Publications by authors named "Dandan Yang"

170 Publications

What Type of Consumption Induces or Alleviates Consumer Psychological Distress? Evidence From the COVID-19 Pandemic in China.

Front Psychol 2021 13;12:619303. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Business School, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China.

Even though the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has limited consumption, individuals continue to plan post-pandemic consumption activities to get rid of the stress caused by consumption repression. Building on Maslow's theory of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory, our research categorizes consumption into fundamental ("must-have" products that fulfill the physical needs of individuals), hygiene (maintaining the security needs of consumers), and motivational consumption (enhancing well-being of individuals). Based on empirical data of purchase behavior and consumption expectation before, during, and after the pandemic in China, we identify how consumption repression induces psychological distress, a sense of feeling threatened, lacking control, or lacking freedom, and how the expectation of future consumption alleviates that stress. Results show that fundamental consumption leads to psychological distress; hygiene consumption can both result in and reduce stress; and motivational consumption can reduce stress. Our findings provide new insights into the relationship between consumption and psychological distress through new theoretical formulations. The results can be applied by marketers attempting to understand purchase decision-making and by policymakers supporting both citizens and commerce during social emergencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.619303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415168PMC
August 2021

Decline in the integration of top-down and bottom-up attentional control in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Aug 31:108014. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Center for Brain Disorders and Cognitive Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China; Center for Neuroimaging, Shenzhen Institute of Neuroscience, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have deficits in goal-directed top-down and stimulus-driven bottom-up attentional control. However, it remains unclear whether and how the interaction between the two processes is altered in individuals with MCI. We collected electroencephalography (EEG) data from 30 older adults with MCI and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) when they were performing a perceptual decision-making task, in which we manipulated the cognitive load involved in task-relevant top-down processing and the surprise level involved in task-irrelevant bottom-up processing. We found the significant group difference in the interaction between top-down and bottom-up processes. HCs showed enlarged P3 and strengthened event-related microstate C on high (vs. low) surprise level trials under high cognitive load, while there was no such surprise effect suggesting distraction under low cognitive load. In contrast, participants with MCI showed increased P2 and P3 amplitudes and strengthened microstates C and D on high (vs. low) surprise level trials under low cognitive load yet no surprise effect under high load. These results suggested that participants with MCI were distracted by task-irrelevant information under low cognitive load, while under high load, they might experience a passive inhibition on the task-irrelevant bottom-up processing because of the exhaustion of attentional resources; in addition, this altered interaction observed in the MCI group occurred at the stages of selective attention and uncertainty reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.108014DOI Listing
August 2021

Microbes: A potential tool for selenium biofortification.

Metallomics 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University / Hubei Provincial, Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer / Research Center of Trace Elements / Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Wuhan 430070, China.

Selenium (Se) is a component of many enzymes and indispensable for human health due to its characteristics of reducing oxidative stress and enhancing immunity. Human beings take Se mainly from Se-containing crops. Taking measures to biofortify crops with Se may lead to improved public health. Se accumulation in plants mainly depends on the content and bioavailability of Se in soil. Beneficial microbes may change the chemical form and bioavailability of Se. This review highlights the potential role of microbes in promoting Se uptake and accumulation in crops and the related mechanisms. The potential approaches of microbial enhancement of Se biofortification can be summarized in the following four aspects: (1) microbes alter soil properties and impact the redox chemistry of Se to improve the bioavailability of Se in soil; (2) beneficial microbes regulate root morphology and stimulate the development of plants through the release of certain secretions, facilitating Se uptake in plants; (3) microbes upregulate the expression of certain genes and proteins that are related to Se metabolism in plants; (4) the inoculation of microbes give rise to the generation of certain metabolites in plants contributing to Se absorption. Considering the ecological safety and economic feasibility, microbial enhancement is a potential tool for Se biofortification. For further study, the recombination and establishment of synthesis microbes is of potential benefit in Se-enrichment agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mtomcs/mfab054DOI Listing
September 2021

Micro Expression Recognition via Dual-Stream Spatiotemporal Attention Network.

J Healthc Eng 2021 17;2021:7799100. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

College of Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.

Microexpression can manifest the real mood of humans, which has been widely concerned in clinical diagnosis and depression analysis. To solve the problem of missing discriminative spatiotemporal features in a small data set caused by the short duration and subtle movement changes of microexpression, we present a dual-stream spatiotemporal attention network (DSTAN) that integrates dual-stream spatiotemporal network and attention mechanism to capture the deformation features and spatiotemporal features of microexpression in the case of small samples. The Spatiotemporal networks in DSTAN are based on two lightweight networks, namely, the spatiotemporal appearance network (STAN) learning the appearance features from the microexpression sequences and the spatiotemporal motion network (STMN) learning the motion features from optical flow sequences. To focus on the discriminative motion areas of microexpression, we construct a novel attention mechanism for the spatial model of STAN and STMN, including a multiscale kernel spatial attention mechanism and global dual-pool channel attention mechanism. To obtain the importance of each frame in the microexpression sequence, we design a temporal attention mechanism for the temporal model of STAN and STMN to form spatiotemporal appearance network-attention (STAN-A) and spatiotemporal motion network-attention (STMN-A), which can adaptively perform dynamic feature refinement. Finally, the feature concatenate-SVM method is used to integrate STAN-A and STMN-A to a novel network, DSTAN. The extensive experiments on three small spontaneous microexpression data sets of SMIC, CASME, and CASME II demonstrate the proposed DSTAN can effectively cope with the recognition of microexpressions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7799100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387165PMC
August 2021

Adenoviral Transduction of Dickkopf-1 Alleviates Silica-induced Silicosis Development in Lungs of Mice.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

The University of Iowa, 4083, The Center for Gene Therapy of Cystic Fibrosis and Other Genetic Diseases, Iowa City, Iowa, United States.

