Adult survivors of childhood ALL are at an increased risk of T2DM. Adult survivors of childhood ALL who are of older age, with an overweight or obese body mass index, and/or who developed drug-induced diabetes mellitus during treatment should be closely monitored for T2DM during long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992468PMC
February 2020

Solid organ transplantation after treatment for childhood cancer: a retrospective cohort analysis from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 10 27;20(10):1420-1431. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Serious chronic medical conditions occur in childhood cancer survivors. We aimed to investigate incidence of and risk factors for end-organ damage resulting in registration on a waiting list for or receiving a solid organ transplantation and 5-year survival following these procedures.

Methods: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a retrospective cohort of individuals who survived at least 5 years after childhood cancer diagnosed at younger than 21 years of age, between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 1986, at one of 25 institutions in the USA. We linked data from CCSS participants treated in the USA diagnosed between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 1986 (without solid organ transplantation before cohort entry) to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network-a database of all US organ transplants. Eligible participants had been diagnosed with leukaemia, lymphoma, malignant CNS tumours, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumours, and bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The two primary endpoints for each type of organ transplant were date of first registration of a transplant candidate on the waiting list for an organ and the date of the first transplant received. We also calculated the cumulative incidence of being placed on a waiting list or receiving a solid organ transplantation, hazard ratios (HRs) for identified risk factors, and 5-year survival following transplantation.

Findings: Of 13 318 eligible survivors, 100 had 103 solid organ transplantations (50 kidney, 37 heart, nine liver, seven lung) and 67 were registered on a waiting list without receiving a transplant (21 kidney, 25 heart, 15 liver, six lung). At 35 years after cancer diagnosis, the cumulative incidence of transplantation or being on a waiting list was 0·54% (95% CI 0·40-0·67) for kidney transplantation, 0·49% (0·36-0·62) for heart, 0·19% (0·10-0·27) for liver, and 0·10% (0·04-0·16) for lung. Risk factors for kidney transplantation were unilateral nephrectomy (HR 4·2, 95% CI 2·3-7·7), ifosfamide (24·9, 7·4-83·5), total body irradiation (6·9, 2·3-21·1), and mean kidney radiation of greater than 15 Gy (>15-20 Gy, 3·6 [1·5-8·5]; >20 Gy 4·6 [1·1-19·6]); for heart transplantation, anthracycline and mean heart radiation of greater than 20 Gy (dose-dependent, both p<0·0001); for liver transplantation, dactinomycin (3·8, 1·3-11·3) and methotrexate (3·3, 1·0-10·2); for lung transplantation, carmustine (12·3, 3·1-48·9) and mean lung radiation of greater than 10 Gy (15·6, 2·6-92·7). 5-year overall survival after solid organ transplantation was 93·5% (95% CI 81·0-97·9) for kidney transplantation, 80·6% (63·6-90·3) for heart, 27·8% (4·4-59·1) for liver, and 34·3% (4·8-68·6) for lung.

Interpretation: Solid organ transplantation is uncommon in ageing childhood cancer survivors. Organ-specific exposures were associated with increased solid organ transplantation incidence. Survival outcomes showed that solid organ transplantation should be considered for 5-year childhood cancer survivors with severe end-organ failure.

Funding: US National Institute of Health, American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities, US Health Resources and Services Administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30418-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6871649PMC
October 2019

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Cranial Radiation Therapy Identifies 5p15.33 Locus for Stroke: A Report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 11 28;25(22):6700-6708. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Purpose: To identify genetic factors associated with risk of stroke among survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial radiotherapy (CRT).

Experimental Design: We analyzed whole-genome sequencing (36.8-fold) data of 686 childhood cancer survivors of European ancestry [median (range), 40.4 (12.4-64.7) years old; 54% male] from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort study treated with CRT, of whom 116 (17%) had clinically diagnosed stroke. Association analyses (single-variant and Burden/SKAT tests) were performed, adjusting for demographic characteristics and childhood cancer treatment exposures.

