Publications by authors named "Daniel A Kietz"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

T Cell Receptor-Independent, CD31/IL-17A-Driven Inflammatory Axis Shapes Synovitis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2018 6;9:1802. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

T cells are considered autoimmune effectors in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but the antigenic cause of arthritis remains elusive. Since T cells comprise a significant proportion of joint-infiltrating cells, we examined whether the environment in the joint could be shaped through the inflammatory activation by T cells that is independent of conventional TCR signaling. We focused on the analysis of synovial fluid (SF) collected from children with oligoarticular and rheumatoid factor-negative polyarticular JIA. Cytokine profiling of SF showed dominance of five molecules including IL-17A. Cytometric analysis of the same SF samples showed enrichment of αβT cells that lacked both CD4 and CD8 co-receptors [herein called double negative (DN) T cells] and also lacked the CD28 costimulatory receptor. However, these synovial αβT cells expressed high levels of CD31, an adhesion molecule that is normally employed by granulocytes when they transit to sites of injury. In receptor crosslinking assays, ligation of CD31 alone on synovial CD28CD31 DN αβT cells effectively and sufficiently induced phosphorylation of signaling substrates and increased intracytoplasmic stores of cytokines including IL-17A. CD31 ligation was also sufficient to induce RORγT expression and -activation of the promoter. In addition to T cells, SF contained fibrocyte-like cells (FLC) expressing IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and CD38, a known ligand for CD31. Stimulation of FLC with IL-17A led to CD38 upregulation, and to production of cytokines and tissue-destructive molecules. Addition of an oxidoreductase analog to the bioassays suppressed the CD31-driven IL-17A production by T cells. It also suppressed the downstream IL-17A-mediated production of effectors by FLC. The levels of suppression of FLC effector activities by the oxidoreductase analog were comparable to those seen with corticosteroid and/or biologic inhibitors to IL-6 and TNFα. Collectively, our data suggest that activation of a CD31-driven, αβTCR-independent, IL-17A-mediated T cell-FLC inflammatory circuit drives and/or perpetuates synovitis. With the notable finding that the oxidoreductase mimic suppresses the effector activities of synovial CD31CD28 αβT cells and IL-17RACD38 FLC, this small molecule could be used to probe further the intricacies of this inflammatory circuit. Such bioactivities of this small molecule also provide rationale for new translational avenue(s) to potentially modulate JIA synovitis.
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October 2019

Bilateral absence of the cruciate ligaments with meniscal dysplasia: Unexpected diagnosis in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Clin Imaging 2018 May - Jun;49:193-197. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Bilateral agenesis of the cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a unique case of a young girl who had congenital short femur and diagnosed with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and later discovered to have congenital absence of both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and meniscal dysplasia in both the knees when MRI was performed at 11 years of age. The MRI was performed to evaluate knee laxity and persistent symptoms despite medical management and multiple steroid injections for arthritis treatment. This patient is one of the youngest with congenital absence of both the cruciate ligaments to be treated with ACL reconstruction. We highlight the unique radiographic imaging manifestations of congenital cruciate ligament agenesis and emphasize the role of MRI to confirm and depict additional intraarticular abnormalities.
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September 2018

Premature cell senescence and T cell receptor-independent activation of CD8+ T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Arthritis Rheum 2013 Aug;65(8):2201-10

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA.

Objective: CD8+ T cells lacking CD28 were originally reported to be a characteristic feature of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but the relevance of these unusual cells to this disease remains to be elucidated. Because of recent evidence that loss of CD28 cells is typical of terminally differentiated lymphocytes, the aim of this study was to examine functional subsets of CD8+ T cells in patients with JIA.

Methods: Blood and/or waste synovial fluid samples were collected from children with a definite diagnosis of JIA (n = 98). Deidentified peripheral blood (n = 33) and cord blood (n = 13) samples from healthy donors were also collected. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were screened for novel receptors, and where indicated, bioassays were performed to determine the functional relevance of the identified receptor.

Results: JIA patients had a naive T cell compartment with shortened telomeres, and their entire T cell pool had reduced proliferative capacity. They had an overabundance of CD31+CD28(null) CD8+ T cells, which was a significant feature of oligoarticular JIA (n = 62) as compared to polyarticular JIA (n = 36). CD31+ CD28(null) CD8+ T cells had limited mitotic capacity and expressed high levels of the senescence antigens histone γH2AX and/or p16. Ligation of CD31, which was independent of the T cell receptor (TCR), sufficiently induced tyrosine phosphorylation, vesicle exocytosis, and production of interferon-γ and interleukin-10.

Conclusion: These data provide the first evidence of cell senescence, as represented by CD31+CD28(null) CD8+ T cells, in the pathophysiology of JIA. Activation of these unusual cells in a TCR-independent manner suggests that they are maladaptive and could be potential targets for immunotherapy.
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August 2013

The localized scleroderma skin severity index and physician global assessment of disease activity: a work in progress toward development of localized scleroderma outcome measures.