Silicosis is an occupational disease caused by inhalation of silica dust, which is hallmarked by progressive pulmonary fibrosis associated with poor prognosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in the development of fibrosis and is a therapeutic target for fibrotic diseases. Previous clinical studies of patients with pneumoconioses including silicosis revealed an increased concentration of circulating WNT3A and DKK1 proteins and inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to healthy subjects. The present study evaluated the effects of adenovirus-mediated transduction of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, on the development of pulmonary silicosis in mice. Consistent with previous human clinical studies, our experimental studies in mice demonstrated an aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity coinciding with increased Wnt3a and Dkk1 proteins and inflammation in lungs of silica-induced silicosis mice compared to controls. Intratracheal delivery of adenovirus expressing murine Dkk1 (AdDkk1) inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activity in mouse lungs. The Adenovirus-mediated Dkk1 gene transduction demonstrated potentials to prevent silicosis development and ameliorate silica-induced lung fibrogenesis in mice, companied with the reduced expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins compared to mice treated with "null" adenoviral vector. Mechanistically, AdDkk1 is able to attenuate the lung silicosis by inhibiting a silica-induced spike in TGF-β/Smad signaling. Additionally, the forced expression of Dkk1 suppressed silica-induced epithelial cell proliferation in polarized human bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides insight into the underlying role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in promoting the pathogenesis of silicosis and is proof-of-concept that targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Dkk1 gene transduction may be an alternative approach in prevention and treatment of silicosis lung disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2021.008DOI Listing
August 2021

Textile Dye Biodecolorization by Manganese Peroxidase: A Review.

Molecules 2021 Jul 21;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Environmental Remediation, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China.

Wastewater emissions from textile factories cause serious environmental problems. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is an oxidoreductase with ligninolytic activity and is a promising biocatalyst for the biodegradation of hazardous environmental contaminants, and especially for dye wastewater decolorization. This article first summarizes the origin, crystal structure, and catalytic cycle of MnP, and then reviews the recent literature on its application to dye wastewater decolorization. In addition, the application of new technologies such as enzyme immobilization and genetic engineering that could improve the stability, durability, adaptability, and operating costs of the enzyme are highlighted. Finally, we discuss and propose future strategies to improve the performance of MnP-assisted dye decolorization in industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348190PMC
July 2021

Hollow Hydrangea-Like CoRu/Co Architecture as an Excellent Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, 610068, P. R. China.

Developing low-cost but efficient electrocatalysts to promote the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution from water splitting is essential for hydrogen production. In this study, a hierarchical hollow hydrangea-like CoRu/Co superstructure is constructed through a self-templating method by morphology-controlled pyrolysis of flower-like Ru-doped Co-based layered double hydroxides (LDH). The anchoring of Ru into Co-LDH is the key to the formation of well-defined hydrangea-like three-dimensional superstructure composed of CoRu/Co. The optimized CoRu/Co-M-350 with a low Ru loading of 3.0 wt% exhibits excellent catalytic performances in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with low overpotential (η =192 mV) and excellent stability for 100 h at 100 mA cm in alkaline media, outperforming the benchmark RuO and most reported electrocatalysts. The superior morphology and structural features of CoRu/Co-M-350 provide not only abundant accessible surface sites but also fast mass and electron transfer, thereby promoting OER catalysis. The present study provides a new synthetic route for preparing highly active OER electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101316DOI Listing
July 2021

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Myocarditis From 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 2;8:692990. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

The global trends in myocarditis burden over the past two decades remain poorly understood and might be increasing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic. This study aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for myocarditis globally from 1990 to 2017. Data regarding the incidence, mortality, DALY, and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) between 1990 and 2017 for myocarditis worldwide were collected and calculated from the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study. We additionally calculated the myocarditis burden distribution based on the Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) quintile and Human Development Index (HDI). The incidence cases of myocarditis in 2017 was 3,071,000, with a 59.6% increase from 1990, while the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) was slightly decreased. The number of deaths due to myocarditis increased gradually from 27,120 in 1990 to 46,490 in 2017. The middle SDI quintile showed the highest number of myocarditis-related deaths. On the contrary, the global age-standardized death rate (ASDR) decreased with an overall EAPC of -1.4 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) = -1.8 to -1.0]. Similar to ASDR, the global age-standardized DALY rate also declined, with an EAPC of -1.50 (95% UI = -2.30 to -0.8) from 1990 to 2017. However, there was a 12.1% increase in the number of DALYs in the past 28 years; the middle SDI and low-middle SDI quintiles contributed the most to the DALY number in 2017. We also observed significant positive correlations between the EPAC of age-standardized rate and HDI for both death and DALY in 2017. Globally, the ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate of myocarditis decreased slightly from 1990 to 2017. The middle SDI quintile had the highest level of ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate, indicating that targeted control should be developed to reduce the myocarditis burden especially based on the regional socioeconomic status. Our findings also provide a platform for further investigation into the myocarditis burden in the era of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.692990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284556PMC
July 2021

Inhibition of CREB-CBP Signaling Improves Fibroblast Plasticity for Direct Cardiac Reprogramming.