Results: We identified a genome-wide significant association between 5p15.33 locus and stroke [rs112896372: HR = 2.55; = 1.42 × 10], with a stronger association (HR = 3.68) among survivors treated with CRT dose 25-50 Gray (Gy) and weaker associations among those treated with CRT doses <20 or 20-25 or >50 Gy (HRs = 2.14, 2.40, and 2.28). The association was replicated in 90 CRT-exposed African survivors (HR = 3.05; = 0.034). In CRT-exposed Europeans, rs112896372 significantly ( < 0.001) improved predictive ability (AUC = 0.717) for determining stroke risk than nongenetic factors alone (AUC = 0.663) at 30 years since diagnosis, with significant improvement among African survivors ( = 0.047). SNP rs112896372 was further evaluated in three independent datasets including 1,641 European (HR = 1.54; = 0.055) and 316 African survivors (HR = 1.88; = 0.283) not treated with CRT, and 166,988 males in the UK Biobank (OR = 1.0012; = 0.042).

Conclusions: A novel locus 5p15.33 is associated with stroke risk among childhood cancer survivors, with a possible CRT dose-specific effect. The locus is of potential clinical utility in characterizing individuals who may benefit from surveillance and intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858960PMC
November 2019

Neuroanatomical abnormalities related to dexamethasone exposure in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 03 12;67(3):e27968. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Departments of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only are at risk for neurocognitive impairment. Regions of interest were identified a priori based on glucocorticoid receptor distribution, and sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models were used to test associations between brain MRI morphology and total number of intrathecal injections, and serum concentration of dexamethasone and methotrexate. Compared with controls, ALL survivors have persistently smaller volumes in the bilateral cerebellum (P < 0.005), hippocampal subregions (P < 0.03), temporal lobe regions (P < 0.03), frontal lobe regions (P < 0.04), and parietal lobe regions (precuneus; P < 0.002). Long-term problems with learning may be related to residual posttreatment brain differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980878PMC
March 2020

Late Health Outcomes After Contemporary Lymphome Malin de Burkitt Therapy for Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 10 8;37(28):2556-2570. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: The widely used, risk-based Lymphome Malin de Burkitt (LMB) chemotherapy regimen has improved survival rates for children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, associated late effects remain understudied. We assessed late health outcomes after LMB treatment in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Patients And Methods: Multivariable regression models compared chronic health conditions, health status, and socioeconomic and neurocognitive outcomes between survivors of NHL treated with the LMB regimen (n = 126), survivors of NHL treated with non-LMB regimens (n = 444), and siblings (n = 1,029).

Results: LMB survivors were a median age of 10.2 years (range, 2.5 to 20.5 years) at diagnosis and 24.0 years (range, 10.3 to 35.3 years) at evaluation. Compared with siblings, LMB survivors were at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. However, survivors of NHL treated with LMB and non-LMB regimens did not differ with regard to risk of having any chronic health conditions, impaired health status, neurocognitive deficits, or poorer socioeconomic outcomes. Increased risk for the following specific neurologic conditions was observed in LMB survivors compared with non-LMB survivors: epilepsy (relative risk [RR], 15.2; 95% CI, 3.1 to 73.4); balance problems (RR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.8); tremors (RR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 29.9); weakness in legs (RR, 8.1; 95% CI, 2.5 to 26.4); severe headaches (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.3); and prolonged arm, leg, or back pain (RR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.2 to 7.1). The survivors from the group C LMB risk group (n = 50) were at the highest risk for these conditions; however, except for worse functional status (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.8), they were not at increased risk for other adverse health status or socioeconomic outcomes compared with non-LMB survivors.

Conclusion: Survivors treated with LMB and non-LMB regimens are largely comparable in late health outcomes except for excess neurotoxicity among LMB survivors. These data inform treatment efforts seeking to optimize disease control while minimizing toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001792PMC
October 2019

Neurocognitive outcomes in long-term survivors of Wilms tumor: a report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort.