J Rheumatol 2009 Dec 15;36(12):2819-29. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To develop and evaluate a Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Severity Index (LoSSI) and global assessments' clinimetric property and effect on quality of life (QOL).

Methods: A 3-phase study was conducted. The first phase involved 15 patients with LS and 14 examiners who assessed LoSSI [surface area (SA), erythema (ER), skin thickness (ST), and new lesion/extension (N/E)] twice for inter/intrarater reliability. Patient global assessment of disease severity (PtGA-S) and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were collected for intrarater reliability evaluation. The second phase was aimed to develop clinical determinants for physician global assessment of disease activity (PhysGA-A) and to assess its content validity. The third phase involved 2 examiners assessing LoSSI and PhysGA-A on 27 patients. Effect of training on improving reliability/validity and sensitivity to change of the LoSSI and PhysGA-A was determined.

Results: Interrater reliability was excellent for ER [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.71], ST (ICC 0.70), LoSSI (ICC 0.80), and PhysGA-A (ICC 0.90) but poor for SA (ICC 0.35); thus, LoSSI was modified to mLoSSI. Examiners' experience did not affect the scores, but training/practice improved reliability. Intrarater reliability was excellent for ER, ST, and LoSSI (Spearman's rho = 0.71-0.89) and moderate for SA. PtGA-S and CDLQI showed good intrarater agreement (ICC 0.63 and 0.80). mLoSSI correlated moderately with PhysGA-A and PtGA-S. Both mLoSSI and PhysGA-A were sensitive to change following therapy.

Conclusion: mLoSSI and PhysGA-A are reliable and valid tools for assessing LS disease severity and show high sensitivity to detect change over time. These tools are feasible for use in routine clinical practice. They should be considered for inclusion in a core set of LS outcome measures for clinical trials.
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December 2009

Determination of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in the sera of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

J Rheumatol 2004 Sep;31(9):1829-33

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies have been found in sera of 76% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mainly in rheumatoid factor (RF) positive patients, with a specificity of 96%. We evaluated the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and assessed the possibility of synthetic citrullinated peptides as antigenic determinants in JIA.

Methods: The presence of anti-CCP antibodies was determined using 3 synthetic citrullinated peptide variants and 2 commercial kits (Inova Diagnostics and Axis-Shield Diagnostics) optimized for detecting JIA-specific antibodies in serum by an ELISA based assay. We evaluated 66 patients with JIA (16 RF positive polyarthritis, 18 RF negative polyarthritis, 19 oligoarthritis, and 13 systemic arthritis). We also tested 9 adult RA patients, 34 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 25 healthy persons as controls.

Results: Significant concentrations of anti-CCP antibodies were detected in the majority of RF positive JIA patients with polyarthritis. Using the 2 synthetic linear peptides, 12/16 (75%) were positive; 9/12 (75%) were positive with the Inova kit and 9/10 (90%) were positive with the Axis-Shield kit. However, utilizing the synthetic linear peptides, significant concentrations of anti-CCP antibodies were detected in 51/66 (77%) JIA patients, including 15/18 (83%) RF negative polyarthritis, 16/19 (84%) oligoarthritis, and 8/13 (62%) systemic arthritis patients. No healthy control showed elevated antibody levels. In contrast, 4/9 (44%) patients with adult RA and 2/6 (33%) with SLE had elevated anti-CCP levels. The synthetic cyclic variant cfc-1-cyc yielded significant anti-CCP levels for 13/14 (93%) patients with RF negative polyarthritis, 6/10 (60%) with oligoarthritis, and 3/7 (43%) with systemic arthritis, and 8/9 (88%) RF positive patients. No healthy control had increased anti-CCP levels. However, 4/9 (44%) adult RA and 9/34 (26%) SLE patients were found to have elevated anti-CCP levels. Using the Inova and Axis-Shield kits, much smaller percentages were found in the RF negative patients, with only 4/16 (25%) in the oligoarthritis and RF negative polyarthritis patients with the Inova kits and 0/25 (0%) by the Axis-Shield kits. The Inova kit revealed elevated anti-CCP antibodies in 5/9 (56%) adult RA patients and in 8/34 (24%) SLE patients. No healthy control had elevated anti-CCP antibodies. However, the Axis-Shield kits did not detect anti-CCP antibodies in adult RA (0/9) or SLE (0/34) patients. Moreover, 0/25 (0%) healthy individuals exhibited anti-CCP levels. The presence of anti-CCP antibodies correlated more frequently with the presence of RF.

Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in patients with JIA, especially those with RF positive polyarthritis, by all ELISA based methods. Use of synthetic peptides also revealed anti-CCP antibodies in a percentage of RF negative patients with polyarthritis, oligoarthritis, and systemic arthritis; there was a loss in specificity, but an increase in sensitivity. These results suggest that antibodies to these antigenic peptides may be markers for JIA, and indicate a possible role of citrulline-containing epitopes in the pathogenesis of JIA.
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September 2004