Cells 2021 Jun 22;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Physiology, Cell Biology College of Medicine, Ohio State University, 333 W 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Direct cardiac reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) is a promising approach but remains a challenge in heart regeneration. Efforts have focused on improving the efficiency by understanding fundamental mechanisms. One major challenge is that the plasticity of cultured fibroblast varies batch to batch with unknown mechanisms. Here, we noticed a portion of in vitro cultured fibroblasts have been activated to differentiate into myofibroblasts, marked by the expression of αSMA, even in primary cell cultures. Both forskolin, which increases cAMP levels, and TGFβ inhibitor SB431542 can efficiently suppress myofibroblast differentiation of cultured fibroblasts. However, SB431542 improved but forskolin blocked iCM reprogramming of fibroblasts that were infected with retroviruses of Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT). Moreover, inhibitors of cAMP downstream signaling pathways, PKA or CREB-CBP, significantly improved the efficiency of reprogramming. Consistently, inhibition of p38/MAPK, another upstream regulator of CREB-CBP, also improved reprogramming efficiency. We then investigated if inhibition of these signaling pathways in primary cultured fibroblasts could improve their plasticity for reprogramming and found that preconditioning of cultured fibroblasts with CREB-CBP inhibitor significantly improved the cellular plasticity of fibroblasts to be reprogrammed, yielding ~2-fold more iCMs than untreated control cells. In conclusion, suppression of CREB-CBP signaling improves fibroblast plasticity for direct cardiac reprogramming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10071572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307124PMC
June 2021

Mn induced significant improvement and robust stability of radioluminescence in CsCuI for high-performance nuclear battery.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 23;12(1):3879. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Advanced Display Material and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Fluorescent type nuclear battery consisting of scintillator and photovoltaic device enables semipermanent power source for devices working under harsh circumstances without instant energy supply. In spite of the progress of device structure design, the development of scintillators is far behind. Here, a CsCuI: Mn scintillator showing a high light yield of ~67000 ph MeV at 564 nm is presented. Doping and intrinsic features endow CsCuI: Mn with robust thermal stability and irradiation hardness that 71% or >95% of the initial radioluminescence intensity can be maintained in an ultra-broad temperature range of 77 K-433 K or after a total irradiation dose of 2590 Gy, respectively. These superiorities allow the fabrication of efficient and stable nuclear batteries, which show an output improvement of 237% respect to the photovoltaic device without scintillator. Luminescence mechanisms including self-trapped exciton, energy transfer, and impact excitation are proposed for the anomalous dramatic radioluminescence improvement. This work will open a window for the fields of nuclear battery and radiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24185-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222237PMC
June 2021

RNA N6-Methyladenosine Responds to Low-Temperature Stress in Tomato Anthers.

Front Plant Sci 2021 4;12:687826. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Cold stress is a serious threat to subtropical crop pollen development and induces yield decline. N6-methyladenosine (mA) is the most frequent mRNA modification and plays multiple physiological functions in plant development. However, whether mA regulates pollen development is unclear, and its putative role in cold stress response remains unknown. Here, we observed that moderate low-temperature (MLT) stress induced pollen abortion in tomato. This phenotype was caused by disruption of tapetum development and pollen exine formation, accompanied by reduced mA levels in tomato anther. Analysis of mA-seq data revealed 1,805 transcripts displayed reduced mA levels and 978 transcripts showed elevated mA levels in MLT-stressed anthers compared with those in anthers under normal temperature. These differentially mA enriched transcripts under MLT stress were mainly related to lipid metabolism, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, and ATP-binding pathways. An ATP-binding transcript, , had significantly upregulated mA modification levels, which was inversely correlated to the dramatically downregulated expression level. These changes correlated with higher abscisic acid (ABA) levels in anthers and disrupted pollen wall formation under low-temperature stress. Our findings characterized mA as a novel layer of complexity in gene expression regulation and established a molecular link between mA methylation and tomato anther development under low-temperature conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.687826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213351PMC
June 2021

Geometrical characteristics associated with atherosclerotic disease in the basilar artery: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jun;11(6):2711-2720

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Background: Vascular geometry may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the geometrical characteristics of basilar artery (BA) and the presence, burden, and distribution of BA plaques using magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging.

Methods: Patients with cerebrovascular symptoms in the posterior circulation were recruited and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The BA's geometrical characteristics, including actual length, straightened length, tortuosity, lateral basilar artery-vertebral artery (VA) angle, lateral mid-BA angle, and BA convexity, were measured. The presence of plaques, stenosis, and plaque burden, including mean and maximal wall thickness, were evaluated. The BA's cross-sectional vessel wall was divided into 4 quadrants: dorsal, ventral, right, and left quadrant. The distribution of BA plaques was analyzed.

Results: Of 344 recruited patients (mean age: 68.1±11.1 years; 200 males), 100 (29.1%) had BA plaques. Patients with BA plaques had higher tortuosity of the BA (13.6±9.0 9.7±7.7, P<0.001) compared to those without BA plaques. Multivariate regression analysis showed that tortuosity of the BA was associated with the presence of BA plaques (OR, 1.641; 95% CI, 1.232 to 2.186; P=0.001) and mean wall thickness (β, 0.045; 95% CI, 0.008 to 0.081; P=0.017). The plaque distribution in the left wall and right wall of BA was more frequent in patients with right (P=0.006) and left (P<0.001) convex BA, respectively.