J Cancer Surviv 2019 Aug 26;13(4):570-579. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, MS 735, Memphis, TN, 38105-3678, USA.

Purpose: To examine prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive outcomes, social attainment, emotional distress, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in long-term survivors of pediatric Wilms tumor (WT).

Methods: One hundred fifty-eight WT survivors (59% female; mean [SD] age 33 [9.1] years; time since diagnosis 29 [9.1] years) and 354 community controls (55.6% female; 35 [10.2] years) completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing and physical examination, including echocardiography/electrocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and endocrine evaluation. Self-report of emotional distress, HRQOL, and social attainment were collected. Impairment was defined in relation to both controls and normative data. Generalized linear models were developed to examine impact of treatment and chronic health conditions on outcomes.

Results: WT survivors performed poorer than norms and controls in 6 of 16 cognitive variables and 1 of 8 HRQOL variables, with scores ranging from - 0.64 (mathematics) to - 0.21 (verbal fluency) standard deviations below expectations. Compared to controls, WT survivors were less likely to graduate college (odds ratio 2.23, 95% confidence interval 1.46-3.41) and had more moderate to severe neurologic conditions (18.4% vs 8.2%, p < 0.001), which were associated with poor memory (β = - 0.90, p < 0.001), attention (β = - 1.02, p < 0.001), and HRQOL general health (β = - 0.80, p = 0.0015). Treatment variables and cardiopulmonary morbidity (higher in survivors) were not associated with outcomes.

Conclusions: Survivors of WT demonstrate impairment in neurocognitive function and have lower social attainment during adulthood, with poorer neurocognitive function associated with neurologic morbidity.

Implications For Cancer Survivors: Survivors of WT should be offered neurocognitive evaluations and rehabilitation. Neurologic conditions should be routinely assessed, and appropriate support offered to reduce risk for functional limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-019-00776-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679797PMC
August 2019

Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Individual Prediction of Cardiovascular Events in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 03;112(3):256-265

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. They may benefit from prediction models that account for cardiotoxic cancer treatment exposures combined with information on traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes.

Methods: Childhood Cancer Survivor Study participants (n = 22 643) were followed through age 50 years for incident heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. Siblings (n = 5056) served as a comparator. Participants were assessed longitudinally for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes based on self-reported prescription medication use. Half the cohort was used for discovery; the remainder for replication. Models for each outcome were created for survivors ages 20, 25, 30, and 35 years at the time of prediction (n = 12 models).

Results: For discovery, risk scores based on demographic, cancer treatment, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes information achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and concordance statistics 0.70 or greater in 9 and 10 of the 12 models, respectively. For replication, achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and concordance statistics 0.70 or greater were observed in 7 and 9 of the models, respectively. Across outcomes, the most influential exposures were anthracycline chemotherapy, radiotherapy, diabetes, and hypertension. Survivors were then assigned to statistically distinct risk groups corresponding to cumulative incidences at age 50 years of each target outcome of less than 3% (moderate-risk) or approximately 10% or greater (high-risk). Cumulative incidence of all outcomes was 1% or less among siblings.

Conclusions: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors remain important for predicting risk of cardiovascular disease among adult-age survivors of childhood cancer. These prediction models provide a framework on which to base future surveillance strategies and interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073918PMC
March 2020

The changing burden of long-term health outcomes in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a retrospective analysis of the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Jun 8;6(6):e306-e316. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA; Department of Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA; Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has evolved over the past five decades, with moderation of traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and the introduction of targeted immune-based and cellular-based therapies. The affect of these changes on late health outcomes has not been assessed. Using data from the The St Jude Lifetime (SJLIFE) Cohort, we aimed to characterise the magnitude of morbidity and patterns of late health outcomes among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated over time.