Conclusions: The BA's geometrical characteristics, particularly tortuosity and convexity, are independently associated with the presence, burden, and distribution of plaques in the BA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-1291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107302PMC
June 2021

Composites of Vanadium (III) Oxide (VO) Incorporating with Amorphous C as Pt-Free Counter Electrodes for Low-Cost and High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

ACS Omega 2021 May 22;6(17):11183-11191. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nanomaterials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, China.

To replace precious Pt-based counter electrodes (CEs) with a low-cost Pt-free catalyst of CEs is still a motivating hotspot to decrease the fabrication cost of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, four different [email protected] composite catalysts were synthesized by pyrolysis of a precursor under N flow at 1100 °C and further served as catalytic materials of CEs for the encapsulation of DSSCs. The precursors of [email protected] composites have been prepared via a sol-gel method using different proportions of VO with soluble starch in a HO solution. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.59, 4.79, 5.15, and 5.06% were obtained from different [email protected] composites, with soluble starch-to-VO mass ratios (S/V) of 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1, respectively, as CEs to reduce iodide/triiodide in DSSCs. The improvement of electrode performance is due to the combined effects on the increased specific surface area and the enhanced conductivity of [email protected] composite catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153909PMC
May 2021

Strong electrostatic adsorption-engaged fabrication of sub-3.0 nm PtRu alloy nanoparticles as synergistic electrocatalysts toward hydrogen evolution.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 26;13(22):10044-10050. Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610068, China.

Alloying of Pt with Ru to form ultrafine and well-defined PtRu alloy nanoparticles (NPs) for synergistically electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution is highly desirable but remains a synthetic challenge. Here, we report a strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA)-assisted fabrication of ultrafine and homogeneously distributed PtRu alloy NPs using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium-derived carbon (EC) as a matrix. The O, N-rich EC with a hierarchically macro/meso/microporous structure and the SEA-assisted formation of the [Ru(bpy)][PtCl] complex ensure the successful generation of ultrasmall PtRu alloy NPs (2.93 nm in diameter) with high dispersion. The optimal PtRu/EC-700 delivers excellent electrocatalytic properties with an ultralow overpotential (η = 18 mV), robust durability and good long-term stability for the alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The ultrasmall PtRu alloy NPs with rich surface sites, the synergistic catalysis effect between Pt and Ru and the hierarchically macro/meso/microporous structure of O, N-rich EC cooperatively enhance the HER performance of PtRu/EC-700. This study provides an easy but effective way to construct metal alloy NPs with an ultrafine size and high dispersity for catalytic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00936bDOI Listing
June 2021

Comparing Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in Patients With Bilateral Carotid Vulnerable Plaques Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Angiology 2021 May 21:33197211012531. Epub 2021 May 21.

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 118223Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China.

We compared plaque characteristics between symptomatic and asymptomatic sides in patients with bilateral carotid vulnerable plaques using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants (n = 67; mean age: 65.8 ± 7.7 years, 61 males) with bilateral carotid vulnerable plaques were included. Vulnerable plaques were characterized by intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), large lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), or fibrous cap rupture (FCR) on MRI. Symptomatic vulnerable plaques showed greater plaque burden, LRNC volume (median: 221.4 vs 134.8 mm, = .003), IPH volume (median: 32.2 vs 22.5 mm, = .030), maximum percentage (Max%) LRNC (median: 51.3% vs 41.8%, = .002), Max%IPH (median: 13.4% vs 9.5%, = .022), cumulative slices of LRNC (median: 10 vs 8, = .005), and more juxtaluminal IPH and/or thrombus (29.9% vs 6.0%, = .001) and FCR (37.3% vs 16.4%, = .007) than asymptomatic ones. After adjusting for plaque burden, differences in juxtaluminal IPH and/or thrombus (odds ratio [OR]: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.61-18.75, = .007) and FCR (OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.16-7.24, = .022) between bilateral sides remained statistically significant. For patients with bilateral carotid vulnerable plaques, symptomatic plaques had greater burden, more juxtaluminal IPH and/or thrombus, and FCR compared with asymptomatic ones. The differences in juxtaluminal IPH and/or thrombus and FCR between bilateral sides were independent of plaque burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00033197211012531DOI Listing
May 2021

PIF4 negatively modulates cold tolerance in tomato anthers via temperature-dependent regulation of tapetal cell death.

Plant Cell 2021 Aug;33(7):2320-2339

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Extreme temperature conditions seriously impair male reproductive development in plants; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of anthers to extreme temperatures remain poorly described. The transcription factor phytochrome-interacting factor4 (PIF4) acts as a hub that integrates multiple signaling pathways to regulate thermosensory growth and architectural adaptation in plants. Here, we report that SlPIF4 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plays a pivotal role in regulating cold tolerance in anthers. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated nuclease Cas9-generated SlPIF4 knockout mutants showed enhanced cold tolerance in pollen due to reduced temperature sensitivity of the tapetum, while overexpressing SlPIF4 conferred pollen abortion by delaying tapetal programmed cell death (PCD). SlPIF4 directly interacts with SlDYT1, a direct upstream regulator of SlTDF1, both of which (SlDYT1 and SlTDF1) play important roles in regulating tapetum development and tapetal PCD. Moderately low temperature (MLT) promotes the transcriptional activation of SlTDF1 by the SlPIF4-SlDYT1 complex, resulting in pollen abortion, while knocking out SlPIF4 blocked the MLT-induced activation of SlTDF1. Furthermore, SlPIF4 directly binds to the canonical E-box sequence in the SlDYT1 promoter. Collectively, these findings suggest that SlPIF4 negatively regulates cold tolerance in anthers by directly interacting with the tapetal regulatory module in a temperature-dependent manner. Our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of anthers to low temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364245PMC
August 2021

Locomotion Mode Recognition for Walking on Three Terrains Based on sEMG of Lower Limb and Back Muscles.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Biomedical Engineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.