Methods: The St Jude Lifetime (SJLIFE) Cohort is a retrospective cohort study with prospective follow-up and ongoing data accrual designed to facilitate longitudinal, clinically-based assessment of health outcomes among survivors of paediatric malignancies. 980 survivors included in this analysis were diagnosed with paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) between Aug 28, 1963, and July 19, 2003, were aged 18 years old and older at enrolment, had a minimum follow-up of 10 years after diagnosis, and completed an initial on-campus SJLIFE assessment as of data cutoff (June 30, 2015). 272 community control participants, matched to survivors on 5-year age blocks in each sex, were recruited for comparison. Cumulative chemotherapy and radiation dose exposures and major medical events during and after therapy were retrieved from the medical records of the survivors. History or physical examination, laboratory analysis, physical fitness, and neurocognitive testing were done. Health conditions were graded according to a modified version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Neurocognitive domains of attention (Trial Making Test Part A and Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II) and executive function (Trail Making Test Part B, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Digit Span Test Backward) were measured and age-adjusted Z scores were calculated. Mean cumulative count was used to calculate the age-standardised cumulative burden of health conditions over time. This cohort study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00760656.

Findings: 980 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (50% women, median age at diagnosis 5 years [IQR 3·1-9·1 years], and median time from diagnosis of 30·0 years [22·7-36·3]) had a median age of 35·8 years (29·4-42·9) at assessment compared with 35·1 years (28·7-42·6) for 272 controls. Survivors had significantly more growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, and neuropathy than controls. By age 30 years, survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had, on average, 5·4 (95% CI 5·1-5·8) grade 1-4 health conditions, including 3·2 (2·9-3·4) grade 2-4 health conditions, compared with 2·0 (CI 1·7-2·2) grade 1-4 and 1·2 (1·03-1·4) grade 2-4 health conditions among controls. The cumulative burden of grade 2-4 health conditions involved multiple organ systems for survivors treated on protocols between 1962-91, but after elimination of cranial radiotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, conditions now predominately include musculoskeletal and endocrine disorders for survivors on protocols between 1991-2007.

Interpretation: Although changes in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment protocols have improved overall survival, the burden of late morbidity remains high for these patients. We show that the pattern of late toxic effects has markedly changed over time, with survivors having a reduction in health conditions that are immediately life-threatening, however, maintaining health status and quality of life for survivors of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia requires continued medical surveillance, counselling, and lifestyle modifications.

Funding: US National Cancer Institute and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30050-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756152PMC
June 2019

Subsequent Breast Cancer in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors in the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE).

J Clin Oncol 2019 07 10;37(19):1647-1656. Epub 2019 May 10.

1 St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Anthracycline-associated risk for subsequent breast cancer in childhood cancer survivors is hypothesized to be mediated by mutation-related gene-environment interactions. We characterized treatment/genetic risks and the impact of screening for breast cancer in the St Jude Lifetime Cohort.

Patients And Methods: Female participants underwent risk-based assessments, prior health event validation, chest radiation dosimetry, and whole genome sequencing. Breast biopsy reports were reviewed. A subgroup (n = 139) underwent both breast magnetic resonance imaging and mammography. Multivariable regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.

Results: Among 1,467 women, 56 developed 68 breast cancers at a median age 38.6 (range, 24.5 to 53.0) years. Cumulative incidences at age 35 years were 1% (no chest radiation) and 8% (≥ 10 Gy of chest radiation). In adjusted models, breast cancer was associated with 20 Gy or more of chest radiation versus none (HR, 7.6; 95% CI, 2.9 to 20.4), anthracycline exposure versus none (1 to 249 mg/m: HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2; ≥ 250 mg/m: HR, 13.4, 95% CI, 5.5 to 32.5), and having a breast cancer predisposition gene mutation (HR, 23.0; 95% CI, 7.3 to 72.2). Anthracyclines 250 mg/m or greater remained significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in models excluding survivors with cancer predisposition gene mutations, chest radiation 10 Gy or greater, or both. Sensitivity/specificity were 53.8%/96.3% for mammography, 69.2%/91.4% for magnetic resonance imaging, and 85.8%/99.7% for dual imaging. Breast cancers detected by imaging and/or prophylactic mastectomy compared with physical findings were more likely to be in situ carcinomas, smaller, without lymph node involvement, and treated without chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Higher doses of anthracyclines are associated with increased risk of breast cancer independent of mutations in known cancer predisposition genes. Surveillance imaging identifies breast cancers less likely to require chemotherapy than those detected by physical findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804891PMC
July 2019

Therapy-Related Cardiac Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors: An Analysis of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 05 12;37(13):1090-1101. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

5 University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Purpose: The impacts of radiotherapy dose and exposed cardiac volume, select chemotherapeutic agents, and age at exposure on risk for late-onset cardiac disease in survivors of childhood cancer remain unresolved.