Gait phase detection on different terrains is an essential procedure for amputees with a lower limb assistive device to restore walking ability. In the present study, the intent recognition of gait events on three terrains based on sEMG was presented. The class separability and robustness of time, frequency, and time-frequency domain features of sEMG signals from five leg and back muscles were quantitatively evaluated by statistical analysis to select the best features set. Then, ensemble learning method that combines the outputs of multiple classifiers into a single fusion-produced output was implemented. The results obtained from data collected from four human participants revealed that the light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) algorithm has an average accuracy of 93.1%, a macro-F1 score of 0.929, and a calculation time of prediction of 15 ms in discriminating 12 different gait phases on three terrains. This was better than traditional voting-based multiple classifier fusion methods. LightGBM is a perfect choice for gait phase detection on different terrains in daily life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21092933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122478PMC
April 2021

A new simple method for quantification of cilostazol and its active metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to pharmacokinetics of cilostazol associated with CYP genotypes in healthy Chinese population.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Oct 25;35(10):e5150. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, China.

A simple, sensitive, and fully automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of cilostazol (CIL) and its active metabolite, 3,4-dehydro cilostazol (CIL-M), in human plasma. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation in 2 mL 96-deep-well plates, and all liquid transfer steps were performed through robotic liquid handling workstation, enabling the whole procedure fast, compared to the reported methods. Separation of analytes was successfully achieved on a UPLC BEH C column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase A (5 mM ammonium formate containing 0.1% formic acid) and mobile phase B (methanol) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL min . The total run time was 3.5 min per sample. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted by electrospray ion source in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1.0-800 ng·mL for CIL and 0.05-400 ng·mL for CIL-M. The coefficient of variation for the assay's precision was 12.3%, and the accuracy was 88.8-99.8%. It was fully validated and successfully applied to assess the influence of CYP genotypes on the pharmacokinetics of CIL after oral administration of 50 mg tablet formulations of CIL to healthy Chinese volunteers. The results suggest that, in Chinese population, the genotype of CYP3A5 affects the plasma exposure of CIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5150DOI Listing
October 2021

Enhanced Fenton-like degradation of sulfadiazine by single atom iron materials fixed on nitrogen-doped porous carbon.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 1;597:56-65. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, PR China; Environmental Materials and Pollution Control Laboratory, Institute of Solid State Physics, HFIPS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, PR China. Electronic address:

The use of single-atom iron catalysts in heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions has demonstrated tremendous potential for antibiotic wastewater treatment. In this study, single-atom iron fixed on nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials ([email protected]) was synthesised using a metal organic framework (MOF) as a precursor. [email protected] was applied as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst to activate HO for the degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in an aqueous solution. The physical and chemical properties of [email protected] were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements. The results of our degradation experiments indicated that [email protected] exhibited remarkable activity and stability for the degradation of SDZ over a wide pH range; even after five cycles, [email protected] retained a high catalytic efficiency (>80%). The 5,5-dimethyl-1-oxaporphyrin-n-oxide (DMPO)-X signal captured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicated that a large amount of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was produced in the reaction system. Quench tests indicated that the OH was the main active substance in the degradation of SDZ. The degradation products of the reaction were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and possible degradation pathways for the SDZ degradation were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.168DOI Listing
September 2021

Neuroprotective Effects of Long-Term Metformin Preconditioning on Rats with Ischemic Brain Injuries.

Eur Neurol 2021 12;84(3):212-218. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, China.

Introduction: This study is to analyze the neuroprotective effects of long-term metformin (Met) preconditioning on rats with ischemic brain injuries and the related mechanisms.

Methods: Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, normal saline + MCAO group, pre- Met + MCAO group, and 3-MA + Met + MCAO group. Pathological changes of brain were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Neurobehavior scores were calculated. Infarct area was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Apoptosis of neurons was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL). Western blot tested the expression of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3), Beclin-1, adenosine 5'-monophosphate ([AMP]-activated protein kinase [AMPK]), and p-AMPK in hippocampal CA1 region.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the MCAO group induced severe pathological changes in the brain. The neurobehavior scores and infarct area in the brain were increased in the MCAO group than in the sham group. The apoptosis level in the MCAO group was also higher than in the sham group. However, after pretreatment with Met, the pathological changes in the brain were attenuated. Compared with the MCAO group, the pre-Met + MCAO group also had decreased neurobehavior scores and infarct area in the brain. Additionally, the apoptosis level in the pre-Met + MCAO group was lower than in the MCAO group. Moreover, the MCAO group had increased levels of LC3 and Beclin-1 than in the sham group. In the pre-Met + MCAO group, their levels were decreased than in the MCAO group. The p-AMPK level in the pre-Met + MCAO group was also increased than in the MCAO group, suggesting activation of p-AMPK by Met.

Conclusion: Long-term Met pretreatment has neuroprotective effect on ischemic brain injury, which may be related to the regulation of autophagy-related protein expression and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514431DOI Listing
April 2021

A Heart Failure-Associated Splice Variant Leads to a Reduction in Sodium Current Through Coupled-Gating With the Wild-Type Channel.