Patients And Methods: We determined the rates of severe to fatal cardiac disease in 24,214 5-year survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study diagnosed between 1970 and 1999 at a median age of 7.0 years (range, 0 to 20.9 years), with a median attained age of 27.5 years (range, 5.6 to 58.9 years). Using piecewise exponential models, we evaluated the association between cardiac disease rates and demographic and treatment characteristics.

Results: The cumulative incidence of cardiac disease 30 years from diagnosis was 4.8% (95% CI, 4.3 to 5.2). Low to moderate radiotherapy doses (5.0 to 19.9 Gy) to large cardiac volumes (≥ 50% of heart) were associated with an increased rate of cardiac disease (relative rate, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.3) compared with survivors without cardiac radiotherapy exposure. Similarly, high doses (≥ 20 Gy) to small cardiac volumes (0.1% to 29.9%) were associated with an elevated rate (relative rate, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2). A dose-response relationship was observed between anthracycline chemotherapy and heart failure with younger children (age ≤ 13 years) at the greatest risk for heart failure after comparable dosing.

Conclusion: These observations support advances in radiation field design and delivery technology to reduce cardiac dose/volume and should guide future treatment protocols. They also inform clinical practice guidelines for post-therapy surveillance and risk-reducing strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494356PMC
May 2019

Sleep, emotional distress, and physical health in survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Psychooncology 2019 04 14;28(4):903-912. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychology and Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Objective: Sleep disorders are associated with psychological and physical health, although reports in long-term survivors of childhood cancer are limited. We characterized the prevalence and risk factors for behaviors consistent with sleep disorders in survivors and examined longitudinal associations with emotional distress and physical health outcomes.

Methods: Survivors (n = 1933; median [IQR] age = 35 [30, 41]) and siblings (n = 380; age = 33 [27, 40]) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed measures of sleep quality, fatigue, and sleepiness. Emotional distress and physical health outcomes were assessed approximately 5 years before and after the sleep survey. Multivariable logistic or modified Poisson regression models examined associations with cancer diagnosis, treatment exposures, and emotional and physical health outcomes.

Results: Survivors were more likely to report poor sleep efficiency (30.8% vs 24.7%; prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53), daytime sleepiness (18.7% vs 14.2%; PR = 1.31 [1.01-1.71]), and sleep supplement use (13.5% vs 8.3%; PR = 1.56 [1.09-2.22]) than siblings. Survivors who developed emotional distress were more likely to report poor sleep efficiency (PR = 1.70 [1.40-2.07]), restricted sleep time (PR = 1.35 [1.12-1.62]), fatigue (PR = 2.11 [1.92-2.32]), daytime sleepiness (PR = 2.19 [1.71-2.82]), snoring (PR = 1.85 [1.08-3.16]), and more sleep medication (PR = 2.86 [2.00-4.09]) and supplement use (PR = 1.89[1.33-2.69]). Survivors reporting symptoms of insomnia (PR = 1.46 [1.02-2.08]), fatigue (PR = 1.31 [1.01-1.72]), and using sleep medications (PR = 2.16 [1.13-4.12]) were more likely to develop migraines/headaches.

Conclusions: Survivors report more sleep difficulties and efforts to manage sleep than siblings. These sleep behaviors are related to worsening or persistently elevated emotional distress and may result in increased risk for migraines. Behavioral interventions targeting sleep may be important for improving health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506232PMC
April 2019