Front Physiol 2021 22;12:661429. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Frick Center for Heart Failure and Arrhythmias, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Na1.5, encoded by the gene , is the predominant voltage-gated sodium channel expressed in the heart. It initiates the cardiac action potential and thus is crucial for normal heart rhythm and function. Dysfunctions in Na1.5 have been involved in multiple congenital or acquired cardiac pathological conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS), Long QT Syndrome Type 3, and heart failure (HF), all of which can lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD) - one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Our lab has previously reported that Na1.5 forms dimer channels with coupled gating. We also found that Na1.5 BrS mutants can exert a dominant-negative (DN) effect and impair the function of wildtype (WT) channels through coupled-gating with the WT. It was previously reported that reduction in cardiac sodium currents (I), observed in HF, could be due to the increased expression of an splice variant - E28D, which results in a truncated sodium channel (Na1.5-G1642X). In this study, we hypothesized that this splice variant leads to I reduction in HF through biophysical coupling with the WT. We showed that Na1.5-G1642X is a non-functional channel but can interact with the WT, resulting in a DN effect on the WT channel. We found that both WT and the truncated channel Na1.5-G1642X traffic at the cell surface, suggesting biophysical coupling. Indeed, we found that the DN effect can be abolished by difopein, an inhibitor of the biophysical coupling. Interestingly, the sodium channel polymorphism H558R, which has beneficial effect in HF patients, could also block the DN effect. In summary, the HF-associated splice variant Na1.5-G1642X suppresses sodium currents in heart failure patients through a mechanism involving coupled-gating with the wildtype sodium channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.661429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019726PMC
March 2021

Pharmacokinetics of Eltrombopag in Healthy Chinese Subjects and Effect of Sex and Genetic Polymorphism on its Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Variability.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 May 29;46(3):427-436. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center of Clinical Pharmacology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, China.

Background And Objective: Eltrombopag is the first oral, small-molecule, non-peptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of eltrombopag in healthy Chinese subjects and evaluated the effect of sex and genetic polymorphisms on its variability.

Methods: Forty-eight healthy subjects were administered a single dose of eltrombopag (25 mg). Plasma concentrations of eltrombopag were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, and platelet counts were determined by blood tests. CYP1A2 rs762551, CYP2C8*3 rs10509681, CYP2C8*3 rs11572080, UGT1A1 rs887829, UGT1A3 rs3806596, and BCRP rs2231142 polymorphisms were genotyped by Sanger sequencing. A back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model was constructed to predict pharmacokinetics based on physiological factors and genetic polymorphism data.

Results: Compared with male subjects, female subjects who received a single 25-mg dose of eltrombopag exhibited a significantly increased mean maximum plasma concentration (C) and significantly decreased apparent clearance. Additionally, CYP1A2 rs762551 C>A single nucleotide polymorphism influenced distribution and elimination. C-allele carriers exhibited 30% higher systemic exposure and 20% lower apparent clearance compared with homozygous A-allele carriers. Mean percentage increases in platelet counts from baseline to Day 5 were 9.38% and 17.06% in male and female subjects, respectively. The BP-ANN model had a high goodness-of-fit index and good coherence between predicted and measured concentrations (R = 0.98979).

Conclusion: Sex and CYP1A2 rs762551 C>A were associated with the pharmacokinetic variability of eltrombopag in healthy Chinese subjects. Females exhibited a better platelet-elevating effect compared with males administered the same dosage. The developed BP-ANN model based on physiological factors and genetic polymorphism data could be promising for applications in pharmacokinetic studies.

Trial Registrations: https://www.Chinadrugtrials.org.cn CTR20190898.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13318-021-00682-4DOI Listing
May 2021

The Arabidopsis SMALL AUXIN UP RNA32 Protein Regulates ABA-Mediated Responses to Drought Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:625493. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

SMALL AUXIN UP-REGULATED RNAs (SAURs) are recognized as auxin-responsive genes involved in the regulation of abiotic stress adaptive growth. Among the growth-limiting factors, water-deficit condition significantly affects plant growth and development. The putative function of SAUR family member has the potential to diminish the negative impact of drought stress, but the exact function and mode of action remain unclear in Arabidopsis. In the current study, gene was cloned and functionally analyzed. localized to the plasma membrane and nucleus was dominantly expressed in roots and highly induced by abscisic acid and drought treatment at certain time points. The stomatal closure and seed germination of were less sensitive to ABA relative to -overexpressed line (OE32-5) and wild type (WT). Moreover, the mutant under drought stress showed increased ion leakage while quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and endogenous ABA accumulation were reduced, along with the expression pattern of ABA/stress-responsive genes compared with WT and the OE32-5 transgenic line. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that AtSAUR32 interacted with clade-A PP2C proteins (AtHAI1 and AtAIP1) to regulate ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results indicate that plays an important role in drought stress adaptation via mediating ABA signal transduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.625493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994887PMC
March 2021

Evaluating renal arterial wall by non-enhanced 2D and 3D free-breathing black-blood techniques: Initial experience.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 06 5;79:5-12. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of 2D and 3D black-blood sequences in measuring morphology of renal arterial wall.

Methods: The 2D and 3D imaging sequences used variable-refocusing-flip-angle and constant-low-refocusing-flip-angle turbo spin echo (TSE) readout respectively, with delicately selected black-blood scheme and respiratory motion trigger for free-breathing imaging. Fourteen healthy subjects and three patients with Takayasu arteritis underwent renal artery wall imaging with 3D double inversion recovery (DIR) TSE and 2D Variable Flip Angle-TSE (VFA-TSE) black-blood sequences at 3.0 T. Four healthy subjects were randomly selected for scan-rescan reproducibility experiments. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and morphology of arterial wall were measured and compared using paired-t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test between 2D and 3D sequences. The inter-observer, intra-observer and scan-rescan agreements of above measurements were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: The 2D and 3D imaging sequences showed similar morphological measurements (lumen area, wall area, mean wall thickness and maximum wall thickness) of renal arterial wall (all P > 0.05) and excellent agreement (ICC: 0.853-0.954). Compared to 2D imaging, 3D imaging exhibited significantly lower SNR (P < 0.01) and SNR (P = 0.037), similar contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (P = 0.285), and higher CNR efficiency (CNR) (P < 0.01). Both 2D and 3D imaging showed good to excellent inter-observer (ICC: 0.723-0.997), intra-observer (ICC: 0.749-0.996) and scan-rescan (ICC: 0.710-0.992) reproducibility in measuring renal arterial wall morphology, SNR and CNR, respectively.

Conclusions: Both high-resolution free-breathing 2D VFA-TSE and 3D DIR TSE black-blood sequences are feasible and reproducible in high-resolution renal arterial wall imaging. The 2D imaging has high SNR, whereas 3D imaging has high imaging efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2021.03.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity and outcome varies with different lesion patterns in patients with intravenous thrombolysis.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

Background And Purpose: To evaluate relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity (FVH) after intravenous thrombolysis and outcomes in different lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).

Methods: Patients with severe internal carotid or intracranial artery stenosis who received intravenous thrombolysis from March 2012 to April 2019 were analysed. They were divided into four groups by DWI lesion patterns: border-zone infarct (BZ group), multiple lesions infarct (ML group), large territory infarct (LT group), and single cortical or subcortical lesion infarct (SL group). Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for outcome (unfavourable outcome, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥2; poor outcome, mRS ≥3).

Results: Finally, 203 participants (63.3±10.2 years old; BZ group, n=72; ML group, n=64; LT group, n=37; SL group, n=30) from 1190 patient cohorts were analysed. After adjusting for confounding factors, FVH (+) was associated with unfavourable outcome in total group (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.49 to 6.13; p=0.002), BZ group (OR 4.22; 95% CI 1.25 to 14.25; p=0.021) and ML group (OR 5.44; 95% CI 1.41 to 20.92; p=0.014) patients. FVH (+) was associated with poor outcome in total group (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.01 to 4.97; p=0.046), BZ group (OR 5.52; 95% CI 0.98 to 31.07; p=0.053) and ML group (OR 4.09; 95% CI 1.04 to 16.16; p=0.045) patients, which was marginal significance. FVH (+) was not associated with unfavourable or poor outcome in LT and SL groups.

Conclusion: This study suggests that association between FVH and outcome varies with different lesion patterns on DWI. The presence of FVH after intravenous thrombolysis may help to identify patients who require close observations in the hospitalisation in patients with border-zone and multiple lesion infarcts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000641DOI Listing
February 2021

MicroRNA Biophysically Modulates Cardiac Action Potential by Direct Binding to Ion Channel.

Circulation 2021 Apr 16;143(16):1597-1613. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Departments of Physiology and Cell Biology (D.Y., X.W., P.J.M., I.D., J.-D.F.), The Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Frick Center for Heart Failure and Arrhythmia, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) play critical roles in regulation of numerous biological events, including cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmia, through a canonical RNA interference mechanism. It remains unknown whether endogenous miRs modulate physiologic homeostasis of the heart through noncanonical mechanisms.

Methods: We focused on the predominant miR of the heart (miR1) and investigated whether miR1 could physically bind with ion channels in cardiomyocytes by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, in situ proximity ligation assay, RNA pull down, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. The functional modulations of cellular electrophysiology were evaluated by inside-out and whole-cell patch clamp. Mutagenesis of miR1 and the ion channel was used to understand the underlying mechanism. The effect on the heart ex vivo was demonstrated through investigating arrhythmia-associated human single nucleotide polymorphisms with miR1-deficient mice.

Results: We found that endogenous miR1 could physically bind with cardiac membrane proteins, including an inward-rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1. The miR1-Kir2.1 physical interaction was observed in mouse, guinea pig, canine, and human cardiomyocytes. miR1 quickly and significantly suppressed I at sub-pmol/L concentration, which is close to endogenous miR expression level. Acute presence of miR1 depolarized resting membrane potential and prolonged final repolarization of the action potential in cardiomyocytes. We identified 3 miR1-binding residues on the C-terminus of Kir2.1. Mechanistically, miR1 binds to the pore-facing G-loop of Kir2.1 through the core sequence AAGAAG, which is outside its RNA interference seed region. This biophysical modulation is involved in the dysregulation of gain-of-function Kir2.1-M301K mutation in short QT or atrial fibrillation. We found that an arrhythmia-associated human single nucleotide polymorphism of miR1 (hSNP14A/G) specifically disrupts the biophysical modulation while retaining the RNA interference function. It is remarkable that miR1 but not hSNP14A/G relieved the hyperpolarized resting membrane potential in miR1-deficient cardiomyocytes, improved the conduction velocity, and eliminated the high inducibility of arrhythmia in miR1-deficient hearts ex vivo.

Conclusions: Our study reveals a novel evolutionarily conserved biophysical action of endogenous miRs in modulating cardiac electrophysiology. Our discovery of miRs' biophysical modulation provides a more comprehensive understanding of ion channel dysregulation and may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132313PMC
April 2021

Treatment with a Urinary Bladder Matrix Alters the Innate Host Response to Pneumonia Induced by .

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 03 2;7(3):1088-1099. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, United States.

has become the prominent cause of nosocomial pneumonia in recent years. In the meantime, some strains of have developed resistance to commonly used antibacterial drugs. The urinary bladder matrix (UBM) is a biologically derived scaffold material that has been used to promote site-appropriate tissue remodeling in a variety of body systems, partially through the modulation of the innate immune response. In this study, we seek to determine UBM efficacy in preventing bacterial pneumonia in mouse lungs using the Gram-negative bacterial strain . Our results show that the UBM prevented bacterial biofilm formation in both abiotic and biotic conditions through experimentation on polystyrene plates and culture on the apical surface of differentiated airway epithelial cells. Intratracheal treatment with UBM led to host protection from -induced respiratory infection in a murine pneumonia model. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the involvement of the enhanced host immune response in UBM-treated mice. Additionally, UBM-treated macrophages had an increased iNOS expression and enhanced phagocytosis activity. Therefore, the protection against -induced infection and the antibacterial function observed by UBM is potentially through both the anti-biofilm activity and enhanced host immunity following UBM treatment. Taken together, our results support further investigation of UBM as an alternative treatment to attenuate bacterial-induced respiratory infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01090DOI Listing
March 2021

[Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signal and NOX4 impairs repair of silica-induced lung epithelial cell injury].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;37(2):132-139

Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Chronic Disease Control, School of Public health, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China. *Corresponding authors, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effects of the interaction between Wnt/β-catenin signal and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) on the proliferation of pulmonary epithelial cells in response to silica exposure. Methods The airway instillation of silica to C57BL/6 mice was used to produce mouse silicosis models. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine NOX4 expression in the lungs of silicosis mice. Human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to silica to generate an oxidative injury epithelial cell model in vitro. Wnt signal conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) and Wnt signal inhibitor XAV939 were used to alter the activity of Wnt signal. An infection adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA to NOX4 (NOX4 shRNA) was used to knock down NOX4 expression in BEAS-2B cells. Western blotting was performed to access the expression of Wnt3a, active-β-catenin (ABC), transcription factor 4 (TCF4), cyclin D1 and NOX4 proteins in lung tissues and human lung epithelial cells. CCK-8 assay was used to determine the effects of silica of different concentrations on cell viability as well as the effects of NOX4 expression knockdown on cell proliferation in human lung epithelial cells. CellROX fluorescent probe loading assay was used to detect the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results Mouse silicosis model and BEAS-2B cell model of oxidative damage were successfully generated. The stimulation of silica significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signal and induced NOX4 expression, sequentially resulting in ROS production. While ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibited the silica-induced release of ROS, and then inhibited the expression of ABC protein and Wnt/β-catenin signal activity. An activation of Wnt signaling induced by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) increased the expression of NOX4, whereas the Wnt signal inhibitor XAV939 inhibited the expression of NOX4. The expression of Wnt/β-catenin signal ABC and cyclin D1 and cell proliferation were significantly inhibited by the shRNA-mediated suppression of NOX4 expression. Conclusion Blocking Wnt/-catenin signal and down-regulating NOX4 expression inhibit the proliferation of lung epithelial cells and the damage repair of lung epithelial cells induced by the silica exposure.
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February 2021

Directed Cobalt-Catalyzed C-H Activation to Form C-C and C-O Bonds in One Pot via Three-Component Coupling.

Org Lett 2021 Feb 21;23(3):914-919. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Green Catalysis Center, and College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, P. R. China.

Herein, we disclose an efficient cobalt-catalyzed three-component coupling of benzamides, diazo compounds, and -butyl hydroperoxide, which provides an efficient approach to construct C(sp)-C(sp) and C-O bonds in one-pot accompanied with C-H activation. This protocol features low catalyst loading (4 mol %), the avoidance of additives, and excellent functional group compatibility, providing three-component coupling adducts with high yields under mild conditions (up to 88%). Mechanism studies show that the reaction may involve a radical process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c04122DOI Listing
February 2021

Drug resistance gene mutations and treatment outcomes in MDR-TB: A prospective study in Eastern China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 01 20;15(1):e0009068. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China.

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious challenge to TB control. It is of great value to search for drug resistance mutation sites and explore the roles that they play in the diagnosis and prognosis of MDR-TB.

Methods: We consecutively enrolled MDR-TB patients from five cities in Jiangsu Province, China, between January 2013 and December 2014. Drug susceptibility tests of rifampin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and kanamycin were routinely performed by proportion methods on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Drug resistance-related genes were sequenced, and the consistency of genetic mutations and phenotypic resistance was compared. The association between mutations and treatment outcomes was expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Among 87 MDR-TB patients, 71 with treatment outcomes were involved in the analysis. The proportion of successful treatment was 50.7% (36/71). The rpoB gene exhibited the highest mutation rate (93.0%) followed by katG (70.4%), pncA (33.8%), gyrA (29.6%), eis (15.5%), rrs (12.7%), gyrB (9.9%) and rpsA (4.2%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients with pncA gene mutations (adjusted OR: 19.69; 95% CI: 2.43-159.33), advanced age (adjusted OR: 13.53; 95% CI: 1.46-124.95), and nonstandard treatment (adjusted OR: 7.72; 95% CI: 1.35-44.35) had a significantly higher risk of poor treatment outcomes.

Conclusions: These results suggest that Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene mutations may be related to phenotypic drug susceptibility. The pncA gene mutation along with treatment regimen and age are associated with the treatment outcomes of MDR-TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850501PMC
January 2021
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